Physical pain whether in adults or kids troubles in lot many ways. Though the reason for pain is a matter of concern and varies case to case still nobody wants to bear it. It is true that Pain management should start when one is first diagnosed and should continue throughout the illness. Here in this article let’s find out the pain relievers medications including the injections for children as well as adults.
Pain in children is quite complex to detect especially in cancer pain and ideally, a multidisciplinary approach should be used. The initial pain assessment of a child/adults reporting or presenting behavioural signs of pain includes:
Self-reported measures of pain: Adults can report it directly while children are given to rate their pain on a scale of 1-10. The doctors show pictures that reflect different emotions and ask them which best illustrates how they are feeling.
Physiologic measures of pain: Change in blood pressure and pulse changes, as well as palm-sweating, are taken note of for any individual.
Behavioural measures of pain: For children, evaluation of their motor responses, facial expressions, crying and behaviour (for example, sleep-wake patterns) are done.
Prescription pain relievers include medications used to treat pain in children too such as:
- Corticosteroids- Corticosteroids can be used to treat allergies, asthma and arthritis. They are generally given in the form of pills or injections that target a certain joint to alleviate pain.
- Opioids- Opioids are often used to control acute pain, such as short-term pain after surgery. Opioids are effective for severe pain and don’t cause bleeding in the stomach or other parts of the body, as can some other types of pain relievers.
Note: (Tramadol should not be used for pain and after surgery to remove their tonsils or adenoids in children under 12 years old and 18 years old respectively. For pain or cough in children under 12 years old Codeine should not be used.)
- Antidepressants- Antidepressants are drugs that can treat pain and/or emotional conditions by adjusting levels of neurotransmitters (natural chemicals) in the brain. These medications enable pain control for people with chronic pain conditions that do not completely respond to usual treatments & increase the availability of the body’s signals for well-being and relaxation.
- Anticonvulsants – Anticonvulsants are anti-seizure medications. These drugs typically minimize the effects of nerves that cause pain and are therefore used to treat seizure disorders.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) – Your doctor may recommend over-the-counter or prescription-strength non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil).
Note: (In young adults under the age of 19, Aspirin should not be used unless instructed by your doctor, as it can cause Reye’s syndrome if used during or after a viral or fever-causing illness.)
- Lidocaine patches- Another means of topical pain relief comes in the form of lidocaine (Lidoderm) patch, which is a prescription medication.
- Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA): This is often used in the hospital to treat pain. Children who are 4-6years old may be able to use PCA with the help of a parent or nurse. Many children above 6 years and can adults can independently use the PCA pump.
Epidural analgesia: Epidural analgesia can be performed around major surgeries such as abdominal, lower extremity or spinal surgeries for postoperative pain control. Pain medication is injected into the epidural space of the spinal cord.
Note: (While providing analgesia, the underlying cause of the pain should be determined and treated if possible, remembering that the pain of both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures (e.g.: bone marrow biopsy) may often be worse than that of the disease. Proper treatment of such pain due to procedures should be there.)
This is to be taken a measure of that these medications are the same for both adults and children but the dosing is not the same for children. Generally, the dose of medicine is smaller for children than for the average adult because it is based on the patient’s weight. It is very important to follow the dosage given by the doctor.