B Pharmacy – Computers Questions & Answers M pharma B Pharm

1.The computer is assisting the human being in almost every activity. Explain

A computer is an electronic device, which executes software programs. It consists of 2 parts-hardware and software . The computer processes input through input devices like mouse and keyboard. The computer displays output through output devices like color monitor and printer. The size of a computer varies considerably from very small to very big. The speed of computers also has a very large range. Computers have become indispensable in today’s world. Millions of people use computers all over the world.

B Pharmacy - Computers Questions & Answers M pharma B Pharm

There are several uses of computers: –

• Word Processing – Word Processing software automatically corrects spelling and grammar mistakes. If the content of a document repeats you don’t have to type it each time. You can use the copy and paste features. You can printout documents and make several copies. It is easier to read a word-processed document than a handwritten one. You can add images to your document.
• Internet – It is a network of almost all the computers in the world. You can browse through much more information than you could do in a library. That is because computers can store enormous amounts of information. You also have very fast and convenient access to information. Through E-Mail you can communicate with a person sitting thousands of miles away in seconds. There is chat software that enables one to chat with another person on a real-time basis. Video conferencing tools are becoming readily available to the common man.
• Digital video or audio composition – Audio or video composition and editing have been made much easier by computers. It no longer costs thousands of dollars of equipment to compose music or make a film. Graphics engineers can use computers to generate short or full-length films or even to create three-dimensional models. Anybody owning a computer can now enter the field of media production. Special effects in science fiction and action movies are created using computers.
• Desktop publishing – With desktop publishing, you can create page layouts for entire books on your personal computer.
• Computers in Medicine – You can diagnose diseases. You can learn the cures. Software is used in magnetic resonance imaging to examine the internal organs of the human body. Software is used for performing surgery. Computers are used to store patient data.
• Mathematical Calculations – Thanks to computers, which have computing speeds of over a million calculations per second we can perform the biggest of mathematical calculations.
• Banks – All financial transactions are done by computer software. They provide security, speed and convenience.
• Travel – One can book air tickets or railway tickets and make hotel reservations online.
• Telecommunications – Software is widely used here. Also all mobile phones have software embedded in them.
• Defense – There is software embedded in almost every weapon. Software is used for controlling the flight and targeting in ballistic missiles. Software is used to control access to atomic bombs.
• E-Learning – Instead of a book it is easier to learn from an E-learning software.
• Gambling-You can gamble online instead of going to a casino.
• Examinations-You can give online exams and get instant results. You can check your examination results online.
• Computers in Business – Shops and supermarkets use software, which calculate the bills. Taxes can be calculated and paid online. Accounting is done using computers. One can predict future trends of business using artificial intelligence software. Software is used in major stock markets. One can do trading online. There are fully automated factories running on software.
• Certificates – Different types of certificates can be generated. It is very easy to create and change layouts.
• ATM machines – The computer software authenticates the user and dispenses cash.
• Marriage – There are matrimonial sites through which one can search for a suitable groom or bride.
• News-There are many websites through which you can read the latest or old news.
• Classmates-There are many alumni websites through which you can regain contact with your classmates.
• Robotics – Robots are controlled by software.
• Washing Machines – They operate using software.
• Microwave Oven – They are operated by software.
• Planning and Scheduling – Software can be used to store contact information, generating plans, scheduling appointments and deadlines.
• Plagiarism – Software can examine content for plagiarism.
• Greeting Cards – You can send and receive greetings pertaining to different occasions.
• Sports – Software is used for making umpiring decisions. There are simulation software using which a sportsperson can practice his skills. Computers are also to identify flaws in techhnique.
• Aeroplanes – Pilots train on software, which simulates flying.
• Weather analysis – Supercomputers are used to analyze and predict weather.
Computers have leapfrogged the human society into another league. It is used in each and every aspect of human life. They will spearhead the human quest of eradicating social problems like illiteracy and poverty. It is difficult to imagine a world bereft of computers. This revolutionary technology is indeed a boon to the human race. May computers continue to shower their blessings to us.

2. Write a detailed note on the generations of computers?

First Generation – 1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes
The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. A magnetic drum, also referred to as drum, is a metal cylinder coated with magnetic iron-oxide material on which data and programs can be stored. Magnetic drums were once use das a primary storage device but have since been implemented as auxiliary storage devices.
They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. First generation computers relied on machine language to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Machine languages are the only languages understood by computers. While easily understood by computers, machine languages are almost impossible for humans to use because they consist entirely of numbers. Computer Programmers, therefore, use either high level programming languages or an assembly language programming. An assembly language contains the same instructions as a machine language, but the instructions and variables have names instead of being just numbers.
Every CPU has its own unique machine language. Programs must be rewritten or recompiled, therefore, to run on different types of computers. Input was based on punch card and paper tapes, and output was displayed on printouts. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951.
Second Generation – 1956-1963: Transistors
Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation computer. Transistor is a device composed of semiconductor material that amplifies a signal or opens or closes a circuit. Invented in 1947 at Bell Labs, transistors have become the key ingredient of all digital circuits, including computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 50s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.
Third Generation – 1964-1971: Integrated Circuits
The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. A chip is a small piece of semi conducting material (usually silicon) on which an integrated circuit is embedded. A typical chip is less than ¼-square inches and can contain millions of electronic components (transistors). Computers consist of many chips placed on electronic boards called printed circuit boards. There are different types of chips. For example, CPU chips (also called microprocessors) contain an entire processing unit, whereas memory chips contain blank memory.
Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.
Fourth Generation – 1971-Present: Microprocessors
The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits we rebuilt onto a single silicon chip. A silicon chip that contains a CPU. In the world of personal computers, the terms microprocessor and CPU are used interchangeably. At the heart of all personal computers and most workstations sits a microprocessor. Microprocessors also control the logic of almost all digital devices, from clock radios to fuel-injection systems for automobiles. In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.
Fifth Generation – Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence
Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
In May,1997, an IBM super-computer called Deep Blue defeated world chess champion Gary Kasparov in a chess match. The hottest area of artificial intelligence is neural networks, which are proving successful in an umber of disciplines such as voice recognition and natural-language processing.

3.what are the basic functions of computer? list the main structural components of a computer and cpu?

Computer can keep track of any different types of information. With software like Microsoft word, notepad. it makes inputting any data such as words, articles relatively easy. Examples of input devices include, your keyboard, computer mouse, microphone etc.
Computer can rapidly solve all types of numerical problems. Solving numerical problems can be considered as an example of computer processing. With the ability of data manipulation of company, task can be completed efficiently with effectively. Saving lots and lots of time and effort, compared to human work. Aslo, computer are accurate and error free, they can process huge amount of information at the same time and they inexpensive.
Imagine you have a collections of ten thousand photos. You are going to london to meet your relative and were told to bring that ten thousands photos over. Guess what? That is alot of things. So with the advent of computer, you can just save that ten thousand photos and bring your laptop over. That’s that simple!. Example of computer storage include, harddisk, cd rom, dvd rom and others.
Output is one of the most commonly used function in computer. It may refers to the graph that is being plotted in microsoft excel, the song that you are playing from media player, the powerpoint slide,

The four main components of the computer are:
A: CPU (Central processing unit):
It is the main part of the computer; it performs all the operations of the computer. It is the heart of the computer. It is usually named by the processor.
B: Main memory.
This part of the computer is used for the storage of data.
C: I/O devices.
These devices are used for sending and receiving the data from computer to another device. These are referred as the channel between the computer system and the external world. And also the other peripheral communication lines.

D: System Interconnection.
Lines that connect several components to enable them to perform heir specific operations or some mechanism that is used for the communication between CPU, main memory and the I/O devices.
While the four components of the CPU are:
A: Control Unit: this is the main part of the CPU; it is the part in the CPU which do all the processing.
B: ALU: it is the acronym of Arithmetic Logic Unit, this part of the CPU performs all the necessary arithmetic functions.
C: Registers: this is a small unit in the CPU for the storage of small amount of data.
D: CPU interconnection: there is mechanism which is used for the communication between registers, ALU and Control Unit

4. Write a program that counts from one to ten.Print the values on a separate line for each and include a message of your choice when the count is 3 and a different message when the count is 7.

#include <stdio.h>
{int a;
for (a=1;a<11;a++)
{printf (“count is %d\n”,a);

if (a==3)
printf(“Current count is THREE\n”);

if (a==7)
printf(“now count is seven\n”)
Output is
count is 1
count is 2
count is 3
Current count is THREE
count is 4
count is 5
count is 6
count is 7
now count is seven
count is 8
count is 9
count is 10

5.Write a program that counts from 1 to 12, print the count and its square for each count.

#include <stdio.h>
{int a,b;
for (a=1;a<13;a++)
printf (“count is %d and its sqare is %d \n”,a,b);

Output is
count is 1 and its square is 1
count is 2 and its square is 4
count is 3 and its square is 9
count is 4 and its square is 16
count is 5 and its square is 25
count is 6 and its square is 36
count is 7 and its square is 49
count is 8 and its square is 64
count is 9 and its square is 81
count is 10 and its square is 100
count is 11 and its square is 121
count is 12 and its square is 144

6. What is recursion? Explain with an example

Recursion in computer science is a way of ‘Thinking About’ and then ‘Solving’ problems
int func1(int input1)
if(base condition)
return some finite value.
return func1(input2) //Function calls itself.
So, to design a solution(algorithm) to any problem in such a way that one function is having a call to itself inside a body and problem is reduced in each successive self calls to that limit that we reach base condition that returns some result(finite value) and no further recursive calls are made further. This makes a recursive solution and this way of solving the problem is called ‘Recursion’.

Example : Palindrome Recursive Algorithm

7. what is an operating system? Discuss the history and functions of operating system?

An operating system is the most important software that runs on a computer.Software is any set of instructions that performs some task on a computer. The operating system performs many essential tasks for your computer. It controls the memory needed for computer processes, manages disk space, controls peripheral devices, and allows you to communicate with the computer without knowing exactly how a computer works.
discuss the history and functions of operating system?

an overview of its history development:
a. Unix- 1960’s, developed by AT&T, and designed to be portable, multitasking, multi-user in a time-sharing configuration.
b. MS-DOS- 1980’s, developed by Microsoft, specialized in programming languages and software development.
c. SUN OS- 1982, version of the UNIX OS, developed by SUN Microsystems, specialized in workstations and server system.
d. Mac OS- 1984, developed by Apple Computer for their Apple Macintosh Computer, widely credited for their popularizing the GUI
e. Windows 1.0- 1985, was the first attempt of Microsoft to implement a multi-tasking graphical user interface based on the operating system environment on the PC platform
f. OS/2- next released from Windows 1.0, created by Microsoft and IBM, to be used on IBM’s Personal System/2 computers. It will be discontinued to use at the end of this year 2006. It is intended as a protected-mode, doesn’t share similarities on Windows, but are alike in UNIX and XENIX.
g. Windows 3.0- 1990, third major released of Microsoft Windows, specialized on GUI interface.
h. Windows NT 3.1- 1993, first released of Windows NT, capable of business server. After Windows NT 3.1 came Windows NT Advanced Server
i. Windows 1995- 1995, a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. Codename: Chicago. It was widely improved from its GUI features whose format and structure is still used today by Windows XP.
j. Windows 1998- 1998, a graphical operating system and an update of Windows 95, among its features are AGP support, functional USB drivers, and support for multiple monitors and WebTV
k. Windows 2000- 2000, comes with four versions like Professional, Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server. It was functional in Microsoft Management Console (MMC), and Standard System Management Applications.
l. Windows XP-2001, successor of Windows 2000, developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers.
m. Operating System composed of different functions namely:
1.) Processor Management
2.) Memory Management
3.) Housekeeping
4.) User Interface
5.) Storage Management
6.) Device Management
7.) Job Sequencing
8.) Job Control
9.) Job Sequencing
10) Error Handling
11.) I/O Handling
12.) Interrupt Handling
13.) Scheduling
14.) Resource Control
15.) Protection

8. what are the different editions of windows 2000? Explain their uses?what are the security features in windows 2000?

Microsoft released various editions of Windows 2000 for different markets and business needs: Professional, Server, Advanced Server and Datacenter Server. Each was packaged separately.
Windows 2000 Professional was designed as the desktop operating system for businesses and power users. It is the client version of Windows 2000. It offers greater security and stability than many of the previous Windows desktop operating systems. It supports up to two processors, and can address up to 4 GB of RAM. The system requirements are a Pentium processor (or equivalent) of 133 MHz or greater, at least 32 MB of RAM, 650 MB of hard drive space, and a CD-ROM drive (recommended: Pentium II, 128 MB of RAM, 2 GB of hard drive space, and CD-ROM drive).[85]
Windows 2000 Server shares the same user interface with Windows 2000 Professional, but contains additional components for the computer to perform server roles and run infrastructure and application software. A significant new component introduced in the server versions is Active Directory, which is an enterprise-wide directory service based on LDAP. Additionally, Microsoft integrated Kerberos network authentication, replacing the often-criticised NTLM authentication system used in previous versions. This also provided a purely transitive-trust relationship between Windows 2000 domains in a forest (a collection of one or more Windows 2000 domains that share a common schema, configuration, and global catalog, being linked with two-way transitive trusts). Furthermore, Windows 2000 introduced a Domain Name Server which allows dynamic registration of IP addresses. Windows 2000 Server supports up to 4 processors, requires 128 MB of RAM and 1 GB hard disk space, however requirements may be higher depending on installed components.
Windows 2000 Advanced Server is a variant of Windows 2000 Server operating system designed for medium-to-large businesses. It offers clustering infrastructure for high availability and scalability of applications and services, including main memory support of up to 8 gigabytes (GB) on Physical Address Extension (PAE) systems and the ability to do 8-way SMP. It supports TCP/IP load balancing and enhanced two-node server clusters based on the Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) in Windows NT Server 4.0 Enterprise Edition.[86] Limited number of copies of an IA-64 version, called Windows 2000 Advanced Server, Limited Edition were made available via OEMs. System requirements are similar to those of Windows 2000 Server,[85] however they may need to be higher to scale to larger infrastructure.
Windows 2000 Datacenter Server is a variant of Windows 2000 Server designed for large businesses that move large quantities of confidential or sensitive data frequently via a central server.[87] Like Advanced Server, it supports clustering, failover and load balancing. Its minimum system requirements are normal, but it was designed to be capable of handing advanced, fault-tolerant and scalable hardware—for instance computers with up to 32 CPUs and 64 GBs RAM, with rigorous system testing and qualification, hardware partitioning, coordinated maintenance and change control. Limited number of copies of an IA-64 version, called Windows 2000 Datacenter Server, Limited Edition were made available via OEMs. System requirements are similar to those of Windows 2000 Advanced Server,[85] however they may need to be higher to scale to larger infrastructure.

9. What is word processor? What are its basic features? What are the special features of word-2000?

word processor is a software program capable of creating, storing, and printing documents. Unlike the standard typewriter, users using word processors have the ability of creating a document and making any changes anywhere in the document. This document can also be saved for modification at a later time or to be opened on any other computer using the same word processor.
what are its basic features?
insert text: Allows you to insert text anywhere in the document.
delete text: Allows you to erase characters, words, lines, or pages as easily as you can cross them out on paper.
cut and paste : Allows you to remove (cut) a section of text from one place in a document and insert (paste) it somewhere else.
copy : Allows you to duplicate a section of text.
page size and margins : Allows you to define various page sizes and margins, and the word processor will automatically readjust the text so that it fits.
search and replace : Allows you to direct the word processor to search for a particular word or phrase. You can also direct the word processor to replace one group of characters with another everywhere that the first group appears.
word wrap : The word processor automatically moves to the next line when you have filled one line with text, and it will readjust text if you change the margins.
print: Allows you to send a document to a printer to get hardcopy.
file management : Many word processors contain file management capabilities that allow you to create, delete, move, and search for files.
font specifications: Allows you to change fonts within a document. For example, you can specify bold, italics, and underlining. Most word processors also let you change the font size and even the typeface.
footnotes and cross-references: Automates the numbering and placement of footnotes and enables you to easily cross-reference other sections of the document.
Graphics: graphics allows one to embed illustrations and graphs into a document. Some word processors let you create the illustrations within the word processor; others let you insert an illustration produced by a different program.
headers , footers , and page numbering: Allows you to specify customized headers and footers that the word processor will put at the top and bottom of every page. The word processor automatically keeps track of page numbers so that the correct number appears on each page.
layout : Allows you to specify different margins within a single document and to specify various methods for indenting paragraphs.
macros : A macro is a character or word that represents a series of keystrokes. The keystrokes can represent text or commands. The ability to define macros allows you to save yourself a lot of time by replacing common combinations of keystrokes.
merges: Allows you to merge text from one file into another file. This is particularly useful for generating many files that have the same format but different data. Generating mailing labels is the classic example of using merges.
spell checker : A utility that allows you to check the spelling of words. It will highlight any words that it does not recognize.
tables of contents and indexes: Allows you to automatically create a table of contents and index based on special codes that you insert in the document.
thesaurus: A built-in thesaurus that allows you to search for synonyms without leaving the word processor.
windows : Allows you to edit two or more documents at the same time. Each document appears in a separate window. This is particularly valuable when working on a large project that consists of several different files.
WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get): With WYSIWYG, a document appears on the display screen exactly as it will look when printed

what are the special features of word-2000?

10. what is a presentation package ?list a few of the packages ? create a power point presentation listing the achievements of your/any organization?

Presentation software (sometimes called “presentation graphics”) is a category of application program used to create sequences of words and pictures that tell a story or help support a speech or public presentation of information. Presentation software can be divided into business presentation software and more general multimedia authoring tools, with some products having characteristics of both. Business presentation software emphasizes ease- and quickness-of-learning and use. Multimedia authoring software enables you to create a more sophisticated presentation that includes audio and video sequences. Business presentation software usually enables you to include images and sometimes audio and video developed with other tools.

list of a few of the packages


ASAP is ideal for businesspeople who want to spend more time writing a winning speech — instead of spending hours adding audio-visual gimmicks. Its learning curve is about five minutes.
Anyone who’s ever used Windows software will find ASAP’s three basic screens for outlines, previews, and presentations so familiar they’ll be finished creating almost before they realize it. You can apply any one of 22 graphic styles to each of the 13 basic templates. ASAP automatically reformats fonts so your text will fit properly on the screen, and there are a score of preset color schemes. ASAP doesn’t have all the multimedia features of other packages. But if you make just a couple of presentations a month, it will save you a lot of aggravation.
Harvard Graphics
Harvard Graphics 3.0 for Windows 3.1 is one of the most powerful software packages available. (An updated version for Windows 95 should be out by the time you read this; there’s no Mac version.)
Harvard Graphics is best for those whose professional lives depend on making successful presentations. It lets you preview transitions between slides, edit text inside a slide, and experiment with different chart styles. The program is also the first to incorporate a variety of handy features, such as a black-and-white preview so you can see what your color slides will look like when they’re printed out. An online tutorial shows you how to work with different graphic-file formats. All of this has earned Harvard Graphics a reputation as Microsoft PowerPoint’s smarter brother.
Powerpoint has been the standard-bearer for the technically adept for a few years now, and its new incarnation — PowerPoint for Windows 95, which will run solely on Windows 95 (surprise!) — should solidify its popularity. (PowerPoint 4.0 for Macs is also available, for $339; it lacks a couple of features from the Windows 95 version, such as the ability to animate objects and titles.
Harvard Graphics includes the same features as PowerPoint and is easier to use. Better yet, since PowerPoint is so ubiquitous, your presentation won’t look like everyone else’s if you create it on Harvard Graphics. So why opt for PowerPoint? Chances are, everyone else in the office is using it — which means you can easily upload part of a coworker’s presentation if you are pinched for time.
Gold Disk’s Astound
Gold Disk’s Astound 2.0 program is one of the best multimedia authoring packages. You can give inventory statistics and sales projections panache by making the numbers sliiiiiiiide onto the screen and the bar charts crumble. Astound does take patience to learn. Both Windows and Macintosh versions are available.
To complete your box of software presentation tools, consider two smaller digital wrenches.

Lotus Screencam

Lotus Screencam 2.0 for Windows 3.1 keeps a log of your onscreen activity. Move your mouse pointer or click open a file, and Lotus ScreenCam records it. Once you’ve made a digital record of what you’ve done on the screen, you can add explanatory captions or a personal narration. These mini-movies can easily be stored as a single file — perfect for training-types of presentations.
Presentation World
Presentation World from Cinemar Corp, a Windows CD-ROM disc, contains expert advice on making presentations without having to attend … another presentation. Using video clips and graphics, it offers tips on content development, organization, multimedia elements, even hardware.
John R. Quain ([email protected]) is a contributing editor at Fast Company and appears regularly on the CBS News program “Up to the Minute.”