Structure Physiology Anatomy of EYE

The eye is a specialized sensory organ of photoreception. The eye is an easily accessible organ for local or systemic drug delivery.

Clinically, the eye can be considered to be composed of two segments:

1. Anterior segment – all structures from (and including) the lens forward.
2. Posterior segment – all structures posterior to the lens.


  • The anatomical and physiological characteristics of the eye are described are outlined in this section.
  • Structure of the eye; The eye can be divided into two compartments: the anterior and posterior segments.
  • An internal cross section of an eye is shown in Fig.1
  • physiology of eye - structure of eye
  • Anterior segment; Externally, the anterior segment of eye is made up of cornea, conjunctiva, and sclera.
  • Internally, it consists of anterior chamber, iris/pupil, posterior chamber, and ciliary body.
  • The cornea, an optically transparent tissue that aids in refraction of light to the eye for focusing, is 1 mm thick at the periphery and 0.5 to 0.6 mm thick in the centre.
  • It is composed of squamous and basal columnar epithelium, Bowman’s membrane, substantia propria (stroma), limiting lamina, and the endothelium.
  •  The conjunctiva is a thin, transparent, vascularised mucous membrane with an area of 18 cm2 covering the eye globe and the inner eyelids.
  • It maintains the precorneal tear film and protects the eye. It produces mucus and lubricates the surface of the eye.
  • It is made up of stratified columnar epithelium and lamina propria. The conjunctiva epithelium is divided into bulbar (covering the eyeball), fornix (covering the cornea), and palpebral (covering the eyelid) conjunctivae.
  •  The sclera, the white outer coat of the eyeball, provides structural integrity, size, and shape to the eye.
  • There are three layers in the sclera, the anterior episclera, the middle scleral stroma, and the posterior lamina fusca.
  • The sclera is composed of gel like mucopolysaccharides, elastic fibers, bundles of dense collagen fibrils, and fibroblasts.
  • The iris is a diaphragm around the pupil (lens) and controls the amount of light entering the inner eye.
  • The ciliary body is made up of ciliary muscles, which aid in accommodation.
  • The anterior surface of the eye is constantly rinsed by tear fluid secreted at a flow rate of about 1 μL/min by the main lachrymal gland of the lachrymal apparatus.
  • Tears eventually drain into the nasal cavity through the nasolachrymal ducts.
  • Tear fluid contains mucin, lysozyme, lactoferrin, prealbumin, and serum proteins.
  • It functions as an antibacterial lubricant and aids in draining out foreign substances.
  • The normal volume of tear fluid is 5 to 10 μL.65


Posterior segment:

  • Externally, the posterior segment consists of the optic nerve and associated vasculature, and internally, it consists of the lens, vitreous, and rear ocular tissues. Vitreous is a colorless medium
  • Internal structure of the eye consisting of about 99 percent water, dissolved type II collagen, sodium hyaluronate, and proteoglycans.
  • The retina is the inner nervous layer of the eye responsible for the sensory function of sight.
  • The choroid is a dark brown vascular layer attached to the sclera and is believed to provide nourishment to the retina.

Basic Structure of the Eye

The eye has three layers or coats, three compartments and contains three fluids

1. The three coats of the eye are as follows:

(a) Outer fibrous layer:
• cornea
• sclera
• lamina cribrosa.
(b) Middle vascular layer (“uveal tract”):
• iris
• ciliary body – consisting of the pars
plicata and pars plana
• choroids.
(c) Inner nervous layer:
• pigment epithelium of the retina
• retinal photoreceptors
• retinal neurons.

2. The three compartments of the eye are as follows:

(a) Anterior chamber – the space between the cornea and the iris diaphragm.
(b) Posterior chamber – the triangular space between the iris anteriorly, the lens and zonule posteriorly, and the ciliary body.
(c) Vitreous chamber – the space behind the lens and zonule.

3. The three intraocular fluids are as follows:

(a) Aqueous humour – a watery, optically clear solution of water and electrolytes similar to tissue fluids except that aqueous humour has a low protein content normally.
(b) Vitreous humour – a transparent gel consisting of a three-dimensional network of collagen fibres with the interspaces filled with polymerised hyaluronic acid molecules and water. It fills the space between the posterior surface of the lens, ciliary body and retina.
(c) Blood – in addition to its usual functions, blood contributes to the maintenance of intraocular pressure. Most of the blood within the eye is in the choroid. The choroidal blood flow represents the largest blood flow per unit tissue in the body. The degree of desaturation of efferent choroidal blood is relatively small and indicates that the choroidal vasculature has functions beyond retinal nutrition. It might be that the choroid serves as a heat exchanger for the retina, which absorbs energy as light strikes the retinal pigment epithelium.


List of Textbooks of Pharmacovigilance – LINKS – References

1. Textbook of Pharmacovigilance: S K Gupta, Jaypee Brothers, Medical Publishers.
2. Practical Drug Safety from A to Z by Barton Colbert, Pierre Byron, Jones and Bartlett
3. Mann’s Pharmacovigilance: Elizabeth B. Andrews, Nicholas, Wiley Publishers.
4. Stephens’ Detection of New Adverse Drug Reactions: John Talbot, Patrick Wale, Wiley
5. An Introduction to Pharmacovigilance: Patrick Waller, Wiley Publishers.
6. Cobert’s Manual of Drug Safety and Pharmacovigilance: Barton Colbert, Jones& Bartlett
7. Textbook of Pharmacoepidemiology edited by Brian L. Strom, Stephen E Kimmel, Sean
Hennessy, and Wiley Publishers.
8. A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacy Practice -Essential Concepts and Skills’. Parthasarathi,
Karin NyfortHansen, Milap C.Nahata
9. National Formulary of India
10. Text Book of Medicine by Yashpal Munjal
11. Text book of Pharmacovigilance: concept and practice by GP Mohanta and PK Manna

Gupta SK. Setting up a Pharmacovigilance Center, Text book of Pharmacovigilance. First edition, Jaypee brothers Medical Publishers, 2011; 93-103.

SK Gupta. Post marketing Surveillance, Text book of Pharmacovigilance, First edition, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers(P) Ltd., 2011;75.

Srinivasan R, Ramya G. Adverse drug reaction causality assessment. International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry. 2011; 1(3): 606-11.

The World Health Organization. Safety of Medicines: A guide for detecting and reporting adverse drug reactions. Geneva :2002 WHO / EDM / QSM / 2002.2.

The National Pharmacovigilance Protocol, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt of India.

Prakash S. Pharmacovigilance in India. Indian J Pharmacol. 2007; 39: 123. [6] Amit D, Padmanabh V. Rataboli. The adverse drug reaction (ADR) notification drop box: An easy way to report ADRs. Br. J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 November; 66(5): 723-24.

Ravi SP, Subish P, Mishra P, Dubey AK. Teaching pharmacovigilance to medical students and doctors. Indian J Pharmacol. Sept-Oct, 2006;38( 5 ): 316-19.

Cox AR, Marriott JF, Wilson KA, Ferner RE. Adverse drug reaction teaching in UK undergraduate medical and pharmacy programmes. J. Clin Pharm Ther. 2004 Feb; 29(1): 31-35.

Graille V, Lapeyre–Mestre M, Mon Tadric JL. Drug vigilance: An opinion survey which was conducted among the residents of a university hospital. Therapie. 1994 Sep-Oct; 49(5): 451-54.

Ohaju-Obodo, JO, Iribhog be OI. The extent of pharmacovigilance among the resident doctors in the Edo and the Lagos states of Nigeria. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2010;19: 191-95.

Xu H, Wang Y, Liu N. A hospital based survey on health care profes-sionals in the awareness of pharmacovigilance. Pharmacoepidemioly and Drug Safety, 2009 July;18(7) : 624-30.

Subish P, Izham MM, Mishra P. Evaluation of the knowledge, attitudes and the practices on adverse drug reactions and pharmacovigilance among the health care professionals in a Nepalese hospital: A preliminary study. The Internet Journal of Pharmacology. 2008; 6(1): 1531-2976.

Ramesh M, Parthasarathi G. Adverse drug reaction reporting: the attitudes and the perceptions of the medical practitioners. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. April-June 2009;2 (2):10-14.


Rehan HS, Vasudev K, Tripathi CD. Adverse drug reaction monitoring: the knowledge, attitude and the practices of the medical students and the prescribers. Natl Med J India. 2002 Jan-Feb; 15(1): 24-6.

Desai, et al. An evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and the practice of adverse drug reaction reporting among the prescribers at a tertiary care hospital. Perspective in Clinical Research. Oct-Dec 2011; 2(4): 129-35.

Gupta P, Udupa A. Adverse drug reaction reporting and pharma-covigilance: knowledge, attitudes and perceptions among the resident doctors. J. Pharm Sci Res 2011; 3:1064-69.

Vora, et al, Knowledge on the adverse drug reactions and the pharmacovigilance activity among the undergraduate medical students of Gujarat. IJPSR. 2012; 3(5): 1511-15

Muraraiah S, et al. A questionnaire study which was done to assess the knowledge, attitude and the practice of pharmacovigilance in a paediatric tertiary care centre. J Chem. Pharm.Res., 2011;3( 6 ): 416-22.

Elkalmi R, et al. Pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions about pharmacovigilance in Malaysian public universities. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2011; 75 ( 5 ) Article 96

Risk – Types of RISK – Pharmacovigilance

The probability of harm being caused; the probability (chance, odds) of an occurrence.
Absolute risk
Risk in a population of exposed persons; the probability of an event affecting members of a particular population (e.g. 1 in 1 000). Absolute risk can be measured over time (incidence) or at a given time (prevalence).

Attributable risk
The risk associated with exposure to the monitored medicine(s). This is calculated by subtracting the background risk without the medicine(s) (reference
risk) from the risk measured while taking the medicine(s).
Relative risk
Ratio of the risk in an exposed population (absolute risk) and the risk in an unexposed population (reference risk). Relative risk is the result of a relative comparison between outcome frequency measurements, e.g. incidences.
Reference risk
Risk in a population of unexposed persons; also called baseline risk. Reference risk can be measured over time (incidence) or at a given time (prevalence). The unexposed population refers to a reference population, as closely comparable to the exposed population as possible, apart from the exposure.


Serious adverse event or reaction
A serious adverse event or reaction is any untoward medical occurrence that at any dose:
• results in death;
• results in inpatient hospitalization or prolongation of existing hospitalization;
• results in persistent or significant disability or incapacity;
• is life-threatening;
• is a congenital anomaly/birth defect.
To ensure that there is no confusion or misunderstanding about the difference between the terms “serious” and “severe”, the following note of clarification
is provided:
The term “severe” is not synonymous with serious. In the English language, “severe” is used to describe the intensity (severity) of a specific event (as in mild, moderate or severe); the event itself, however, may be of relatively minor medical significance (such as severe headache). Seriousness (not severity) which is based on the outcome of the event on the patient or action
criteria serves as the guide for defining regulatory reporting obligations.

Reported information on a possible causal relationship between an adverse event and a drug, the relationship being unknown or incompletely documented previously. Usually more than a single report is required to generate a signal, depending upon the seriousness of the event and the quality of the information. The publication of a signal usually implies the need for some kind of review or action.


If you want to know the business EXCELLENCE AWARDS CATEGORIES in pharmaceutical industry you are at the right place. Here we present types of awards your company can receive

Fastest Growing Third Party Manufacturing
Best Distributor Network
Packaging Company with Highest Standards
Innovations in Manufacturing
Innovations in Packaging
Emerging Company in Partnering &
Innovation in Biologic Drug Development
and Manufacturing
Emerging Company in Packaging
Pharma Marketing Company
Emerging Formulation Company
Innovations in Manufacturing
Innovations in Process and Formulation
Innovations in APIs and Excipients
Innovations in Supply Chain and Logistic
Pharma Company with Largest Distribution
Emerging Pharma Company of the Year
Company of the Year-PCD
Contract Manufacturing – Cosmetic
Top Ranked Emerging Pharma Company of
the Year-Ethical Marketing
Pharma Franchise Company in North
Export Driven Pharma Company
Pharma Company for Innovative Marketing
Emerging Pharma Marketing StrategyCompany of the year
Ophthalmic Drug Portfolio
Dermacare Drug Portfolio
Respiratory Drug Portfolio
Gastroenterology Drug Portfolio
Anti-Diabetic Brand of the Year
Emerging Brand of the year in Oncology
Gynaecology Drug Portfolio
Infectious Disease Portfolio
Drug/Molecule of the Year
Diabetes Drug Portfolio
Cardiac Drug Portfolio
Nutrition Care Portfolio
Paediatric Division
New Launch of the Year
Fastest Growing Company
of the Year in Nephrology
Orthopaedic Drug Portfolio
Innovations in Pharma Technology
Immunology Portfolio
Neurology Drug Portfolio

Pharm D 1st Year First Year Subjects / Syllabus Copy- DETAILS

Pharm.D – I YEAR



Theory : 3 Hrs. /Week


  1. Scope and Objectives: This course is designed to impart a fundamental knowledge on the structure and functions of the human body. It also helps in understanding both homeostasis mechanisms and homeostatic imbalances of various body systems. Since a medicament, which is produced by pharmacist, is used to correct the deviations in human body, it enhances the understanding of how the drugs act on the various body systems in correcting the disease state of the organs.


  1. Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to:
    1. describe the structure (gross and histology) and functions of various organs of the human body;


  1. describe the various homeostatic mechanisms and their imbalances of various systems;
  2. identify the various tissues and organs of the different systems of the human body;
  3. perform the hematological tests and also record blood pressure, heart rate, pulse and Respiratory volumes;
  4. appreciate coordinated working pattern of different organs of each system; and


  1. appreciate the interlinked mechanisms in the maintenance of normal functioning (homeostasis) of human body


  1. Course materials: Text books
    1. Tortora Gerard J. and Nicholas, P. Principles of anatomy and physiology Publisher Harpercollins college New York.


  1. Wilson, J.W.  Ross  and  Wilson’s  foundations  of  anatomy  and  physiology.  Publisher:  Churchill

Livingstone, Edinburg.



Reference books

  1. Guyton arthur, C. Physiology of human body. Publisher: Holtsaunders.


  1. Chatterjee,C.C. Human physiology. Volume 1&11. Publisher: medical allied agency, Calcutta.
  2. Peter L. Williams, Roger Warwick, Mary Dyson and Lawrence, H.
  3. Gray’s anatomy. Publisher:Churchill Livingstone, London.


  1. Lecture wise program:




  • Scope of anatomy and physiology, basic terminologies used in this subject (Description of the body as such planes and terminologies)
  • Structure of cell – its components and their functions.


  • Elementary tissues of the human body: epithelial, connective, Muscular and nervous tissues-their sub-types and characteristics


  • a) Osseous system – structure, composition and functions of the


  1. Classification of joints, Types of movements of joints and disorders of joints (Definitions only)
  • Haemopoetic System
    1. Composition and functions of blood
    2. Haemopoesis and disorders of blood components (definition of disorder)
    3. Blood groups
    4. Clotting factors and mechanism
    5. Platelets and disorders of coagulation


  • Lymph
    1. Lymph and lymphatic system, composition, formation and circulation.
    2. Spleen: structure and functions, Disorders
    3. Disorders of lymphatic system (definition only)


  • Cardiovascular system
    1. Anatomy and functions of heart
    2. Blood vessels and circulation (Pulmonary, coronary and systemic circulation)
    3. Electrocardiogram (ECG)


  1. Cardiac cycle and heart sounds
  2. Blood pressure – its maintenance and regulation
  3. Definition of the following disorders


Hypertension, Hypotension, Arteriosclerosis, Atherosclerosis, Angina, Myocardial infarction, Congestive heart failure, Cardiac arrhythmias


  • Respiratory system
    1. Anatomy of respiratory organs and functions
    2. Mechanism / physiology of respiration and regulation of respiration
    3. Transport of respiratory gases


  1. Respiratory volumes and capacities, and Definition of: Hypoxia, Asphyxia, Dybarism, Oxygen therapy and resuscitation.


  • Digestive system
    1. Anatomy and physiology of GIT
    2. Anatomy and functions of accessory glands of GIT
    3. Digestion and absorption
    4. Disorders of GIT (definitions only)


  • Nervous system


  1. Definition and classification of nervous system
  2. Anatomy, physiology and functional areas of cerebrum
  3. Anatomy and physiology of cerebellum
  4. Anatomy and physiology of mid brain
  5. Thalamus, hypothalamus and Basal Ganglia


  1. Spinal card: Structure & reflexes – mono-poly-planter
  2. Cranial nerves – names and functions
  3. ANS – Anatomy & functions of sympathetic & parasympathetic N.S.


  • Urinary system


  1. Anatomy and physiology of urinary system
  2. Formation of urine
  3. Renin Angiotensin system – Juxtaglomerular apparatus – acid base Balance
  4. Clearance tests and micturition
  • Endocrine system
    1. Pituitary gland
    2. Adrenal gland
    3. Thyroid and Parathyroid glands
    4. Pancreas and gonads


  • Reproductive system


  1. Male and female reproductive system
  2. Their hormones – Physiology of menstruation
  3. Spermatogenesis & Oogenesis
  4. Sex determination (genetic basis)
  5. Pregnancy and maintenance and parturition
  6. Contraceptive devices


  • Sense organs
    1. Eye


  1. Ear
  2. Skin
  3. Tongue & Nose


  • Skeletal muscles


  1. Histology
  2. Physiology of Muscle contraction
  3. Physiological properties of skeletal muscle and their disorders (definitions)


  • Sports physiology


  1. Muscles in exercise, Effect of athletic training on muscles and muscle performance,


  1. Respiration in exercise, CVS in exercise, Body heat in exercise, Body fluids and salts in exercise,


  1. Drugs and athletics

General Requirements: Dissection box, Laboratory Napkin, muslin cloth, record, Observation book(100pages), Stationary items, Blood lancet.



Course materials:


Text books


Goyal, R. K, Natvar M.P, and Shah S.A, Practical anatomy, physiology and biochemistry, latest edition, Publisher: B.S Shah Prakashan, Ahmedabad.




Ranade VG, Text book of practical physiology, Latest edition, Publisher: PVG,  Pune Anderson Experimental

Physiology, Latest edition, Publisher: NA


List of Experiments:

  1. Study of tissues of human body
    • Epithelial tissue.
    • Muscular tissue.
  2. Study of tissues of human body
    • Connective tissue.
    • Nervous tissue.
  3. Study of appliances used in hematological experiments.
  4. Determination of W.B.C. count of blood.
  5. Determination of R.B.C. count of blood.
  6. Determination of differential count of blood.
  7. Determination of
    • Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate.
    • Hemoglobin content of Blood.
  • Bleeding time & Clotting time.
  1. Determination of
    • Blood Pressure.
    • Blood group.
  2. Study of various systems with the help of charts, models & specimens
    • Skeleton system part I-axial skeleton.
    • Skeleton system part II- appendicular skeleton.
    • Cardiovascular system.
    • Respiratory system.
    • Digestive system.
    • Urinary system.
    • Nervous system.
    • Special senses.
    • Reproductive system.
  3. Study of different family planning appliances.
  4. To perform pregnancy diagnosis test.
  5. Study of appliances used in experimental physiology.
  6. To record simple muscle curve using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.
  7. To record simple summation curve using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.
  8. To record simple effect of temperature using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.
  9. To record simple effect of load & after load using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.
  10. To record simple fatigue curve using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.


Scheme of Practical Examination:


Sessionals Annual
Identification 04 10
Synopsis 04 10
Major Experiment 07 20
Minor Experiment 03 15
Viva 02 15
Max Marks 20 70
Duration 03hrs 04hrs



Note:   Total sessional marks is 30 (20 for practical sessional plus 10 marks for regularity, promptness, viva-voce and record maintenance).



Theory : 2 Hrs. /Week


  1. Scope and objectives: This course is designed to impart a fundamental knowledge on the art and science of formulating different dosage forms. It prepares the students for most basics of the applied field of pharmacy.


  1. Upon the completion of the course the student should be able to:
    1. know the formulation aspects of different dosage forms;
    2. do different pharmaceutical caluculation involved in formulation;


  1. formulate different types of dosage forms; and
  2. appreciate the importance of good formulation for effectiveness.


  1. Course materials: Text books
    1. Cooper and Gunns Dispensing for pharmacy students.


  1. A text book Professional Pharmacy by N.K.Jain and S.N.Sharma.





  1. Introduction to Pharmaceutical dosage forms by Howard C. Ansel.
  2. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences.
  3. Register of General Pharmacy by Cooper and Gunn.
  4. General Pharmacy by M.L.Schroff.


  1. Lecture wise programme: Topics


  • Introduction to dosage forms – classification and definitions
    1. Prescription: definition, parts and handling


  1. Posology: Definition, Factors affecting dose selection. Calculation of children and infant doses.


  • Historical back ground and development of profession of pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry in brief.


  • Development of Indian Pharmacopoeia and introduction to other Pharmacopoeias such as BP, USP, European Pharmacopoeia, Extra pharmacopoeia and Indian national formulary.


  • Weights and measures, Calculations involving percentage solutions, allegation, proof spirit, isotonic solutions etc.


  • Powders and Granules: Classification advantages and disadvantages, Preparation of simple, compound powders, Insufflations, Dusting powders, Eutectic and Explosive powders, Tooth powder and effervescent powders and granules.


  • Monophasic Dosage forms: Theoretical aspects of formulation including adjuvant like stabilizers, colorants, flavours with examples. Study of Monophasic liquids like gargles, mouth washes, Throat paint, Ear drops, Nasal drops, Liniments and lotions, Enemas and collodions.


  • Biphasic dosage forms: Suspensions and emulsions, Definition, advantages and disadvantages,

classification, test for the type of emulsion, formulation, stability and evaluation.


  • Suppositories and pessaries: Definition, advantages and disadvantages, types of base, method of preparation, Displacement value and evaluation.





  • Galenicals: Definition, equipment for different extraction processes like infusion, Decoction, Maceration and Percolation, methods of preparation of spirits, tinctures and extracts.


  • Pharmaceutical calculations.


  • Surgical aids: Surgical dressings, absorbable gelatin sponge, sutures, ligatures and medicated bandages.
  • Incompatibilities: Introduction, classification and methods to overcome the incompatibilities.

































































Pharm.D – I YEAR



Practical: 3 Hrs. /Week


List of Experiments:



  1. Syrups
    1. Simple Syrup I.P


  1. Syrup of Ephedrine Hcl NF
  2. Syrup Vasaka IP
  3. Syrup of ferrous Phosphate IP


  1. Orange Syrup


  1. Elixir
    1. Piperizine citrate elixir BP
    2. Cascara elixir BPC
    3. Paracetamol elixir BPC


  1. Linctus
    1. Simple Linctus BPC


  1. Pediatric simple Linctus BPC


  1. Solutions
    1. Solution of cresol with soap IP
    2. Strong solution of ferric chloride BPC
    3. Aqueous Iodine Solution IP
    4. Strong solution of Iodine IP
    5. Strong solution of ammonium acetate IP


  1. Liniments
    1. Liniment of turpentine IP*
    2. Liniment of camphor IP


  1. Suspensions*
    1. Calamine lotion


  1. Magnesium Hydroxide mixture BP


  1. Emulsions*
    1. Cod liver oil emulsion
    2. Liquid paraffin emulsion


  1. Powders
    1. Eutectic powder


  1. Explosive powder
  2. Dusting powder
  3. Insufflations







  1. Suppositories
    1. Boric acid suppositories


  1. Chloral suppositories


  1. Incompatibilities
    1. Mixtures with Physical
    2. Chemical & Therapeutic incompatibilities


  • colourless bottles required for dispensing Paper envelope (white), butter paper and white paper required for dispensing.



Scheme of Practical Examination:


Sessionals Annual
Synopsis 05 15
Major Experiment 10 25
Minor Experiment 03 15
Viva 02 15
Max Marks 20 70
Duration 03hrs 04hrs


Note :  Total sessional marks is 30 (20 for practical sessional plus 10 marks for regularity, promptness, viva-voce and record maintenance).












































Pharm.D – I YEAR



Theory : 3 Hrs. /Week


  1. Scope of the Subject: Applied biochemistry deals with complete understanding of the molecular level of the chemical process associated with living cells.Clinical chemistry deals with the study of chemical aspects of human life in health and illness and the application of chemical laboratory methods to diagnosis, control of treatment, and prevention of diseases.


  1. Objectives of the Subject (Know, do, appreciate) :


The objective of the present course is providing biochemical facts and the principles to the students of pharmacy. Upon completion of the subject student shall be able to –


  1. understand the catalytic activity of enzymes and importance of isoenzymes in diagnosis of diseases;
  2. know the metabolic process of biomolecules in health and illness (metabolic disorders);


  1. understand the genetic organization of mammalian genome; protein synthesis; replication; mutation and repair mechanism;


  1. know the biochemical principles of organ function tests of kidney, liver and endocrine gland; and
  2. do the qualitative analysis and determination of biomolecules in the body fluids.



Text books (Theory)

  1. Harpers review of biochemistry – Martin


  1. Text book of biochemistry – D.Satyanarayana
  2. Text book of clinical chemistry- Alex kaplan &Laverve L.Szabo


References (Theory)

  1. Principles of biochemistry — Lehninger


  1. Text book of biochemistry — Ramarao
  1. Practical Biochemistry-David T.Plummer.
  2. Practical Biochemistry-Pattabhiraman.


  1. Lecture wise programme: Topics


  • Introduction to biochemistry: Cell and its biochemical organization, transport process across the cell membranes. Energy rich compounds; ATP, Cyclic AMP and their biological significance.


  • Enzymes: Definition; Nomenclature; IUB classification; Factor affecting enzyme activity; Enzyme action; enzyme inhibition. Isoenzymes and their therapeutic and diagnostic applications; Coenzymes and their biochemical role and deficiency diseases.


  • Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycolysis, Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle), HMP shunt, Glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis. Metabolic disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (diabetes mellitus and glycogen storage diseases); Glucose, Galactose tolerance test and their significance; hormonal regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.





  • Lipid metabolism: Oxidation of saturated (b-oxidation); Ketogenesis and ketolysis; biosynthesis of fatty acids, lipids; metabolism of cholesterol; Hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism. Defective metabolism of lipids (Atheroslerosis, fatty liver, hypercholesterolmiea).


  • Biological oxidation: Coenzyme system involved in Biological oxidation. Electron transport chain (its mechanism in energy capture; regulation and inhibition); Uncouplers of ETC; Oxidative phosphorylation;


  • Protein and amino acid metabolism: protein turn over; nitrogen balance; Catabolism of Amino acids (Transamination, deamination & decarboxylation). Urea cycle and its metabolic disorders; production of bile pigments; hyperbilirubinemia, porphoria, jaundice. Metabolic disorder of Amino acids.


  • Nucleic acid metabolism: Metabolism of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides; Protein synthesis; Genetic code; inhibition of protein synthesis; mutation and repair mechanism; DNA replication (semiconservative /onion peel models) and DNA repair mechanism.


  • Introduction to clinical chemistry: Cell; composition; malfunction; Roll of the clinical chemistry laboratory.


  • The kidney function tests: Role of kidney; Laboratory tests for normal function includes-


  1. Urine analysis (macroscopic and physical examination, quantitative and semiquantitative tests.)


  1. Test for NPN constituents. (Creatinine /urea clearance, determination of blood and urine creatinine, urea and uric acid)
  2. Urine concentration test
  3. Urinary tract calculi. (stones)


  • Liver function tests: Physiological role of liver, metabolic, storage, excretory, protective, circulatory functions and function in blood coagulation.


  1. Test for hepatic dysfunction-Bile pigments metabolism.
  2. Test for hepatic function test- Serum bilirubin, urine bilirubin, and urine urobilinogen.
  3. Dye tests of excretory function.
  4. Tests based upon abnormalities of serum proteins.



  • Lipid profile tests: Lipoproteins, composition, functions. Determination of serum lipids, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides.


  • Immunochemical techniques for determination of hormone levels and protein levels in serum for endocrine diseases and infectious diseases.


Radio immuno assay (RIA) and Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA)


  • Electrolytes: Body water, compartments, water balance, and electrolyte distrubution. Determination of sodium, calcium potassium, chlorides, bicarbonates in the body fluids.























Pharm.D – I YEAR



Practical : 3 Hrs./Week


Title of the Experiment:



  • Qualitative analysis of normal constituents of urine.*
  • Qualitative analysis of abnormal constituents of urine.*
  • Quantitative estimation of urine sugar by Benedict’s reagent method.**
  • Quantitative estimation of urine chlorides by Volhard’s method.**
  • Quantitative estimation of urine creatinine by Jaffe’s method.**


  • Quantitative estimation of urine calcium by precipitation method.**
  • Quantitative estimation of serum cholesterol by Libermann Burchard’s method.**
  • Preparation of Folin Wu filtrate from blood.*
  • Quantitative estimation of blood creatinine.**
  • Quantitative estimation of blood sugar Folin-Wu tube method.**
  • Estimation of SGOT in serum.**
  • Estimation of SGPT in serum.**
  • Estimation of Urea in Serum.**
  • Estimation of Proteins in Serum.**
  • Determination of serum bilirubin**
  • Determination of Glucose by means of Glucoseoxidase.**
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis of Glycogen/Starch by Amylases.**
  • Study of factors affecting Enzyme activity. (pH & Temp.)**
  • Preparation of standard buffer solutions and its pH measurements (any two)*
  • Experiment on lipid profile tests**
  • Determination of sodium,calcium and potassium in serum.**


  • indicate major experiments & * indicate minor experiments




Format of the assignment


  1. Minimum & Maximum number of pages.


  1. It shall be computer draft copy.
  2. Reference(s) shall be included at the end.
  3. Name and signature of the student.


  1. Assignment can be a combined presentation at the end of the academic year.
  2. Time allocated for presentation may be 8+2 Min.



Scheme of Practical Examination:


Sessionals Annual
Synopsis 05 15
Major Experiment 10 25
Minor Experiment 03 15
Viva 02 15
Max Marks 20 70
Duration 03hrs 04hrs



Note : Total sessional marks is 30 (20 for practical sessional plus 10 marks for regularity, promptness, viva-voce and record maintenance).

























































Pharm.D – I YEAR




Theory : 3 Hrs. /Week


  1. Scope and objectives: This course is designed to impart a very good knowledge about


  1. IUPAC/Common system of nomenclature of simple organic compounds belonging to different classes of organic compounds;
    1. Some important physical properties of organic compounds;


  1. Free radical/ nucleophyllic [alkyl/ acyl/ aryl] /electrophyllic substitution, free radical/ nucleophyllic / electrophyllic addition, elimination, oxidation and reduction reactions with mechanism, orientation of the reaction, order of reactivity, stability of compounds;


  1. Some named organic reactions with mechanisms; and


  1. Methods of preparation, test for purity, principle involved in the assay, important medicinal uses of some important organic compounds.


  1. Course materials: Text books
    1. R.Morrison and R. Boyd – Organic chemistry,
    2. Bentley and Driver-Text book of Pharmaceutical chemistry
    3. L.Finer- Organic chemistry, the fundamentals of chemistry



Reference books


  1. Organic chemistry – J.M.Cram and D.J.Cram


  1. Organic chemistry- Brown
  2. Advanced organic chemistry- Jerry March, Wiley
  3. Organic chemistry- Cram and Hammered, Pine Hendrickson


  1. Lecture wise Programme: Topics
    • Structures and Physical properties:


  1. Polarity of bonds, polarity of molecules, M.P, Inter molecular forces, B.P, Solubility, non ionic solutes and ionic solutes, protic and aprotic Solvents, ion pairs,


  1. Acids and bases, Lowry bronsted and Lewis theories
  2. Isomerism


  • Nomenclature of organic compound belonging to the following classes Alkanes, Alkenes, Dienes, Alkynes, Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Amides, Amines, Phenols, Alkyl Halides, Carboxylic Acid, Esters, Acid Chlorides And Cycloalkanes.


  • Free radicals chain reactions of alkane : Mechanism, relative reactivity and stability


  • Alicyclic compounds : Preparations of cyclo alkanes, Bayer strain theory and orbital picture of angle strain.


  • Nuclophilic aliphatic substitution mechanism: Nucleophiles and leaving groups, kinetics of second and first order reaction, mechanism and kinetics of SN2 Stereochemistry and steric hindrance, role of solvents, phase transfer catalysis, mechanism and kinetics of SN1 reactions, stereochemistry, carbocation and their stability, rearrangement of carbocation, role of solvents in SN1 reaction, Ion dipole bonds, SN2 versus SN1 solvolyses, nucleophilic assistance by the solvents.


  • Dehydro halogenation of alkyl halides: 1,2 elimination, kinetics, E2 and E1 mechanism, elimination via carbocation, evidence for E2 mechanism, absence of rearrangement isotope effect, absence hydrogen exchange, the element effect, orientation and reactivity,




E2 versus E1, elimination versus substitution, dehydration of alcohol, ease of dehydration, acid catalysis, reversibility, orientation.


  • Electrophillic and free radicals addition: Reactions at carbon-carbon, double bond, electrophile, hydrogenation, heat of hydrogenation and stability of alkenes, markownikoff rule, addition of hydrogen halides, addition of hydrogen bromides, peroxide effect, electrophillic addition, mechanism, rearrangement, absence of hydrogen exchange, orientation and reactivity, addition of halogen, mechanism, halohydin formation, mechanism of free radicals additon, mechanism of peroxide initiated addition of hydrogen bromide, orientation of free addition, additions of carbene to alkene, cyclo addition reactions.


  • Carbon-carbon double bond as substituents: Free radical halogenations of alkenes, comparision of free radical substitution with free radical addition, free radical substitution in alkenes, orientation and reactivity, allylic rearrangements.


  • Theory of resonance: Allyl radical as a resonance hybrid, stability, orbital picture, resonance stabilisation of allyl radicals, hyper conjugation, allyl cation as a resonance hybrid, nucleophyllic substitution in allylic substrate, SN1 reactivity, allylic rearrangement, resonance stabilisation of allyl cation, hyper conjugation, nucleophilic substitution in allylic substrate, SN2 nucleophilic substituion in vinylic substrate, vinylic cation, stability of conjugated dienes, resonance in alkenes, hyper conjugation, ease of formation of conjugated dienes, orientation of elimination, electrophilic addition to conjugated dienes, 1,4- addition, 1,2-versus 1,4-addition, rate versus equilibrium, orientation and reactivity of free radical addition to conjugated dienes.


  • Elecrophilic aromatic substitution: Effect of substituent groups, determination of orientation, determination of relative reactivity, classification of substituent group, mechanism of nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, friedel craft alkylation, friedel craft acylation, reactivity and orientation, activating and deactivating O,P,M directing groups, electron release via resonance, effect of halogen on electrophilic aromatic substitution in alkyl benzene, side chain halogination of alkyl benzene, resonance stabilization of benzyl radical.


  • Nucleophilic addition reaction: Mechanism, ionisation of carboxylic acids, acidity constants, acidity of acids, structure of carboxylate ions, effect of substituent on acidity, nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction, conversion of acid to acid chloride, esters, amide and anhydride. Role of caboxyl group, comparison of alkyl nucleophilic substitution with acyl nucleophilic substitution.


  • Mechanism of aldol condensation, claisen condensation, cannizzaro reaction, crossed aldol condensation, crossed cannizzaro reaction, benzoin condensation, perkin condensation. Knoevenagel, Reformatsky reaction, Wittig reaction, Michael addition.


  • Hoffman rearrangement: Migration to electron deficient nitrogen, Sandmeyer’s reaction, basicity of amines, diazotisation and coupling, acidity of phenols, Williamson synthesis, Fries rearrangement, Kolbe reaction, Reimer tieman’s reactions.


  • Nucleophilic aromatic substitution: Bimolecular displacement mechanisms, orientation, comparison of aliphatic nucleophilic substitution with that of aromatic.


  • Oxidation reduction reaction.


  • Study of the following official compounds- preparation, test for purity, assay and medicinal uses of Chlorbutol, Dimercaprol, Glyceryl trinitrate, Urea, Ethylene diamine dihyrate, Vanillin, Paraldehyde, Ethylene chloride, Lactic acid, Tartaric acid, citric acid, salicylic acid, aspirin, methyl salicylate, ethyl benzoate, benzyl benzoate, dimethyl pthalate, sodium lauryl sulphate, saccharin sodium, mephensin.








Pharm.D – I YEAR




Practical : 3 Hrs./Week


  1. Introduction to the various laboratory techniques through demonstration involving synthesis of the following compounds (at least 8 compounds to be synthesised):


  1. Acetanilde / aspirin (Acetylation)
  2. Benzanilide / Phenyl benzoate (Benzoylation)
  3. P-bromo acetanilide / 2,4,6 – tribromo aniline (Bromination)


  1. Dibenzylidene acetone (Condensation)
  2. 1-Phenylazo-2-napthol (Diazotisation and coupling)
  3. Benzoic acid / salicylic acid (Hydrolysis of ester)
  4. M-dinitro benzene (Nitration)


  1. 9, 10 – Antharaquinone (Oxidation of anthracene) / preparation of benzoic acid from toluene or benzaldehyde
  2. M-phenylene diamine (Reduction of M-dinitrobenzene) / Aniline from nitrobenzene
  3. Benzophenone oxime
  4. Nitration of salicylic acid
  5. Preparation of picric acid
  6. Preparation of O-chlorobenzoic acid from O-chlorotolune
  7. Preparation of cyclohexanone from cyclohexanol


  1. Identification of organic compounds belonging to the following classes by :



Systematic qualitative organic analysis including preparation of derivatives Phenols, amides, carbohydrates, amines, carboxylic acids, aldehyde and ketones, Alcohols, esters, hydrocarbons, anilides, nitrocompounds.


III. Introduction to the use of stereo models:


Methane, Ethane, Ethylene, Acetylene, Cis alkene, Trans alkene, inversion of configuration.


Scheme of Practical Examination:


Sessionals Annual
Synopsis 05 15
Major Experiment 10 25
Minor Experiment 03 15
Viva 02 15
Max Marks 20 70
Duration 03hrs 04hrs


Note : Total sessional marks is 30 (20 for practical sessional plus 10 marks for regularity, promptness, viva-voce and record maintenance).












Pharm.D – I YEAR




Theory : 2 Hrs. /Week


  1. Scope and objectives: This course mainly deals with fundamentals of Analytical chemistry and also the study of inorganic pharmaceuticals regarding their monographs and also the course deals with basic knowledge of analysis of various pharmaceuticals.


  1. Upon completion of the course student shall be able to:


  1. under stand the principles and procedures of analysis of drugs and also regarding the application of inorganic pharmaceuticals;


  1. know the analysis of the inorganic pharmaceuticals their applications; and
  2. appreciate the importance of inorganic pharmaceuticals in preventing and curing the disease.


  1. Course materials: Text books
    1. A text book Inorganic medicinal chemistry by Surendra N. Pandeya


  1. H. Beckett and J. B. Stanlake’s Practical Pharmaceutical chemistry Vol-I & Vol-II
  2. Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry III-Edition P.Gundu Rao





  1. Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Anand & Chetwal
  2. Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry by Dr.B.G.Nagavi
  3. Analytical chemistry principles by John H. Kennedy
  4. I.P.1985 and 1996, Govt. of India, Ministry of health


  1. Lecture wise programme:



1   Errors

2   Volumetric analysis

3   Acid-base titrations

4   Redox titrations

5   Non aqueous titrations

6   Precipitation titrations

7   Complexometric titrations

  • Theory of indicators
  • Gravimetry
  • Limit tests


  • Medicinal gases
  • Acidifiers
  • Antacids
  • Cathartics
  • Electrolyte replenishers
  • Essential Trace elements
  • Antimicrobials
  • Pharmaceutical aids
  • Dental Products


  • Miscellaneous compounds
  • Radio Pharmaceuticals







Pharm.D – I YEAR




Practical : 3 Hrs./Week


  1. Limit test (6 exercises)
    1. Limit test for chlorides
    2. Limit test for sulphates
    3. Limit test for iron
    4. Limit test for heavy metals
    5. Limit test for arsenic


  1. Modified limit tests for chlorides and sulphates


  1. Assays (10 exercises)
    1. Ammonium chloride- Acid-base titration
    2. Ferrous sulphate- Cerimetry
    3. Copper sulpahte- Iodometry
    4. Calcilugluconate- Complexometry
    5. Hydrogen peroxide – Permanganometry
    6. Sodium benzoate – Nonaqueous titration
    7. Sodium chloride – Modified volhard’s method
    8. Assay of KI – KIO3 titration
    9. Gravimetric estimation of barium as barium sulphate


  1. Sodium antimony gluconate or antimony potassium tartarate


  1. Estimation of mixture (Any two exercises)
    1. Sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate
    2. Boric acid and Borax
    3. Oxalic acid and sodium oxalate


  1. Test for identity (Any three exercises)
    1. Sodium bicorbonate
    2. Barium sulphate
    3. Ferrous sulphate
    4. Potassium chloride


  1. Test for purity (Any two exercises)
    1. Swelling power in Bentonite


  1. Acid neutralising capacity in aluminium hydroxide gel
  2. Ammonium salts in potash alum
  3. Adsorption power heavy Kaolin
  4. Presence of Iodates in KI


  1. Preparations (Any two exercises)
    1. Boric acids


  1. Potash alum
  2. Calcium lactate
  3. Magnesium suphate





Scheme of Practical Examination :


Sessionals Annual
Synopsis 05 15
Major Experiment 10 25
Minor Experiment1&2 03 15
Viva 02 15
Max Marks 20 70
Duration 03hrs 04hrs


Note :                                                        Total sessional marks is 30 (20 for practical sessional plus 10 marks for regularity, promptness, viva-voce and record maintenance).




  1. Scope and objectives: This is an introductory course in mathematics. This subjects deals with the introduction to matrices, determinants, trigonometry, analytical geometry, differential calculus, integral calculus, differential equations, laplace transform.


  1. Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to :


  1. Know Trignometry, Analytical geometry, Matrices, Determinant, Integration, Differential equation, Laplace transform and their applications;
  2. solve the problems of different types by applying theory; and
  3. appreciate the important applications of mathematics in pharmacy.


  1. Course materials: Text books
    1. Differential calculus By Shantinarayan
    2. Text book of Mathematics for second year pre-university by Prof.B.M.Sreenivas




  1. Integral calculus By Shanthinarayan
  2. Engineering mathematics By B.S.Grewal
  3. Trigonometry Part-I By L.Loney


  1. Lecture wise programme :




  • Algebra : Determinants, Matrices
  • Trigonometry : Sides and angles of a triangle, solution of triangles
  • Analytical Geometry :Points, Straight line, circle, parabola


  • Differential calculus: Limit of a function, Differential calculus, Differentiation of a sum, Product, Quotient Composite, Parametric, exponential, trigonometric and Logarithmic function. Successive differentiation, Leibnitz’s theorem, Partial differentiation, Euler’s theorem on homogeneous functions of two variables


  • Integral Calculus: Definite integrals, integration by substitution and by parts, Properties of definite integrals.


  • Differential equations: Definition, order, degree, variable separable, homogeneous, Linear, heterogeneous, linear, differential equation with constant coefficient, simultaneous linear equation of second order.


  • Laplace transform: Definition, Laplace transform of elementary functions, Properties of linearity and shifting.









  1. Scope and objectives: This is an introductory course in Biology, which gives detailed study of natural sources such as plant and animal origin. This subject has been introduces to the pharmacy course in order to make the student aware of various naturally occurring drugs and its history, sources, classification, distribution and the characters of the plants and animals. This subject gives basic foundation to Pharmacognosy.


  1. Course materials: Text books
    1. Text book of Biology by S.B.Gokhale
    2. A Text book of Biology by Dr.Thulajappa and Dr. Seetaram.





  1. A Text book of Biology by B.V.Sreenivasa Naidu


  1. A Text book of Biology by Naidu and Murthy
  2. Botany for Degree students By A.C.Dutta.
  3. Outlines of Zoology by M.Ekambaranatha ayyer and T.N.Ananthakrishnan.
  4. A manual for pharmaceutical biology practical by S.B.Gokhale and C.K.Kokate.


  1. Lecture wise programme :





01   Introduction

  • General organization of plants and its inclusions


  • Plant tissues
  • Plant kingdom and its classification
  • Morphology of plants
  • Root, Stem, Leaf and Its modifications
  • Inflorescence and Pollination of flowers
  • Morphology of fruits and seeds
  • Plant physiology


  • Taxonomy of Leguminosae, umbelliferae, Solanaceae, Lilliaceae, Zinziberaceae, Rubiaceae
  • Study of Fungi, Yeast, Penicillin and Bacteria




  • Study of Animal cell
  • Study animal tissues


  • Detailed study of frog
  • Study of Pisces, Raptiles, Aves
  • Genearal organization of mammals
  • Study of poisonous animals















Pharm.D – I YEAR



Practical : 3 Hrs./Week





  1. Introduction of biology experiments
  2. Study of cell wall constituents and cell inclusions
  3. Study of Stem modifications
  4. Study of Root modifications
  5. Study of Leaf modifications


  1. Identification of Fruits and seeds
  2. Preparation of Permanent slides
  3. S. of Senna, Cassia, Ephedra, Podophyllum.
  4. Simple plant physiological experiments
  5. Identification of animals
  6. Detailed study of Frog
  7. Computer based tutorials


Scheme of Practical Examination :


Sessionals Annual
Identification 04 10
Synopsis 04 10
Major Experiment 07 20
Minor Experiment 03 15
Viva 02 15
Max Marks 20 70
Duration 03hrs 04hrs



Note:   Total sessional marks is 30 (20 for practical sessional plus 10 marks for regularity, promptness, viva-voce and record maintenance.


Question Number: 1
Which state cabinet has announced to increase the financial assistance given to the
families of martyrs from Rs. 25 lakh to Rs. 1 crore?
Question Number: 2
Which among the following cricketers has been inducted to ICC Hall of Fame?
Sachin Tendulkar
Question Number: 3
In which state were the highest number of beneficiaries reported under the Pradhan
MantriShram Yogi Maan-dhan (PM- SYM) scheme?
Question Number: 4
The World Bank Group announced its first female Managing Director on Friday- an
Indian national. Her name is _______________________?
Anshula Kant
Question Number: 5
Foundation stone of Baba Guru Nanak International University has been kept in which
Question Number: 6
Who has been appointed as an International Judge of the Singapore International
Commercial Court in July 2019?
A K Sikri
Question Number: 7
Which place in Italy added to UNESCO Heritage list recently?
Question Number: 8
The World Health Organization has declared which country as measles free?
Sri Lanka
Question Number: 9 (Geography)
Consider the following statementsa. The Godavari Arch Bridge is the latest of the five bridges that span the Godavari
River at Rajahmundry.
b. The bridge is located in two channels, the Kovvur channel and the Rajahmundry
channel, and hence the bridge is also known as the Kovvur-Rajahmundry Bridge.
Which of the above statement/s is/are correct?
Only b
Question Number: 10
Consider the following statementsa. The Prakasam Barrage was conceptualised by Major Captain Lake of the East
India Company.
b. The Prakasam Barrage is located in the Vijayawada in the Krishna District of
Andhra Pradesh.
c. Prakasam Barrage is built across the River Krishna connecting Guntur and Krishna
Which of the above statements are correct?
Both b and c
Question Number: 11
Which of the following statement is incorrect about Kakinadaa. It is the second most populated city of East Godavari district.
b. The Indian Standard Time (IST) passes through this city.
c. The city was selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a
smart city under PM Narendra Modi’s flagship, Smart Cities Mission.
None of above
Question Number: 12
Which of the following river is known as “Sorrow of Nandyal”?
Question Number: 13
Consider the following statements in respect of „Yaganti Temple‟-
a. Yaganti is located in the Kurnool District in the state of Andhra Pradesh.
b. The three famous caves situated around the temple are the Agastya Cave, the
Venkateswara Cave and the VeeraBrahmam Cave.
c. The Nandi (Bullock, Lord Shiva‟s) idol in front of the temple is continuously
increasing its size.
Which of the above statements are incorrect?
None of above
Question Number: 14
Which of the following city is known as „The City of Destiny‟?
Question Number: 15
Consider the following statements about „Tirupati‟-
a. Tirupati is located at 13.65°N 79.42°E in the Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh.
b. The city is also referred to as the “Spiritual Capital of Andhra Pradesh”.
c. For the year 2012–13, India’s Ministry of Tourism named Tirupati as the “Best
Heritage City”.
Which of the statements are correct?
All of above
Question Number: 16
President Ram NathKovind has appointed AnusuiyaUikey as Governor of _____________.
17 Communicated Information can be termed as
18 Department of Culture set up a Committee in the year ____under the chairmanship of
_____for the formulation of a National Policy for a Library and Information System.
1984, D.P. Chattophadhyya
19 Information is piecemeal, ______ particular; while knowledge is _____and coherent
20 Which type of IPR protects the rights of cine film producers?
Copy right
21 In which year The Indian Copyright Act was amended first time?
22 _________ of the constitution protects the right to free speech and expression irrespective
of the medium of communication.
Article 19
23 Under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting which body regulates the public
exhibitions of films in India
Central Board of Film Certification
24 Which is incorrect in the context of Right to information means
Obtained security information
25 In Andhra Pradesh Public Library Movement, name of Paturi Naga Bhushanam is a
pioneer in conducting
boat Library Service
26 The Andhra Pradesh Public Library Act,1960 has the provision of
27 An ISSN is a _____digits code for publications.
28 S.M.Ganguly-IASLIC Award has been instituted for
Librarian of the year
29 It is a plastic ribbon, usually half a inch wide that is coated on one side with an iron
oxide material which can be magnetized. Identify this storage device
Magnetic tape
30 Software is a collection of programmes which allows to communicate ______.
31 The web server maintains information in the ________which have all the text marked
with _________tags.
33 Among the following groups, which is group is most reliable for primary source of
(Information Sources)
34 Abstract which not only describes the content of the work but also evaluates the work
and its presentation is called
Critical abstract
35 Match the following:
a)Survey of the primary literature
b)Organized list of primary or other sources relating to a given subject(s) or person
c)Comprehensive compilation on a subject
d)Focuses on developing understanding about the subject
I Treatise
II Text book
III Bibliography
IV Review
36 Information Literacy means
Skill of defining, locating and accessing information
37 Andhra DesaGranthaBhandagaraSanghom is the first
library association in India
38 Dictionary which gives the history of words and their origin referred as
Etymological dictionary
39 Among the following which product qualifies for ISBN?
40 World of Learning includes information about
Universities, Colleges, Libraries, Museums, Archives, Research Institutes and Learned
It accesses webpages and displays them on the computer screen
Web browser
41 Match the first edition of encyclopedia with the publication year
a)Encyclopaedia Britannica I 1858
b)Encyclopaedia Americana II1977
c)Chamber‟s Encyclopaedia III 1771
d) Random House Encyclopaedia IV 1829
42 Manorama Yearbook is an Indian annual published by
Malayala Manorama
43 e-journals are usually published on
A communication channel
44 The difference between the mean of a sample and the mean of the population is known as
Sampling error
45 Find out the median of the following set of numbers:
46. „The Hindu‟ daily news paper was founded in the year
47. According to ____________, printing of names and addresses of printers, editors and
publishers was mandatory.
First Press Regulations
48. Which film industry is sometimes referred as „Tollywood‟?
49. News reporters attached with security forces are called
Embedded reporters
50. „Ticker‟ is related to
51. „Anchor story‟ is related to
Print media
52. _________ is a structured sequence of events in time.
53. Which is a low-priced book having cheaper, flexible covers and pages?
54. Dealing with legislators and government officials to promote or defeat legislation
and regulation is called
55. “Tamasha” performance belongs to which state
56. TV Channels dedicated to the subjects of home, garden and family :
Lifestyle channels
57. A __________is a member of a group or an individual who is affected or is affected
by the success of an organization.
Question Number: 58
Atoms are composed ofElectrons and nuclei
Question Number: 59
What is a homepage?
A web site’s main page
Question Number: 60
The strategy of „Divide and Rule‟ was adopted byLord Curzon
Question Number: 61
Indian National Flag designer „PingaliVenkayya‟ belong to which state?
Andhra Pradesh
Question Number: 62
Fundamental Rights Resolution was adopted inKarachi session of Indian National Congress
Question Number: 63
Untouchability is an offenceAccording to the constitution and is punishable in accordance with law
Question Number: 64
Who characterizes Indian union as “a federation with a centralizing tendency”?
Ivor Jennings
Question Number: 65
The Constituent Assembly held its first meeting on __________ and last meeting on
December 9, 1946 and January 24, 1950.
Question Number: 66
The sum of 15% of a positive number and 10% of the same number is 70. What is twice of
Question Number: 67
The average of four consecutive numbers A, B, C and D respectively is 56.5. What is the
product of A and C?
Question Number: 68
A thermometer is to temperature as a compass is toDirection
Question Number: 69
Find the same relationship from given
Chef: Restaurant
Teacher: School
70. Values underlying Social Work profession are
All the above
Q.71. Horse gram is known in Telugu as
Q.72. The ICDS is the flagship programme of which ministry under the government?
Ministry of Women and Child Developmen
Q.73. Which of the following is a non-projected aid?
Q.74. The main objective of the first five year plan was:
Agriculture and irrigation
Q.75. Which of the following is the nodal institute for all State Institutes of Rural
National Institute of Rural Development & Panchayati Raj
Q.76. It was one of the first community radios started in 2008 and managed by a team
of dalitwomen:
Radio Sangham in Medak District
Q.77. Which of the following is a project floated under the National e-Governance
Programme under mission mode?
78. Retrogradation of starch is the prominent factor bringing about:
79) Which of the following has anti-infective property?
80) The term undernutrition comprises which of the following:
i. Protein energy malnutrition
ii. Micronutrient deficiency
iii. Stunting
iv. Overweight
v. Wasting
vi. Obesity
Tick mark the correct option:
81. HDI (Human Development Index) Rank of AP in 2017 was :
82. W. Nordhous and ________ won 2018 Nobel Prize in Economics
Paul Romer
83. Theme of Asia Pacific Summit addresses interdependence, mutual prosperity and
Universal values
84. One of the following is not a crypto currency :
85. Integration of 11 types of agricultural schemes is called :
Krishnonnati yojana
86. “You can tell the condition of a nation by looking at the status of its women. “Who
said this ?
Jawaharlal Nehru
87. Gross National Happiness ( GNH) was adopted by :
88. What is the name of India‟s monetary denomination when Sher Shah Suri introduced
it in 1540-45 ?
89. “Small is Beautiful “ is a book written by :
90. “ The Coming China Wars “ is a book written by :
Peter Novarro
91. Bank Note Press (BNP) is located at :
92. A project providing time- bound skill upgradation for railway employees :
Project Saksham
93 . Modern Coach Factory is a third such facility located in :
Rae Bareli
94. The Third Pillar : How Markets and State leave the community behind is a book
written by :
Raghuram Rajan
95. What measure is taken for Life Insecurity ?
96. King Fisher Airlines seized its operations from the year
97. Hyundai Motor Company headquarters is in
‘The Nehru Memorial Museum and Library’ is an autonomous institution under
the Ministry of ————–.
Q99 National Register of Translators is maintained by ______.
National Translation Mission
Q100 What is ICOLC ?
International Coalition of Library Consortia.
An online search in which all aspects of the records in natural language may be used as sought terms is
known as________
Free text searching
Q102 National Medical Library is located in
Q103 Linux is an example of _____________ software .
Operating System
Q104 Who developed ‘Access to libraries for persons with disabilities – checklist ‘ ?
Q105 Encapsulation is a term associated with:
Digital preservation
106 The Delivery of Books (Public Libraries) Act was enacted in the year_________.
107 National Library Week is celebrated in India in the month of ____________.
108 ‘ Where is the wisdom, we have lost in knowledge ’ is a famous quote by ?
Q109 ‘Technology Preservation’ is also referred to as:
Computer Museum
Q110 The value of the variable having maximum frequency is known as:
111. INB stands for
Indian National Bibliography
112. A study preceeding the main study to check the viability is known as:
Pilot study
113. Term used for large volume of high velocity, complex and variable data is:
Big data
114. What is MBO?
Management by Objectives
115. Which of the following is not associated with a virtual library:
With distributed physical locations
116. Information for All Programme (IFAP) was launched by
117. Method of assessing information needs of user community is known as
User studies
118. Mean, Mode and Median are called________
Measures of central tendency
119. The whole group from which the units of sample are selected is called:
120. According to hierarchy needs theory, which one of the following needs is the
highest in the hierarchy?
121. Personal computer falls in the category of
Micro computer
122. A machined readable code consisting of vertical bars of varying widths to
represent data is known as
Bar code
123. A pictorial representation of sequence of steps of computation for a problem is
known as
124. An assumption or proposition whose validity is to be tested is known as
125. Directing the user to appropriate sources of information available elsewhere is known as
126. National Science Library is located in
NISCAIR, New Delhi
127. FAIFE stands for
Freedom of Access to Information and Freedom of Expression
128. What is maximum number of characters you can use while writing a message on
Question Number: 129
Which of the following countries was admitted as the full time member of the ICC?
130. Which of the following drama was translated by Madhusudan Dutt in English?

Neel Darpan
131. Who of the following from Andhra Pradesh was the first Indian woman to win an
individual medal in the Olympics?
132. Which of the following is a part of Union Territory located in Andhra Pradesh?

Q133 Who wrote “Modernization of Indian Tradition”?
Yogendra Singh
Q134 „My Experiment with truth‟ is written by—
Q135 Multiple choice Questions makes us use of which form of retrieval of memory:
Question Number: 136
The average of 20 numbers is zero. Of them, at the most, how many may be greater than zero?
Q137. Who declared 1990 as “Year of the girl Child”. ?
Q138. The Environment Protection Act was executed in India in the year
Question Number: 139
One year ago Jaya was four times as old as her daughter Nikitha. Six years hence, Mrs.Jaya’s age will
exceed her daughter’s age by 9 years. The ratio of the present ages of Jaya and her daughter is:
13: 4
Q140 Which of the following agency regulates education?
According to 2011 Census Reports, the difference between literacy rates of men and women in India
was about:
Q142 The policy recommended by the Kothari Commission Vis-à-vis language is :
Three language formula
Q143. The First Open University in India was established in the year :
Question Number: 144.
Find the next term in the given series.
Q.145. Maxim Gorky’s novel ‘The Mother” was translated into Telugu by
Krovvidi Lingaraju
Q.146.Who was the first editor of “Andhra Patrika”?
Kasinathuni Nageswara Rao
Q.147.The International Telugu institute was established in the year
Q.148. If BAG = 71, then VICE=?
Q.149. 24:84::______:21

Q.150. What according to Census 2011, is the Sex ratio in India ?

Acidifying Agents- Achlorhydria – Acidifying Agents in Pharmaceuticals

What does Achlorhydria mean?

Acidifying agents

Acidifying agents are used in condition where there is absence or insufficient secretion of hydrochloric acid in stomach which leads to disease called Achlorhydria or Hypochlorhydria. Achlorhydria can be treated by various acidifying agents like ammonium chloride, dilute HCl, Calcium chloride etc.

Causes of Achlorhydria:

What causes Achlorhydria?

The cause of achlorhydria in first case may be subtotal gastrectomy, atrophic gastritis, carcinoma, gastric polyp etc while in later case it may be chronic nephritis, tuberculosis, hyperthyroidism, chronic alcoholism, sprue, pellagra etc. The symptoms vary with associated disease but they generally include mild diarrhoea or frequent bowl movement, epigastric pain and sensitivity to spicy food.

The pH of stomach is 1.5 -2 when empty and rises to pH 5-6 when food is ingested. The pH of stomach is so low because of the secretion of HCl. Gastric HCl act by destroying the bacteria in the ingested food and drinks. It softens the fibrous food and promotes the formation of the proteolytic enzyme pepsin. This enzyme is formed from pepsinogen at acidic pH (>6). Pepsin helps in the metabolism of proteins in the ingested food. Therefore lack of HCl in the stomach can cause Achlorhydria.

  • Pernicious anemia (anti-parietal and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies): It is an autoimmune phenomenon in which antibodies are formed. These autoantibodies cause the autoimmune destruction of parietal cells leading to atrophic gastritis.
  • Use of antisecretory medications: Short-term standard dose treatment with PPI has been shown to have low risk, but long-term use of PPI has been linked to hypochlorhydria.
  • Helicobacter pylori infection: Acute H. pylori infection of gastric epithelial cells represses H-K-ATPase alpha subunit gene expression leading to transient hypochlorhydria and supporting H. pylori proliferation. This growth of H. pylori may even initiate a pathological process causing gastric cancer.
  • Gastric bypass: Gastric bypass is a gastric exclusion operation performed in patients with massive obesity to reduce food intake. Studies show that the acid secretion unbuffered by the food in the excluded stomach results in lowered gastrin secretion hence leading to achlorhydria in such patients.
  • VIPomas: VIPoma is an endocrine tumor that usually arises from beta-pancreatic cells and secretes Vasoactive intestinal peptide. It may be associated with MEN1. The massive amounts of VIP secretion cause watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, achlorhydria, vasodilation, hypercalcemia, and hyperglycemia.
  • Hypothyroidism: Thyroid hormone plays a role in hydrochloric acid secretion hence hypothyroidism can lead to achlorhydria.
  • Radiation to stomach: Radiation to stomach has also been reported to cause achlorhydria.
  • Gastric cancer: Animal studies have shown evidence of achlorhydria in gastric cancer.
  • Ref: Achlorhydria
    Rawish Fatima; Muhammad Aziz

Types of achlorhydria

Two types of achlorhydria are known:
1) where the gastric secretion is devoid of HCl, even after stimulation with histamine phosphate
2) where gastric secretion is devoid of HCl, but secreted upon stimulation with histamine phosphate.




What is an acidifying agent?

What drugs acidify urine?

Acidifying Agents in Pharmaceuticals

Acetic Acid
Acetic Acid, Glacial
Citric Acid, Anhydrous
Citric Acid Monohydrate
Fumaric Acid
Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrochloric Acid, Diluted
Malic Acid
Nitric Acid
Phosphoric Acid
Phosphoric Acid, Diluted
Propionic Acid
Sulfuric Acid
Tartaric Acid





list of acidifying agents,

acidifying agent in hindi,

acidifying agent wikipedia,

gastrointestinal acidifying agents,

significance of acidifying agent,

acidifying agent slideshare,

classification of acidifying agent,

acidifying agent uses,
What are urinary acidifiers commonly used for?,
What are gastrointestinal agents?,

What is systemic Acidifier?,

What is e260 food additive?,


list of acidifying agents, acidifying agent in hindi, acidifying agent wikipedia, gastrointestinal acidifying agents, significance of acidifying agent, acidifying agent slideshare, classification of acidifying agent, acidifying agent uses, What are urinary acidifiers commonly used for?, What are gastrointestinal agents?, What is systemic Acidifier?, What is e260 food additive?,

B Pharmacy D Pharm Jurisprudence *Important Juris MCQ – NIPER RRB

According to The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960

1.According to The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 Animal means any living creature except______.
a. Birds
b. Human beings
c. Insects
d. microorganisms

2.Animal welfare board is established by_______ .
a. State Government
b. State Council
c. Central Council
d. Central Government 

3. According to The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960____ member/s who is/are actively engaged in the promotion animal welfare is nominated by
Central Government.
a. Five
b. Six
c. Two
d. One
4. In phooka or doom dev, ______ or any substance is introduced into female organ of milch
animal with the intention of drawing off any secretion of _______.
a. air, water
b. water, milk c. air, milk
d. water, milk
5. According to The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 Experimentation on animals is carried out for the following purposes except
a. development of new drug
b. production of vaccines and sera
c. development in medical field d. to have the practice

Answers to multiple choice questions
1. b
2. d
3. a
4. c

5. d

Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and Rules, 1955

Multiple Choice Questions
1. Central Committee for Food Standards consists of ___ representatives to represent consumers
a. two
b. one
c. three
d. five
2. According to Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and Rules, 1955 Primary food is product of agriculture or horticulture in its _____ form.
a. artificial
b. natural
c. both
d. none
3. According to Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and Rules, 1955 Following classes of food articles are prohibited for its import except_____food article.
a. adulterated
b. misbranded
c. patent and proprietary
d. none

4. According to Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and Rules, 1955 Food does not include______.
a. drink
b. condiment
c. flavouring matter
d. article that is not approved by Central Government
5. According to Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and Rules, 1955 Misbranded food article includes all the following except ______.
a. It is sold by name of another food article
b. It has false claim on the label or package
c. it is not labeled according to requirement of thisAct
d. Its quality and purity falls below the prescribed standard
6. The function of Central Committee for Food standards is to __________.
a. To advise the Central Government and State Government on the matters related toAct
b. To carry out the functions entrusted by thisAct
c. To analyse the samples of food
d. None
7. According to Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and Rules, 1955 Following food articles are prohibited for import, sale, manufacture etc except ____.
a. adulterated food article
b. misbranded food article
c. food article which is in contravention of provisions of thisAct
d. food article which is not in contravention of provisions of thisAct
Answers to multiple choice questions
1. d
2. b
3. c
4. d

5. d

6. a


Multiple Choice Questions PoisonsAct, 1919
1. PoisonsAct, 1919 Import of poison is regulated by _______.
a) State Government
b) Central Government
c) State Council
d) Central Council
2. PoisonsAct, 1919 Possession and possession for sale of poison is regulated by ________.
a) State Government
b) Central Government
c) State Council
d) Central Council
3. The objective of The PoisonsAct 1919 is all the following except________.
a) To control the import of poison
b) To control the possession for sale of poison
c) To control the possession of poison
d) To control the manufacture of poison
4. The PoisonsAct came in to existence in ________.
a) 1920
b) 1919
c) 1930
d) 1985
5. Penalty for the import of poison without licence is punishable with fine upto ` _______ on first
a) 1000
b) 500
c) 2000
d) 5000

Answers to multiple choice questions
1. b
2. a
3. d
4. b

5. b

Multiple Choice Questions
1. Geneva convention was held on _________ in ___________.
a) narcotic drugs, March 1961
b) psychotropic substances, March 1972
c) narcotic drugs, March 1972
d) psychotropic substances, February 1971

Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act,1985 and Rules, 1985



2. Cocaine is a ___________
a) methyl ester of benzoyl ecgonine
b) methyl ether of benzyl ecgonine
c) methyl ether of benzoyl ecgonine
d) ethyl ester of benzyl ecgonine
3. Coca leaf contains more than______________
a) 0.2% cocaine
b) 0.1 % cocaine
c) 0.02 % cocaine
d) 0.01 % cocaine
4. Opium derivatives includes all the following except ______.
a) prepared opium
b) medicinal opium
c) heroin
d) charas
5. Medicinal cannabis means_____.
a) extract of cannabis
b) injection of cannabis
c) spirit of cannabis
d) none
6. Operations related to narcotic drugs under section 8 are controlled by _____.
a) Central Government
b) State Government
c) Excise Commissioner
d) None
Important questions
1. What are the objectives of Narcotic drugs and psychotropic substancesAct, 1985?
2. Define the followinga. addict
b. alcohol
c. opium poppy
d. cannabis
e. coca leaf
f. coca derivatives
g. opium derivatives
h. opium
j. poppy straw
k. prepared opium
l. medicinal opium
m. poppy straw concentrate
n. medicinal cannabis o. manufactured drug p. narcotic drugs
3. Discuss the power of State Government to control various operations.
4. Give the power of Central Government to control various operations.
5. Describe the offences and penalties under thisAct.
6. Explain the procedure to issue the warrant to person punishable under this act.
7. What preventive measures should be taken for abuse of narcotic drugs and psychotropic
8. Describe in brief administrative agencies under thisAct.
9. Write a note on national fund for control of drug abuse.
Answers to multiple choice questions
1. c
2. a
3. b
4. d

5. a

6. b
Multiple Choice Questions PoisonsAct, 1919
1. PoisonsAct, 1919 Import of poison is regulated by _______.
a) State Government
b) Central Government
c) State Council
d) Central Council
2. PoisonsAct, 1919 Possession and possession for sale of poison is regulated by ________.
a) State Government
b) Central Government
c) State Council
d) Central Council
3. The objective of The PoisonsAct 1919 is all the following except________.
a) To control the import of poison
b) To control the possession for sale of poison
c) To control the possession of poison
d) To control the manufacture of poison
4. The PoisonsAct came in to existence in ________.
a) 1920
b) 1919
c) 1930
d) 1985
5. Penalty for the import of poison without licence is punishable with fine upto ` _______ on first
a) 1000
b) 500
c) 2000
d) 5000

Answers to multiple choice questions
1. b
2. a
3. d
4. b

5. b

GENERAL STUDIES RRB Pharmacist- Previous Question & Answers

Pharmacist RRB Drug Inspector - General Paper 150 Old Q & A


Q.1. Who among the following Indian scientists is the first scientist to get Nobel Prize?
C. V Raman
Q. 2. ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’ inspirations was derived from the:
French Revolution
Q. 3. Which of the following statements is/are correct about PravasiBhartiyaDiwas?
1. It is celebrated on 9th January of every year.
2. It was started by the Ex-Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
3. It is celebrated because Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa on 9th
January, 1915.
4. First Pravasi Bhartiya Diwas took place in 2003.
1, 2, 3, and 4
Q. 4. Match the List (I) and List (II) and select the correct answer from the code given
List I List II
Article Idea
1. 19 (1) a a. To assemble peacefully and without
2. 19 (1) b b. To form associations or unions
3. 19 (1) c c. To freedom of speech and expressions
4. 19 (1) d d. To move freely throughout the territory
of India
c a b d
Q. 5. Which of the following statements is/are correct about Zero Hour?
1. Zero Hour has special provision mentioned in the rule of procedure
2. India has adopted Zero Hour from UK
3. Zero Hour starts immediately after the Question Hour and lasts until the agenda from
the day is taken up
4. Before raising question in Zero Hour the members of parliament required to give prior
3 only
Q. 6. Complete the series 1, 2, 8, 33, 148, _?_
Q.7. Complete the series 18, 22, 21, 20, 24, 18, _?_
Q. 8. Prashant is taller than Anu. Anu is taller than Sonam but Shorter than Jyoti. Who is
the shorter:
Q.9. Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding land revenue policy of
1. Land revenue policies made the land saleable, mortgageable and alienable.
2. Land revenue was periodically revised in ryotwari areas but fixed in Mahalwari System.
3. Areas covered by Mahalwari system included North Western Provinces and parts of
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
1 and 3 only
Q. 10. The Treaty of Salbai was signed between:
British and Marathas
Q.11. There are six “Astikas ”(systems) of Hindu philosophy. Which of these is the oldest?
Q. 12. Consider the following statement:
1. (A) Air pollutants known as “PM2.5” increases the chances of heart diseases.
2. (R) These micro particles can penetrate deep in lungs and enter in blood circulation.
Both correct and R explains A
Q. 13. Which of the following is the key objective behind the establishment of National
Anti-profiteering Authority (NAA)?
Ensure that the benefits of reduction in GST rates are passed to consumers.
Q. 14. Consider the following taxes:
1. Income Tax
2. Corporate Tax
3. Service Tax
4. Custom Duties
Which of the above is/are Direct Taxes?
1 and 2 only
Q.15. With special reference to economic critique of colonial policies, consider the
following pairs:
Work Author
1. Poverty and Un-British Rule in India : DadabhaiNaoroji
2. Economic History of India : Rajani Palme Dutt
3. India Today : Romesh Chandra Dutt
Which of the pair given above is/are correct?
1 only
Q. 16. Which of the following river is also known as “Uttara Pinakini”?
Q. 17. Which of the following the second layer of atmosphere:
Q.18. Find the correct statement/s :
1. Igneous rocks have no layers.
2. Limestone is white as well as black
3. Fossils are found in the igneous rocks
1 and 2 only
Q. 19. Who is the author of “The Stone that Speaketh”
Durgabai Deshmukh
Q.20. Which of the following district of Andhra Pradesh touches the boundary of
East Godavari
Q.21. Which is the competent body to prescribe conditions for acquisition of citizenship?
Q.22. Fundamental duties have been added in the Constitution by 42nd Amendment Act,
1976 in accordance with the recommendations of:
Swaran Singh Committee
Q 23. Which of the following is true in relation to the first five year plan of India for the period April1951 to March, 1956?
The planning commission presented a draft outline of a plan of development in July,1951
Q 24. Which of the following hub of NITI Aayog leads the engagement of states with central
Team India Hub
Q 25. The primary objective of the monetary policy in India is to:
Achieve price stability and economic growth
Q 26. Goods and Service Tax is a:
Destination based tax
Q 27. In the union budget 2018-19, central government proposed to launch which one of the
following programme?
‘Operation Greens’
Q 28. The first Lady who donated one crore for the construction of Capital Ämravati” of
Andhra Pradesh State.
M. Swarajyamma
Q 29. Who has been the acting Chief Justice of Andhra Pradesh High Court since
Justice Praveen Kumar
Q 30. What is the ratio of sharing Legislative council members between Andhra Pradesh
and Telangana States.
50: 40
Q 31. The new capital Ämravati” of Andhra Pradesh State, will be constructed in how
many phases
Three phases
Q 32. Universal Children’s Day is celebrated annually on
20th November
Q 33. Which of the following is not a life style disease?
Q.34 Consider the following statements.
a. ‘’ is a web portal that will be a platform for innovation in the field of security
related web applications.
b. It will be launched by Ministry of Home Affairs.
c. Any individual, company, student, NGO etc. can develop and deploy on this portal such
security applications which may be useful to the public.
Which of the above statements are correct.
a, b and c
Q. 35 Google and NASA have joined hands to identify which two new planets around distant
Kepler 80g, Kepler 90i
Q. 36 Which state became the first in India to launch a free e-mail address in Hindi for
Q 37. A geophysicist who studies earthquakes and the mechanical characteristics of the Earth is
called ___________.
Q 38 Subhas Chandra Bose started the ‘Azad Hind Radio’ in which of the following countries?
Q 39 The government of India announced its first Industrial policy in
Q 40 According to Prime Minister Narendra Modi, the monsoon session 2018 of the
Parliament will be remembered as:
Social Justice Session
Question Number: 41
Which country tops in the FIFA global Men’s ranking 2018?
Question Number: 42
Recently, Delhi Daredevils was renamed as __________.
Delhi capitals
Question Number: 43
Indira Krishnamurthy Nooyi resigned as CEO of PepsiCo recently. Which year did she become the
CEO of this company?
Year 2006
Question Number: 44
Saina Nehwal wins _________________ at Syed Modi International 2018.
Question Number: 45
Author of ‘Gulliver’s Travels’ is:
Jonathan Swift
Question Number: 46
Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion in collaboration with the World Bank ranked
Indian States in 2018 in ‘ease of doing business’ ranking. Which of the following sequences is
correct in descending order of ranking:
a) Haryana
b) Gujarat
c) Andhra Pradesh
d) Telangana
e) Jharkhand
c – d- a- e- b
Question Number: 47
Union Home Ministry (MHA) approved Uttar Pradesh government’s proposal to rename Allahabad
as _____, on 1st January 2019, ahead of ‘Kumbh Mela 2019’?
Question Number: 48
Which country introduced a new “GAFA tax” named after Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon to
ensure that the companies pay a fair share of taxes in Europe, on 1st January 2019?
Question Number: 49
Who became the highest international wicket-taker of 2018 with 78 wickets, on 30th December
Jasprit Bumrah
Question Number: 50
India’s first engineless train is now named as
Train 18
Question Number: 51
Which of the following is the correct order of medals won by India in the 18th Asian Games 2018
Gold Silver Bronze Total
15 24 30 69
Question Number: 52
Which state has got the highest ranking in the Bureau of Energy Efficiency and NITI Aayog’s
‘State Energy Efficiency Preparedness Index’ 2018 (SEEPI)?
Question Number: 53
Who is popularly known as ‘Missile Man of India’?
Dr. A. P. J.Abdul Kalam
Question Number: 54
In computer terminology, OCR stands for
Optical Character Recognition
Question Number: 55
First computer virus is known as
Creeper virus
Question Number: 56
Which is the first engineering college of India?
Thomason College
Question Number: 57
Scientists of which institute have developed a simple paper kit that can test freshness of milk
and tell how well it has been pasteurized?
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Guwahati
Question Number: 58
As on March 2018, which of the following is the India’s fastest supercomputer?
Question Number: 59
Which of the following became the 25th State of India?
Question Number: 60
‘Father of renaissance movement in Telugu’ Rao BahadurKandukuriVeeresalingamPantulu was born
16 April, 1848
Question Number: 61
At the time of British rule in India, the direct elections were for the first time incorporated under
which Law/Act?
Indian Councils Act, 1909
Question Number: 62
With which inscription was Independent India’s first stamp issued?
Jai Hind
Question Number: 63
In which year was PIN code introduced?
Question Number: 64
From whose rule was Goa liberated in 1961?
Question Number: 65
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists
List I List II
(State) (Festivals)
a. Andhra Pradesh 1. Chhath Puja
b. Arunachal Pradesh 2. Bohag Bihu
c. Assam 3. Losar
d. Bihar 4. Brahmotsavam
4 3 2 1
Question Number: 66
Mohiniattam is the classical dance form from:
Question Number: 67
Arrange the following Indian Freedom movements in chronological order
1. Non- cooperation movement
2. Quit India movement
3. Home rule movement
4. Civil disobedience movement
3, 1, 4, 2
Question Number: 68
As per Census- 2011 in India, Andhra Pradesh female literacy rate in percentage term is:
Question Number: 69
In which year were Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali languages included in the Eighth Schedule of
the constitution?
Year 1992
Question Number: 70
On which day was the Constitution of India adopted?
November 26, 1949
Question Number: 71
Which Article says, “India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States”?
Article 1
Question Number: 72
Which one of the following Articles of the Constitution of India deals with the special provision with
respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh?
Article – 371 D
Question Number: 73
Andhra Pradesh has launched _______________ web portal through which people can view land
records online.
Question Number: 74
Who will be the beneficiary of umbrella scheme ‘PM- AASHA’ approved by the Union Cabinet on
September 2018?
Question Number: 75
The 23rd Chief Election Commissioner of India is
Sunil Arora
Question Number: 76
Which was the first Indian State formed on the linguistic basis?
Andhra Pradesh
Question Number: 77
Which political party formed the first non- Congress government? In which state?
CPI in Kerala
Question Number: 78
Who has been given power to decide whether a Bill is a Money Bill or not?
The Speaker of Lok Sabha
Question Number: 79
At present, what is the status of the Right to property?
Legal Right
Question Number: 80
Which state become the first state of India to ratify GST bill?
Question Number: 81
Who is the chairman of GST council?
Finance Minister
Question Number: 82
The Indian Space Research Orgianisation (ISRO) is set to launch first solar mission in 2019-
2020. What is it called?
Aditya- L1
Question Number: 83
In which place the maiden meeting of BRICS Working Group meeting on “Energy Saving and
Energy Efficiency” was held?
Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh
Question Number: 84
Locally named ‘Pala Sora’ endangered species was spotted near Kakinada. What is the
original name of this species?
Pondicherry Shark
Question Number: 85
The first Union Territory of India to depend 100 percent on solar energy isDiu
Question Number: 86
Where was the world’s first ingeniously made high energy storage device unveiled on August 6,
Question Number: 87
The Thummalapalle mine which is considered to have one of the world’s largest reserves of
1.50 lakh tonnes of uranium is located in which among the following Indian States?
Andhra Pradesh
Question Number: 88
Which river flows between the Satpura and the Vindhya mountains?
Question Number: 89
Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below the lists:
List – I List – II
Rivers Origin
a) Godavari 1. Mahabaleshwar
b) Penna 2. Ananthagiri Hills
c) Gosthani 3. Nandi Hills
d) Krishna 4. Brahmagiri Mountains
a b c d
4 3 2 1
Question Number: 90
In which state is the Silent Valley located?
Question Number: 91
Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?
Institute location
Dr. N.T.R University of Health Sciences Kurnool
Question Number: 92
As per 2011 census, the population of Hyderabad city was:
Question Number: 93
. Match List – I with List – II and select the correct answer from the codes given below the lists:
List – I List – II
Hills State
a. Pahalgam 1. Jammu & Kashmir
b. Munnar 2. Rajasthan
c. Mount Abu 3. Kerala
d. Champawat 4. Uttarakhand
a b c d
1 3 2 4
Question Number: 94
Which of the following is not part of geological disaster?
4.Sea Surge
Question Number: 95
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists
List I List II
(Major Dam) (State)
A. Cheruthoni Dam 1. Madhya Pradesh
B. Indira Sagar Dam 2. Tamil Nadu
C. Srisailam Dam 3. Andhra Pradesh
D. Mettur Dam 4. Kerala

4 1 3 2
Question Number: 96
Which one of the following States has more than two major ports?
Tamil Nadu
Question Number: 97
Which is the longest River of Peninsular India?
Question Number: 98
In a row of children facing North, Ritesh is twelfth from the left end, Sudhir who is twentysecond from the Right end is fourth to the right of Ritesh. Total how many children are there in
a row?
Question Number: 99
If the letters in each of the following five groups of letters are rearranged in the alphabetical
order and then the groups of letters so formed are rearranged as in a dictionary, which letter
group would have its group of letters in the “MIDDLE” among the five letter groups?
Question Number: 100
T, Q, R, W and E are sitting in a straight line. T sits between Q and R. W do not sit in the
middle and is the immediate left of E. Q and E occupy the extreme positions.
Find the position of W with reference to R.
Immediate right
Question Number: 101
Look at this series: 53, 53, 40, 40, 27, 27, … What number should come next?
Question Number: 102
In a lake, there are 10 steps labelled using alphabets from A to J. Starting from step A, every
minute a frog jumps to the 4th step from where it started., i.e.; from the step A it would go to
step E and from E to the step I and from I it would go to C etc. where would be the frog be at
the 60th minute if it starts at the step A?
Question Number: 103
In the following question, choose the correct code form.
If ‘air’ is called ‘green’, ‘green’ is called ‘red’, ‘red’ is called ‘sea’, ‘sea’ is called ‘blue’, ‘blue’ is called
‘water’ and ‘water’ is called ‘pink’, then what is the color of grass?
Question Number: (104 to 106)
Question Label: Comprehension
Answer the following questions based on these data:
Four people A, B, C and D went to four different places which is Kerala, Delhi, Goa and Gujarat
by different transports as follows- Train, Car, Aeroplane and Bus. The person who travelled to
Delhi did not travel by Bus. C travel by Aeroplane and went to goa. A went to Kerla by Car and
D travel by Bus.
Refer the above for the Questions 98 to 100
Question Number: 104
The person who travels by Train?
Is going to Delhi
Question Number: 105
Who among the following travels to Gujarat?
Question Number: 106
The person who travels by car is?
Going to Kerala
107. The Twelfth Five Year Plan also indicates the consequences of failing to make any significant
progress by outlining a Scenario 3 and it is called as:
Policy logjam
108. As per Twelfth Five Year Plan document, In India, the percentage of households with
electricity has increased from 56 in 2001 to:
67 in 2011
109. In which Five year Plan document of of India, it was stated first time, that the producer of
food grains must get a reasonable return?
Third Five Year Plan
110. The market value of national output measured in base year prices is known as:
Gross National Product at constant prices
111. Personal income less disposable income is equal to:
Direct taxes
112. Which of the following is true in relation to rural poverty, in India in 2011-12, based on Head
Count Ratio Method?
The rural poverty in India was around 25.7%
113. The difference between urban and rural average monthly per capita expenditure, in India in
2011-12, was around:
Rs 1200
114. According to population census 2011, in India, the number of persons with disabilities
2.2 percent of the total population
115. Among the following four sectors, the contribution of which sector was the highest in overall
employment increase in India, between December 2014 and December 2015?
Information Technology/ Business Process Outsourcing
116. Which of the following is the Sustainable Development Goal-1?
No Poverty
117. In relation to poverty alleviation in rural India, ‘Supply of Improved Toolkits to Rural
Artisans’(SITRA) was a sub-scheme of:
118. The growth rate of India’s agriculture and allied sectors in 2015-16 at 2011-12 prices was
119. Which of the following was introduced by the government of India, for providing fertiliser
subsidy on Pilot basis, from October-2016?
Direct Benefit Transfer system
120. The green revolution in Indian agriculture was not driven by:
Use of traditional variety of seeds
121. The percentage of operational holdings owned by women in Indian agriculture in 2010-11
122. The basic reason for ‘feminisation’ of agriculture sector in India is:
Growing rural to urban migration by men
123. Government of India has identified How Many ‘Champions Sectors’ for renewed focus
under Make in India 2.0:
124. Start-up and Stand-up India initiative aims to promote innovation and entrepreneurship
Enterprising youth in India
125. ‘Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency’ provide funds to:

Non-corporate small business sector
126. Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana aims to enhance power supply in:
Rural areas
127. In relation WTO, which of the following contains Peace Clause?
Agreement on Agriculture

128. The Securities and Exchange Board of India was established on:
12th April, 1992
129. On which one of the following items the GST council, in its 31st meeting, reduced the GST
rate from 12% to nil?
Music Books
130. The chairman of the Thirteenth Finance Commission:
Vijay Kelkar
131. Which of the following is true in relation to Ayushman Bharat ?

It will provide health care coverage up to Rs 5 lakh per family per year for
132. The left canal of Polavaram Irrigation Project, once completed, will provide irrigation
benefits to:
East Godavari and Vishakhapatnam districts
133. Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh will get irrigation facility through:
Gundlakamma Reservoir Project
134. Andhra Pradesh Integrated Irrigation and Agriculture Transformation Project (Phase-II)
funded by :
World Bank
135. According to the inaugural edition of ‘State Energy Efficiency Preparedness Index’ Andhra
Pradesh was categorised as:
‘Front Runner’
136. In Andhra Pradesh, Ultra Mega Solar Park-II is being set up at:
Talaricheruvu village in Ananthapuram district
137. In which district of Andhra Pradesh, the proposed port at Duggarajapatnam is located ?

SPSR Nellore
138. Which of the following is the motto of Real Time Governance in Andhra Pradesh?
‘People First’
139. The Andhra Pradesh State has adopted which of the following approach to achieve the
Human Development Index of 0.9 by 2029 and to provide basic services to its people?
Saturation approach

140. The objective of which of the following, in Andhra Pradesh, is to provide quality branded
generic medicines at affordable prices to all the people?
Anna Sanjivini Project

141. Andhra Pradesh State has announced Industrial Investment Promotion Policy for the
142. The amount of assistance provided by the central government for the development of
backward districts in Andhra Pradesh during 2016-17 was:
At the rate of Rs 50 crore for Seven Districts
143. To bridge the resource gap of Andhra Pradesh for the financial year 2014-15, the
assistance released by the central government to Andhra Pradesh from 2nd June 2014 to till
2016-17 was:
Rs 3979.50 crore
144. At which village of Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh state, foundation stone was laid for
the construction of a steel plant in December-2018?
At M. Kambala Dinne village of Myalavaram Mandal
145. The foundation stone for the People’s capital ‘Amaravati’ was laid on:
22nd October 2015
146. Under which section of the A P Re organization Act, the Central government provides
Special financial support for the creation of essential facilities.
147. The right to recover arrears of any other tax or duty shall be to the successor States in
Territories the place of assessment of that tax or duty is included in bifurcation as per
Section 50 of the Act
148. What is the percentage of Debt/GSDP Ratio (2013-14) of Residuary A.P?

Question Number: 149
Pointing towards a person in a photograph, Ankita said, “He is the only son of the father of my
sister’s brother.” How is that person related to Ankita?
None of these
Question Number: 150
Which one of the following Venn diagrams correctly illustrates the relationship among the classes:
Carrot, Food, and Vegetable?