GPAT 2014 notification released

GPAT 2014

Good news for all GPAT 2014 aspirants!!! AICTE has published the notification for the exam in all major newspapers today. Just like last year, GPAT 2014 will also be an online exam and will be conducted from Feb 25-27 . The online application process begins from 6th Nov 2013 and ends on 7th Jan 2014.
Result of GPAT 2014 will be released on 15th March 2014.

The official webiste is yet to be updated with the information and application guidelines for GPAT-2014.
We will keep you posted about this as and when the official website is updated.

So gear up for the exam. Team Pharmawiki will be coming up with some practice tests to help you in assessing your preparation levels for GPAT-2014. Stay tuned!

Experts Corner

experts corner

Welcome to the experts corner. Here, you will get to interact with some of the best minds working in the profession of pharmacy in India as well as abroad. You can also read some of their thought provoking and informative blogs and make full use of their expertise for your benefit. Pharmawiki strives to partner with elite personalities who are willing to share their knowledge, in line with our motto of free and latest information. Stay tuned for interesting updates!

Schultz Dale Reaction

Schultz Dale reaction

Schultz Dale reactionClick on the image to know more about Schultz Dale Reaction

 What is Schultz Dale Reaction

Schultz Dale reaction is an anaphylactic reaction produced in vitro during the testing of immunomodulatory drugs

 What is the rationale behind Schultz Dale Reaction

It is used to initiate the release of mediators of anaphylaxis like histamine which induce contraction in smooth muscles.

 How is Schultz Dale Reaction induced

To induce Schultz Dale reaction, guinea pigs are used generally. The animals are sensitized against egg albumin and three weeks after this, they are sacrificed. Ileum of the sacrificed animals is isolated and the contractility of the isolates is tested

Can we use any other tissues for Schultz Dale reaction?
Yes. Researchers have used lungs, tracheae of guinea pigs and trachea of mice as well.

Drug Inspector Exam – OPSC

drug inspector exam

Drug Inspector Exam

The Orissa Public Service Commission has issued the notification for recrutiment of Drug Inspector (Class II)

The detailed notification is available here.

Recommended books for drug inspector exam

Drug Inspector Exam highlights

The Drug Inspector Exam conducted by the public service commission of Indian states, is a very important exam for those who are in search of government jobs in Pharmaceutical sector. The post of Drug Inspector is a well respected one and the pay is also very good. The competition for Drug Inspector exam is very high because the number of posts is far less compared to the number of applicants.

Therefore it is very essential to prepare well for qualifying the Drug inspector examination.

You can find material related to the last Drug Inspector exam conducted in Andhra Pradesh by clicking here.

 Drug Inspector exam preparation

It is advised that those who are attempting the Drug Inspector exam, should have a clear idea of the basics taught in B.Pharm syllabus because the level of questions will not be very high. Moreover, as Drug Inspector is a government job, there will be a section on general knowledge where the candidates will be asked questions on current affairs. For this, it is better to prepare the current affairs of politics, sports, awards, prominent appoinments etc in the 6 months prior to the Drug Inspector examination. It is also advised to have a quick look at the current affairs of pharma industry and the who’s who of well known health care institutions in the state as well as the country.

Look out for more Drug inspector Details on below links

Drug Inspector Exam OPSC Orissa Public Service Commission

Drug inspector Books

Drug Inspector Solved Paper

Drug inspector Exam Syllabus

Previous Drug inspector Scores

DI solved paper with answers

Drug inspector Exam Material

DI old Question paper

Drug inspector Admit card

Drug inspector Admit card download

Drug inspector Exam Notification Admit card Results

We wish all our readers good luck for the Drug Inspector exam being conducted by OPSC. Keep watching this space for more information on Drug Inspector Exam of other states.

Krokodil – The “Zombie Drug”


If you have seen the hindi movie “Go Goa Gone”, you will find this news interesting.  A drug that literally eats a person inside out and makes him look like a zombie has made its way to the markets in the United States. This flesh eating drug is extremely addictive and is named Krokodil. Chemically, it is an opioid (desomorphine), and can be given through the parenteral route. The name “Krokodil” which rhymes with crocodile, is derived from the appearance of a scaly skin, green or black in colour, which is the major side effect of this drug.

The drug causes severe damage to veins and soft tissue infections which is followed by necrosis and gangrene as per the reports published in a study this year.

Five people were hospitalized in Joliet, Illinois and their symptoms closely resembled those of similar cases reported in Arizona and Oklahoma.

Dr.Abhin Singla, an addiction specialist and internist at Joliet’s Presence St. Joseph Medical Center, said that if someone wants a way to die, then Krokodil is one way to do that. It literally eats the patient inside out.

To know more about this drug check out the following links:

Link 1

Link 2

Old Molecule, New Use – Rebamipide



Rebamipide, which is an amino acid derivative of 2-(1H)-quinolinone, is commonly used for mucosal protection, treatment of gastritis and  healing of gastroduodenal ulcers.


In a study published recently, in the Indian Journal of Dermatology, the researchers found that rebamipide can be used as an effective treatment for aphthous ulcers and other realted condtions.


MOA: Rebamipide acts by several mechanisms like, causing a reduction in oxygen radicals, increasing the production of protective protagladins and improving blood flow in the mucosa of the ulcer


Adverse Reactions of Rebamipide: Rebamipide can cause side effects such as pruritus, nausea, mild to moderate form of skin rashes, constipation and diarrhoea,


Precautions: Rebamipide should not be used by the elderly, children and adult patients suffering from chronic illness including cancer. Patients who are hypersensitive to dyes, chemicals and synthetic formulations should not be prescribed Rebamipide.


Click here to know more about the findings of the study

Top Selling drugs of 2013

top selling drugs

This article takes a glance at 5 top selling drugs of 2013 in India and the United States. We strongly feel that such questions may be asked in GPAT and NIPER and decided that we must provide our readers with the information of top selling drugs in two of the biggest nations where pharmaceutical products are in huge demand. This list of top selling drugs will also help our readers in gaining information about the companies producing these drugs as we are providing the links to these companies. Moreover, we advise our readers to study the pharmacological profile of these top selling drugs to get thorough knowledge.

Top selling drugs of 2013 – India

Interestingly, the list of top selling drugs in the Indian market does not feature even a single drug from domestic manufacturers. All the five top selling drugs are the once marketed by multi-national companies. This shows the successful marketing strategy employed by the MNCs to gain consumer attention in the Indian drug market.

[table id=5 /]

Top selling drugs of 2013 – U.S.

[table id=4 /]

It is quite evident that there is a stark contrast in the demands of drugs in these two countries. In India, antibiotics and cough suppressants are the top selling drugs whereas in the United States, an antipsychotic and proton pump inhibitors are in huge demand.

MRSA – New study uncovers secrets of antibiotic resistance

Researchers at the Univeristy of Notre Dame, Spain have recently published a study which explains the mechanism of regulation of the critical cell wall cross linking step in the Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the journal which published the results of this study performed by Mayland Chang and Shahriar Mobashery along with their team, has revealed the basis of how the MRSA has evolved into such a dreaded pathogen over the past 50 years when it rapidly spread all over the world. It is noteworthy that the modern strains of MRSA are resistant to antibiotics in a broader sense, including the popularly uses beta-lactams.
In the study, it has been reported that an allosteric portion was discovered in the X-ray structure of the penicillin binding protein 2a of the MRSA bacterium. The penicillin binding protein is the enzyme involved in the cross linking step.
antibiotic resistance pb2

Chang, Mobashery and Juan Hermoso have documented at the CSIC, the Spanish Research Council, that conformational changes are set due to a trigger from an allosteric fragment in the cell wall at a distance of 6 nm. These changes ultimately lead to the opening of the closed active site that enables the catalysis of the physiological function of the enzyme.
The researchers also found that Ceftaroline, a new beta lactam antibiotic which has been approved by the FDA recently, can also bind to the allosteric site and initiate the same response. This is followed by the interaction of another molecule of the antibiotic with the active site of the enzyme which inhibits its function and leads to the death of the bacterial cell. The discovery of this mechanism of action of the new drug is a breakthrough and will help in designing new drugs to tackle the menace of MRSA.
A difficult hospital pathogen to control, MRSA has slowly entered the population in the past few decades, especially in places like nurseries, locker rooms and prisons. It is estimated that in the US almost 20,000 people of the 100,000 affected by this bacterium annually, eventually perish.