Trade Marks – IPR notes PDF PPT Regulatory Affairs M Pharmacy Study Material

Trade Marks - IPR notes PDF PPT Regulatory Affairs M Pharmacy Study Material

“A trademark is a sign that individualizes the goods or services of a given enterprise and distinguishes them from its competitors.”

This section has covered the basics of trademarks. You have learned that a trademark is a word, a logo, a number, a letter, a slogan, a sound, a color, or sometimes even a smell which identifies the source of goods and/or services with
which the trademark is used.
Trademarks are one area of intellectual property and their purpose is to protect the name of the product rather than the invention or idea behind the product.

Trade Marks

Trademarks can be owned by individuals or companies and should be registered at a governmental agency, which is usually referred to as the Trademarks Office. When a trademark is used in connection with services, it is sometimes referred to as a “service mark”.

Trade Marks - IPR notes PDF PPT Regulatory Affairs M Pharmacy Study Material
Generally speaking, trademarks should be distinctive and should neither be generic nor merely descriptive of the goods or services they represent. For example, the word “vegetable” cannot be registered as a trademark of a supermarket, since it is certainly descriptive of items which a supermarket sells. In addition, it cannot be
registered as a trademark for carrots, since it is a generic term for carrots. On the other hand, the word “vegetable” might well serve as a trademark for bicycles since it has little or nothing to do with bicycles.
Trademarks should preferably not be geographical or primarily a surname. Thus, “Paris” cannot serve as a trademark for perfume. In many countries, trademarks which comprise mere letters and/or numbers (i.e. the proposed trademark cannot be pronounced as a word or words or just has too few letters) or are surnames are considered to be indistinct.

Trade Marks Registration 

In some instances, trademark registration can still be obtained for trademarks that are merely (i) descriptive, (ii) a surname, (iii) geographic or (iv) indistinct.Trademarks, also known as brand names, are part of everyday life. The average person sees or hears more than 1,500 trademarks each day! Just as your own name identifies and distinguishes you, the main purpose of a trademark is to identify the source of a product and to distinguish that product from products coming from other sources. For example, a trademark helps you to choose between Ivory soap and Dial soap.
It should be mentioned that collective marks and certification marks are also protected in a large number of countries. Famous marks or well-known marks have also been granted a special protection.
© WIPO/OMPI
25
Trademarks usually ensure a consistent level of quality – be it good or bad. A mark helps you to use your experience either to return to a desirable product or service or to avoid an undesirable one.
Legislative Texts:
• Paris

Trademarks existed in the ancient world. As long as 3000 years ago, Indian craftsmen used to engrave their signatures on their artistic creations before sending them to Iran. Later on, over 100 different Roman pottery marks were in use, including the FORTIS brand that became so famous that it was copied and counterfeited. With the flourishing trade in the Middle Ages the use of trademarks increased.
Today trademarks (often abbreviated as TM in English) are in common usage and most people on the planet could distinguish between the trademarks for the two soft drinks Pepsi-Cola and Coca-Cola.
The growing importance of trademarks in commercial activities is due to the increased competition among companies undertaking trade in more than one country.
Trademarks have been used to simplify the identification by consumers of goods or services, as well as their quality and value. Thus, a trademark may be considered as a tool of communication used by producers to attract consumers.
In this module you will learn what sort of signs can be used for trademarks and what characteristics they must have. You will be able to distinguish between a collective mark and a certification mark. This module will also explain how well known or famous marks are given special protection under the Paris Convention and the TRIPS Agreement.

A trademark may consist of words, designs, letters, numerals or packaging, slogans, devices, symbols, etc.
The Coca-Cola Company ® PepsiCo, Inc. ®

It is necessary to say that a service mark is similar to a trademark, differing only in that the latter protects goods, while the former protects services. Generally speaking the term trademarks includes both trademark and service marks