Best Pharma News websites for Biotech Startups

what are the best pharma news websites for biotech startups? Which ones to follow ?

Some of the best pharma news websites that are particularly useful for biotech startups are:

BioPharma Dive – Provides in-depth journalism and insight into the most impactful news and trends in biopharma, covering topics from clinical readouts to FDA approvals, gene therapy to drug pricing, and M&A to research partnerships[1][5].


FierceBiotech – Covers all sorts of industry news relevant to biotech startups, including funding updates, recent discoveries, and special reports on industry trends. It is a sister website to FiercePharma and offers resources such as webinars and event listings[2][6].


BioWorld – Offers breaking news and analysis of the global biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical device, and medical technology sectors. It provides in-depth coverage of innovation, business, financing, regulation, science, product development, and clinical trials[5].


EndPoints News – An independent news organization that reports and analyzes the top global biotech and pharmaceutical R&D news of the day, including business deals, buyouts, corporate reorganizations, FDA actions, and clinical data on closely watched drugs[5].


Pharmaceutical Technology – Provides news and in-depth feature articles on new drug discoveries, healthcare research and development, big pharma trends, and company deals, which can be valuable for startups looking to understand the industry landscape[5].


Pharma Times – A leading pharmaceutical magazine offering a blend of news stories, interviews, features, case studies, analyses, and comments on critical issues facing the pharma and healthcare sectors[5]. – Focused on the biotech sector in Europe, this site provides updates on new drug developments, key industry players, and biotech innovations, which can be particularly relevant for startups in the European market[6].


GEN News – While not listed in the search results, GEN (Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News) is a well-known source for news on the biotech industry, including updates on research, business, and regulatory issues that affect startups.


The Catalyst – Focuses on discovering new and essential medicines for patients by researching through biopharmaceutical means. It is a good resource for startups interested in the latest research and drug developments[3].


Pharma Manufacturing – Provides in-depth information on how pharma and biopharma tackle pressing challenges, which can be useful for startups looking to understand the drug development process from beginning to end[3].


These websites offer a range of information that can help biotech startups stay informed about industry news, trends, and developments that are critical to their success.











Desk & WFH (Work from Home) Remote Jobs 4 Pharmacy

There are various work from home jobs and desk jobs for pharmacy graduates. Here are some of them:

Regulatory Affairs Specialist:

A regulatory affairs specialist is responsible for ensuring that a company’s products comply with government regulations. In the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory affairs specialists ensure that drugs are developed, manufactured, and marketed in accordance with FDA regulations.

Contract research organizations work for pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical device industry to perform research and developmental work on a contractual basis.
For pharmaceutical companies, CROs provide consultation for services such as development of medications, biologic assay development, commercialization, preclinical research, clinical research, clinical trials, and pharmacovigilance.

Pharmacy Benefit Manager:

Pharmacy Benefit Managers (PBMs) work for insurance companies or healthcare organizations, and are responsible for managing prescription drug benefits for their clients. They negotiate with pharmaceutical companies to obtain the best prices for drugs, and work with pharmacies to ensure that patients receive the medications they need.

Medical Writer:

Medical writer or medical science liaison or medical advisor is a health care professional who works for pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical device, and managed care companies.9 Medical writers work for pharmaceutical companies, medical communications agencies, or regulatory affairs consulting firms, and are responsible for writing and editing medical and scientific documents, such as clinical trial reports, regulatory submissions, and scientific manuscripts.

Pharmaceutical Sales Representative: Pharmaceutical sales representatives work for pharmaceutical companies, and are responsible for promoting and selling the company’s products to healthcare professionals. They may work in a specific geographic area, or focus on a particular product or therapy.

Quality Control Specialist:

Quality Control Specialists work for pharmaceutical companies or contract manufacturing organizations, and are responsible for ensuring that drugs are manufactured in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) and other quality standards. They review manufacturing and testing records, and work with manufacturing personnel to identify and correct quality issues.


There is a availability of high number of jobs in medical billing, medical coding and in insurance claim. Medical coding experts play a key role in the medical billing process. Every visit of the patient receives health care from doctor office, outpatient clinic or in hospital facility, the provider must document the services provided. The medical coder abstracts the information from the documentation, assigns the appropriate codes, and creates a
claim to be paid, whether by a commercial payer or the patient. Most of the people working are undergraduates or post graduates in science, nursing, pharmacy and allied health sciences; specially those with an extensive knowledge about physiology, anatomy and medical terminology. For this job role, it is also necessary to become well-known with diverse types of insurance schemes, regulations, compliance, the coding community’s three critical resource books and ICD-9-CM along with their corresponding codes and guidelines.1


1) Recording of movement of Stores.
2) Communicate with the related party as per the authorization
3) Ensure upkeep of Computer System, Network and physical records
4) Facilitate in discharge of the administrative & operation responsibilities
5) Adherence with the financial, operational and statutory compliances
6) Any other work assigned by the reporting or/and controlling officer

Clinical Pharmacist:

Clinical pharmacists work in healthcare facilities, such as hospitals and clinics, and are responsible for providing medication therapy management services to patients. They review patients’ medical records and consult with healthcare professionals to ensure the safe and effective use of medications.
Some of the important work in corporate hospitals for clinical pharmacists is

checking medication errors in prescriptions as well in the indent given to patients during their hospital stay and during discharge,

entering medication in a prescribed format, updating the drug formulary in the hospitals,

preparing chemo admixtures whenever required especially for the oncology or other departments,

going for ward rounds with health care team and discharging summary checks for medications, monitoring, documenting and reporting adverse drug reactions,

answering drug related queries of all health care professionals as well as the patients, preparing and submitting monthly reports to the clinical pharmacologist.

For getting international hospital accreditation in India, it is necessary to maintain or establish clinical pharmacy services.

Medical Science Liaison:

Medical Science Liaisons (MSLs) work for pharmaceutical companies and are responsible for building relationships with key opinion leaders in the medical community. They provide scientific and medical information about the company’s products to healthcare professionals, and help to educate them about new treatments and therapies.

Drug Safety Associate:

Drug Safety Associates (DSAs) work for pharmaceutical companies or contract research organizations, and are responsible for monitoring the safety of drugs in clinical trials and after they are approved for use. They review adverse event reports and work with healthcare professionals to ensure the safe use of drugs.


1) Receiving of products and documentation as per the relevant procedure.
2) Supervise the warehousing of various categories of products like quarantine,
released, rejected, returned or recalls. Supervise the arrangement of such
products so that there is no possibility of mix-up.
3) Record the environmental conditions of the warehouse in prescribed format and
inform the Pharmacist during any excursion.
4) Supervise the housekeeping and pest control activities are performed as per the
relevant procedure and maintain the records.
5) Perform the sampling and subsequent packing of samples as per the relevant
6) Maintain the record of personnel entering the warehouse.
7) Supervise the fire protection devices are being maintained properly.
8) Supervise the handling / destruction of expired, rejected products and maintain
9) Prepare and maintain distribution records as per the relevant procedure.
10) Adherence with the financial, operational and statutory compliances
11) Any other work assigned by the reporting or/and controlling officer

Academic Pharmacist

Ability to balance research & teaching responsibilities with patient care

Ability to serve as a role model for pharmacy students and residents

Comfort with sophisticated instrumentation, statistical analyses, and other research methods
™ Practice sites: universities, schools of pharmacy, local, state, national, and international

Chain Drug Store Pharmacist

Endurance to work long hours, often standing up, ability to handle multiple tasks and heavy workloads and Ability to endure high levels of stress are necessary.

A desire to help people and improve the quality of their lives

A strong ability to communicate clearly and effectively

A team approach and a positive attitude
™ Practice sites: Traditional chain drugstores, supermarket pharmacies, mass merchandiser

Structure Physiology Anatomy of EYE

The eye is a specialized sensory organ of photoreception. The eye is an easily accessible organ for local or systemic drug delivery.

Clinically, the eye can be considered to be composed of two segments:

1. Anterior segment – all structures from (and including) the lens forward.
2. Posterior segment – all structures posterior to the lens.


  • The anatomical and physiological characteristics of the eye are described are outlined in this section.
  • Structure of the eye; The eye can be divided into two compartments: the anterior and posterior segments.
  • An internal cross section of an eye is shown in Fig.1
  • physiology of eye - structure of eye
  • Anterior segment; Externally, the anterior segment of eye is made up of cornea, conjunctiva, and sclera.
  • Internally, it consists of anterior chamber, iris/pupil, posterior chamber, and ciliary body.
  • The cornea, an optically transparent tissue that aids in refraction of light to the eye for focusing, is 1 mm thick at the periphery and 0.5 to 0.6 mm thick in the centre.
  • It is composed of squamous and basal columnar epithelium, Bowman’s membrane, substantia propria (stroma), limiting lamina, and the endothelium.
  •  The conjunctiva is a thin, transparent, vascularised mucous membrane with an area of 18 cm2 covering the eye globe and the inner eyelids.
  • It maintains the precorneal tear film and protects the eye. It produces mucus and lubricates the surface of the eye.
  • It is made up of stratified columnar epithelium and lamina propria. The conjunctiva epithelium is divided into bulbar (covering the eyeball), fornix (covering the cornea), and palpebral (covering the eyelid) conjunctivae.
  •  The sclera, the white outer coat of the eyeball, provides structural integrity, size, and shape to the eye.
  • There are three layers in the sclera, the anterior episclera, the middle scleral stroma, and the posterior lamina fusca.
  • The sclera is composed of gel like mucopolysaccharides, elastic fibers, bundles of dense collagen fibrils, and fibroblasts.
  • The iris is a diaphragm around the pupil (lens) and controls the amount of light entering the inner eye.
  • The ciliary body is made up of ciliary muscles, which aid in accommodation.
  • The anterior surface of the eye is constantly rinsed by tear fluid secreted at a flow rate of about 1 μL/min by the main lachrymal gland of the lachrymal apparatus.
  • Tears eventually drain into the nasal cavity through the nasolachrymal ducts.
  • Tear fluid contains mucin, lysozyme, lactoferrin, prealbumin, and serum proteins.
  • It functions as an antibacterial lubricant and aids in draining out foreign substances.
  • The normal volume of tear fluid is 5 to 10 μL.65


Posterior segment:

  • Externally, the posterior segment consists of the optic nerve and associated vasculature, and internally, it consists of the lens, vitreous, and rear ocular tissues. Vitreous is a colorless medium
  • Internal structure of the eye consisting of about 99 percent water, dissolved type II collagen, sodium hyaluronate, and proteoglycans.
  • The retina is the inner nervous layer of the eye responsible for the sensory function of sight.
  • The choroid is a dark brown vascular layer attached to the sclera and is believed to provide nourishment to the retina.

Basic Structure of the Eye

The eye has three layers or coats, three compartments and contains three fluids

1. The three coats of the eye are as follows:

(a) Outer fibrous layer:
• cornea
• sclera
• lamina cribrosa.
(b) Middle vascular layer (“uveal tract”):
• iris
• ciliary body – consisting of the pars
plicata and pars plana
• choroids.
(c) Inner nervous layer:
• pigment epithelium of the retina
• retinal photoreceptors
• retinal neurons.

2. The three compartments of the eye are as follows:

(a) Anterior chamber – the space between the cornea and the iris diaphragm.
(b) Posterior chamber – the triangular space between the iris anteriorly, the lens and zonule posteriorly, and the ciliary body.
(c) Vitreous chamber – the space behind the lens and zonule.

3. The three intraocular fluids are as follows:

(a) Aqueous humour – a watery, optically clear solution of water and electrolytes similar to tissue fluids except that aqueous humour has a low protein content normally.
(b) Vitreous humour – a transparent gel consisting of a three-dimensional network of collagen fibres with the interspaces filled with polymerised hyaluronic acid molecules and water. It fills the space between the posterior surface of the lens, ciliary body and retina.
(c) Blood – in addition to its usual functions, blood contributes to the maintenance of intraocular pressure. Most of the blood within the eye is in the choroid. The choroidal blood flow represents the largest blood flow per unit tissue in the body. The degree of desaturation of efferent choroidal blood is relatively small and indicates that the choroidal vasculature has functions beyond retinal nutrition. It might be that the choroid serves as a heat exchanger for the retina, which absorbs energy as light strikes the retinal pigment epithelium.


List of Textbooks of Pharmacovigilance – LINKS – References

1. Textbook of Pharmacovigilance: S K Gupta, Jaypee Brothers, Medical Publishers.
2. Practical Drug Safety from A to Z by Barton Colbert, Pierre Byron, Jones and Bartlett
3. Mann’s Pharmacovigilance: Elizabeth B. Andrews, Nicholas, Wiley Publishers.
4. Stephens’ Detection of New Adverse Drug Reactions: John Talbot, Patrick Wale, Wiley
5. An Introduction to Pharmacovigilance: Patrick Waller, Wiley Publishers.
6. Cobert’s Manual of Drug Safety and Pharmacovigilance: Barton Colbert, Jones& Bartlett
7. Textbook of Pharmacoepidemiology edited by Brian L. Strom, Stephen E Kimmel, Sean
Hennessy, and Wiley Publishers.
8. A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacy Practice -Essential Concepts and Skills’. Parthasarathi,
Karin NyfortHansen, Milap C.Nahata
9. National Formulary of India
10. Text Book of Medicine by Yashpal Munjal
11. Text book of Pharmacovigilance: concept and practice by GP Mohanta and PK Manna

Gupta SK. Setting up a Pharmacovigilance Center, Text book of Pharmacovigilance. First edition, Jaypee brothers Medical Publishers, 2011; 93-103.

SK Gupta. Post marketing Surveillance, Text book of Pharmacovigilance, First edition, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers(P) Ltd., 2011;75.

Srinivasan R, Ramya G. Adverse drug reaction causality assessment. International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry. 2011; 1(3): 606-11.

The World Health Organization. Safety of Medicines: A guide for detecting and reporting adverse drug reactions. Geneva :2002 WHO / EDM / QSM / 2002.2.

The National Pharmacovigilance Protocol, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt of India.

Prakash S. Pharmacovigilance in India. Indian J Pharmacol. 2007; 39: 123. [6] Amit D, Padmanabh V. Rataboli. The adverse drug reaction (ADR) notification drop box: An easy way to report ADRs. Br. J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 November; 66(5): 723-24.

Ravi SP, Subish P, Mishra P, Dubey AK. Teaching pharmacovigilance to medical students and doctors. Indian J Pharmacol. Sept-Oct, 2006;38( 5 ): 316-19.

Cox AR, Marriott JF, Wilson KA, Ferner RE. Adverse drug reaction teaching in UK undergraduate medical and pharmacy programmes. J. Clin Pharm Ther. 2004 Feb; 29(1): 31-35.

Graille V, Lapeyre–Mestre M, Mon Tadric JL. Drug vigilance: An opinion survey which was conducted among the residents of a university hospital. Therapie. 1994 Sep-Oct; 49(5): 451-54.

Ohaju-Obodo, JO, Iribhog be OI. The extent of pharmacovigilance among the resident doctors in the Edo and the Lagos states of Nigeria. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2010;19: 191-95.

Xu H, Wang Y, Liu N. A hospital based survey on health care profes-sionals in the awareness of pharmacovigilance. Pharmacoepidemioly and Drug Safety, 2009 July;18(7) : 624-30.

Subish P, Izham MM, Mishra P. Evaluation of the knowledge, attitudes and the practices on adverse drug reactions and pharmacovigilance among the health care professionals in a Nepalese hospital: A preliminary study. The Internet Journal of Pharmacology. 2008; 6(1): 1531-2976.

Ramesh M, Parthasarathi G. Adverse drug reaction reporting: the attitudes and the perceptions of the medical practitioners. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. April-June 2009;2 (2):10-14.


Rehan HS, Vasudev K, Tripathi CD. Adverse drug reaction monitoring: the knowledge, attitude and the practices of the medical students and the prescribers. Natl Med J India. 2002 Jan-Feb; 15(1): 24-6.

Desai, et al. An evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and the practice of adverse drug reaction reporting among the prescribers at a tertiary care hospital. Perspective in Clinical Research. Oct-Dec 2011; 2(4): 129-35.

Gupta P, Udupa A. Adverse drug reaction reporting and pharma-covigilance: knowledge, attitudes and perceptions among the resident doctors. J. Pharm Sci Res 2011; 3:1064-69.

Vora, et al, Knowledge on the adverse drug reactions and the pharmacovigilance activity among the undergraduate medical students of Gujarat. IJPSR. 2012; 3(5): 1511-15

Muraraiah S, et al. A questionnaire study which was done to assess the knowledge, attitude and the practice of pharmacovigilance in a paediatric tertiary care centre. J Chem. Pharm.Res., 2011;3( 6 ): 416-22.

Elkalmi R, et al. Pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions about pharmacovigilance in Malaysian public universities. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2011; 75 ( 5 ) Article 96

Risk – Types of RISK – Pharmacovigilance

The probability of harm being caused; the probability (chance, odds) of an occurrence.
Absolute risk
Risk in a population of exposed persons; the probability of an event affecting members of a particular population (e.g. 1 in 1 000). Absolute risk can be measured over time (incidence) or at a given time (prevalence).

Attributable risk
The risk associated with exposure to the monitored medicine(s). This is calculated by subtracting the background risk without the medicine(s) (reference
risk) from the risk measured while taking the medicine(s).
Relative risk
Ratio of the risk in an exposed population (absolute risk) and the risk in an unexposed population (reference risk). Relative risk is the result of a relative comparison between outcome frequency measurements, e.g. incidences.
Reference risk
Risk in a population of unexposed persons; also called baseline risk. Reference risk can be measured over time (incidence) or at a given time (prevalence). The unexposed population refers to a reference population, as closely comparable to the exposed population as possible, apart from the exposure.


Serious adverse event or reaction
A serious adverse event or reaction is any untoward medical occurrence that at any dose:
• results in death;
• results in inpatient hospitalization or prolongation of existing hospitalization;
• results in persistent or significant disability or incapacity;
• is life-threatening;
• is a congenital anomaly/birth defect.
To ensure that there is no confusion or misunderstanding about the difference between the terms “serious” and “severe”, the following note of clarification
is provided:
The term “severe” is not synonymous with serious. In the English language, “severe” is used to describe the intensity (severity) of a specific event (as in mild, moderate or severe); the event itself, however, may be of relatively minor medical significance (such as severe headache). Seriousness (not severity) which is based on the outcome of the event on the patient or action
criteria serves as the guide for defining regulatory reporting obligations.

Reported information on a possible causal relationship between an adverse event and a drug, the relationship being unknown or incompletely documented previously. Usually more than a single report is required to generate a signal, depending upon the seriousness of the event and the quality of the information. The publication of a signal usually implies the need for some kind of review or action.


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Pharm D 1st Year First Year Subjects / Syllabus Copy- DETAILS

Pharm.D – I YEAR



Theory : 3 Hrs. /Week


  1. Scope and Objectives: This course is designed to impart a fundamental knowledge on the structure and functions of the human body. It also helps in understanding both homeostasis mechanisms and homeostatic imbalances of various body systems. Since a medicament, which is produced by pharmacist, is used to correct the deviations in human body, it enhances the understanding of how the drugs act on the various body systems in correcting the disease state of the organs.


  1. Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to:
    1. describe the structure (gross and histology) and functions of various organs of the human body;


  1. describe the various homeostatic mechanisms and their imbalances of various systems;
  2. identify the various tissues and organs of the different systems of the human body;
  3. perform the hematological tests and also record blood pressure, heart rate, pulse and Respiratory volumes;
  4. appreciate coordinated working pattern of different organs of each system; and


  1. appreciate the interlinked mechanisms in the maintenance of normal functioning (homeostasis) of human body


  1. Course materials: Text books
    1. Tortora Gerard J. and Nicholas, P. Principles of anatomy and physiology Publisher Harpercollins college New York.


  1. Wilson, J.W.  Ross  and  Wilson’s  foundations  of  anatomy  and  physiology.  Publisher:  Churchill

Livingstone, Edinburg.



Reference books

  1. Guyton arthur, C. Physiology of human body. Publisher: Holtsaunders.


  1. Chatterjee,C.C. Human physiology. Volume 1&11. Publisher: medical allied agency, Calcutta.
  2. Peter L. Williams, Roger Warwick, Mary Dyson and Lawrence, H.
  3. Gray’s anatomy. Publisher:Churchill Livingstone, London.


  1. Lecture wise program:




  • Scope of anatomy and physiology, basic terminologies used in this subject (Description of the body as such planes and terminologies)
  • Structure of cell – its components and their functions.


  • Elementary tissues of the human body: epithelial, connective, Muscular and nervous tissues-their sub-types and characteristics


  • a) Osseous system – structure, composition and functions of the


  1. Classification of joints, Types of movements of joints and disorders of joints (Definitions only)
  • Haemopoetic System
    1. Composition and functions of blood
    2. Haemopoesis and disorders of blood components (definition of disorder)
    3. Blood groups
    4. Clotting factors and mechanism
    5. Platelets and disorders of coagulation


  • Lymph
    1. Lymph and lymphatic system, composition, formation and circulation.
    2. Spleen: structure and functions, Disorders
    3. Disorders of lymphatic system (definition only)


  • Cardiovascular system
    1. Anatomy and functions of heart
    2. Blood vessels and circulation (Pulmonary, coronary and systemic circulation)
    3. Electrocardiogram (ECG)


  1. Cardiac cycle and heart sounds
  2. Blood pressure – its maintenance and regulation
  3. Definition of the following disorders


Hypertension, Hypotension, Arteriosclerosis, Atherosclerosis, Angina, Myocardial infarction, Congestive heart failure, Cardiac arrhythmias


  • Respiratory system
    1. Anatomy of respiratory organs and functions
    2. Mechanism / physiology of respiration and regulation of respiration
    3. Transport of respiratory gases


  1. Respiratory volumes and capacities, and Definition of: Hypoxia, Asphyxia, Dybarism, Oxygen therapy and resuscitation.


  • Digestive system
    1. Anatomy and physiology of GIT
    2. Anatomy and functions of accessory glands of GIT
    3. Digestion and absorption
    4. Disorders of GIT (definitions only)


  • Nervous system


  1. Definition and classification of nervous system
  2. Anatomy, physiology and functional areas of cerebrum
  3. Anatomy and physiology of cerebellum
  4. Anatomy and physiology of mid brain
  5. Thalamus, hypothalamus and Basal Ganglia


  1. Spinal card: Structure & reflexes – mono-poly-planter
  2. Cranial nerves – names and functions
  3. ANS – Anatomy & functions of sympathetic & parasympathetic N.S.


  • Urinary system


  1. Anatomy and physiology of urinary system
  2. Formation of urine
  3. Renin Angiotensin system – Juxtaglomerular apparatus – acid base Balance
  4. Clearance tests and micturition
  • Endocrine system
    1. Pituitary gland
    2. Adrenal gland
    3. Thyroid and Parathyroid glands
    4. Pancreas and gonads


  • Reproductive system


  1. Male and female reproductive system
  2. Their hormones – Physiology of menstruation
  3. Spermatogenesis & Oogenesis
  4. Sex determination (genetic basis)
  5. Pregnancy and maintenance and parturition
  6. Contraceptive devices


  • Sense organs
    1. Eye


  1. Ear
  2. Skin
  3. Tongue & Nose


  • Skeletal muscles


  1. Histology
  2. Physiology of Muscle contraction
  3. Physiological properties of skeletal muscle and their disorders (definitions)


  • Sports physiology


  1. Muscles in exercise, Effect of athletic training on muscles and muscle performance,


  1. Respiration in exercise, CVS in exercise, Body heat in exercise, Body fluids and salts in exercise,


  1. Drugs and athletics

General Requirements: Dissection box, Laboratory Napkin, muslin cloth, record, Observation book(100pages), Stationary items, Blood lancet.



Course materials:


Text books


Goyal, R. K, Natvar M.P, and Shah S.A, Practical anatomy, physiology and biochemistry, latest edition, Publisher: B.S Shah Prakashan, Ahmedabad.




Ranade VG, Text book of practical physiology, Latest edition, Publisher: PVG,  Pune Anderson Experimental

Physiology, Latest edition, Publisher: NA


List of Experiments:

  1. Study of tissues of human body
    • Epithelial tissue.
    • Muscular tissue.
  2. Study of tissues of human body
    • Connective tissue.
    • Nervous tissue.
  3. Study of appliances used in hematological experiments.
  4. Determination of W.B.C. count of blood.
  5. Determination of R.B.C. count of blood.
  6. Determination of differential count of blood.
  7. Determination of
    • Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate.
    • Hemoglobin content of Blood.
  • Bleeding time & Clotting time.
  1. Determination of
    • Blood Pressure.
    • Blood group.
  2. Study of various systems with the help of charts, models & specimens
    • Skeleton system part I-axial skeleton.
    • Skeleton system part II- appendicular skeleton.
    • Cardiovascular system.
    • Respiratory system.
    • Digestive system.
    • Urinary system.
    • Nervous system.
    • Special senses.
    • Reproductive system.
  3. Study of different family planning appliances.
  4. To perform pregnancy diagnosis test.
  5. Study of appliances used in experimental physiology.
  6. To record simple muscle curve using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.
  7. To record simple summation curve using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.
  8. To record simple effect of temperature using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.
  9. To record simple effect of load & after load using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.
  10. To record simple fatigue curve using gastroenemius sciatic nerve preparation.


Scheme of Practical Examination:


Sessionals Annual
Identification 04 10
Synopsis 04 10
Major Experiment 07 20
Minor Experiment 03 15
Viva 02 15
Max Marks 20 70
Duration 03hrs 04hrs



Note:   Total sessional marks is 30 (20 for practical sessional plus 10 marks for regularity, promptness, viva-voce and record maintenance).



Theory : 2 Hrs. /Week


  1. Scope and objectives: This course is designed to impart a fundamental knowledge on the art and science of formulating different dosage forms. It prepares the students for most basics of the applied field of pharmacy.


  1. Upon the completion of the course the student should be able to:
    1. know the formulation aspects of different dosage forms;
    2. do different pharmaceutical caluculation involved in formulation;


  1. formulate different types of dosage forms; and
  2. appreciate the importance of good formulation for effectiveness.


  1. Course materials: Text books
    1. Cooper and Gunns Dispensing for pharmacy students.


  1. A text book Professional Pharmacy by N.K.Jain and S.N.Sharma.





  1. Introduction to Pharmaceutical dosage forms by Howard C. Ansel.
  2. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences.
  3. Register of General Pharmacy by Cooper and Gunn.
  4. General Pharmacy by M.L.Schroff.


  1. Lecture wise programme: Topics


  • Introduction to dosage forms – classification and definitions
    1. Prescription: definition, parts and handling


  1. Posology: Definition, Factors affecting dose selection. Calculation of children and infant doses.


  • Historical back ground and development of profession of pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry in brief.


  • Development of Indian Pharmacopoeia and introduction to other Pharmacopoeias such as BP, USP, European Pharmacopoeia, Extra pharmacopoeia and Indian national formulary.


  • Weights and measures, Calculations involving percentage solutions, allegation, proof spirit, isotonic solutions etc.


  • Powders and Granules: Classification advantages and disadvantages, Preparation of simple, compound powders, Insufflations, Dusting powders, Eutectic and Explosive powders, Tooth powder and effervescent powders and granules.


  • Monophasic Dosage forms: Theoretical aspects of formulation including adjuvant like stabilizers, colorants, flavours with examples. Study of Monophasic liquids like gargles, mouth washes, Throat paint, Ear drops, Nasal drops, Liniments and lotions, Enemas and collodions.


  • Biphasic dosage forms: Suspensions and emulsions, Definition, advantages and disadvantages,

classification, test for the type of emulsion, formulation, stability and evaluation.


  • Suppositories and pessaries: Definition, advantages and disadvantages, types of base, method of preparation, Displacement value and evaluation.





  • Galenicals: Definition, equipment for different extraction processes like infusion, Decoction, Maceration and Percolation, methods of preparation of spirits, tinctures and extracts.


  • Pharmaceutical calculations.


  • Surgical aids: Surgical dressings, absorbable gelatin sponge, sutures, ligatures and medicated bandages.
  • Incompatibilities: Introduction, classification and methods to overcome the incompatibilities.

































































Pharm.D – I YEAR



Practical: 3 Hrs. /Week


List of Experiments:



  1. Syrups
    1. Simple Syrup I.P


  1. Syrup of Ephedrine Hcl NF
  2. Syrup Vasaka IP
  3. Syrup of ferrous Phosphate IP


  1. Orange Syrup


  1. Elixir
    1. Piperizine citrate elixir BP
    2. Cascara elixir BPC
    3. Paracetamol elixir BPC


  1. Linctus
    1. Simple Linctus BPC


  1. Pediatric simple Linctus BPC


  1. Solutions
    1. Solution of cresol with soap IP
    2. Strong solution of ferric chloride BPC
    3. Aqueous Iodine Solution IP
    4. Strong solution of Iodine IP
    5. Strong solution of ammonium acetate IP


  1. Liniments
    1. Liniment of turpentine IP*
    2. Liniment of camphor IP


  1. Suspensions*
    1. Calamine lotion


  1. Magnesium Hydroxide mixture BP


  1. Emulsions*
    1. Cod liver oil emulsion
    2. Liquid paraffin emulsion


  1. Powders
    1. Eutectic powder


  1. Explosive powder
  2. Dusting powder
  3. Insufflations







  1. Suppositories
    1. Boric acid suppositories


  1. Chloral suppositories


  1. Incompatibilities
    1. Mixtures with Physical
    2. Chemical & Therapeutic incompatibilities


  • colourless bottles required for dispensing Paper envelope (white), butter paper and white paper required for dispensing.



Scheme of Practical Examination:


Sessionals Annual
Synopsis 05 15
Major Experiment 10 25
Minor Experiment 03 15
Viva 02 15
Max Marks 20 70
Duration 03hrs 04hrs


Note :  Total sessional marks is 30 (20 for practical sessional plus 10 marks for regularity, promptness, viva-voce and record maintenance).












































Pharm.D – I YEAR



Theory : 3 Hrs. /Week


  1. Scope of the Subject: Applied biochemistry deals with complete understanding of the molecular level of the chemical process associated with living cells.Clinical chemistry deals with the study of chemical aspects of human life in health and illness and the application of chemical laboratory methods to diagnosis, control of treatment, and prevention of diseases.


  1. Objectives of the Subject (Know, do, appreciate) :


The objective of the present course is providing biochemical facts and the principles to the students of pharmacy. Upon completion of the subject student shall be able to –


  1. understand the catalytic activity of enzymes and importance of isoenzymes in diagnosis of diseases;
  2. know the metabolic process of biomolecules in health and illness (metabolic disorders);


  1. understand the genetic organization of mammalian genome; protein synthesis; replication; mutation and repair mechanism;


  1. know the biochemical principles of organ function tests of kidney, liver and endocrine gland; and
  2. do the qualitative analysis and determination of biomolecules in the body fluids.



Text books (Theory)

  1. Harpers review of biochemistry – Martin


  1. Text book of biochemistry – D.Satyanarayana
  2. Text book of clinical chemistry- Alex kaplan &Laverve L.Szabo


References (Theory)

  1. Principles of biochemistry — Lehninger


  1. Text book of biochemistry — Ramarao
  1. Practical Biochemistry-David T.Plummer.
  2. Practical Biochemistry-Pattabhiraman.


  1. Lecture wise programme: Topics


  • Introduction to biochemistry: Cell and its biochemical organization, transport process across the cell membranes. Energy rich compounds; ATP, Cyclic AMP and their biological significance.


  • Enzymes: Definition; Nomenclature; IUB classification; Factor affecting enzyme activity; Enzyme action; enzyme inhibition. Isoenzymes and their therapeutic and diagnostic applications; Coenzymes and their biochemical role and deficiency diseases.


  • Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycolysis, Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle), HMP shunt, Glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis. Metabolic disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (diabetes mellitus and glycogen storage diseases); Glucose, Galactose tolerance test and their significance; hormonal regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.





  • Lipid metabolism: Oxidation of saturated (b-oxidation); Ketogenesis and ketolysis; biosynthesis of fatty acids, lipids; metabolism of cholesterol; Hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism. Defective metabolism of lipids (Atheroslerosis, fatty liver, hypercholesterolmiea).


  • Biological oxidation: Coenzyme system involved in Biological oxidation. Electron transport chain (its mechanism in energy capture; regulation and inhibition); Uncouplers of ETC; Oxidative phosphorylation;


  • Protein and amino acid metabolism: protein turn over; nitrogen balance; Catabolism of Amino acids (Transamination, deamination & decarboxylation). Urea cycle and its metabolic disorders; production of bile pigments; hyperbilirubinemia, porphoria, jaundice. Metabolic disorder of Amino acids.


  • Nucleic acid metabolism: Metabolism of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides; Protein synthesis; Genetic code; inhibition of protein synthesis; mutation and repair mechanism; DNA replication (semiconservative /onion peel models) and DNA repair mechanism.


  • Introduction to clinical chemistry: Cell; composition; malfunction; Roll of the clinical chemistry laboratory.


  • The kidney function tests: Role of kidney; Laboratory tests for normal function includes-


  1. Urine analysis (macroscopic and physical examination, quantitative and semiquantitative tests.)


  1. Test for NPN constituents. (Creatinine /urea clearance, determination of blood and urine creatinine, urea and uric acid)
  2. Urine concentration test
  3. Urinary tract calculi. (stones)


  • Liver function tests: Physiological role of liver, metabolic, storage, excretory, protective, circulatory functions and function in blood coagulation.


  1. Test for hepatic dysfunction-Bile pigments metabolism.
  2. Test for hepatic function test- Serum bilirubin, urine bilirubin, and urine urobilinogen.
  3. Dye tests of excretory function.
  4. Tests based upon abnormalities of serum proteins.



  • Lipid profile tests: Lipoproteins, composition, functions. Determination of serum lipids, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides.


  • Immunochemical techniques for determination of hormone levels and protein levels in serum for endocrine diseases and infectious diseases.


Radio immuno assay (RIA) and Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA)


  • Electrolytes: Body water, compartments, water balance, and electrolyte distrubution. Determination of sodium, calcium potassium, chlorides, bicarbonates in the body fluids.























Pharm.D – I YEAR



Practical : 3 Hrs./Week


Title of the Experiment:



  • Qualitative analysis of normal constituents of urine.*
  • Qualitative analysis of abnormal constituents of urine.*
  • Quantitative estimation of urine sugar by Benedict’s reagent method.**
  • Quantitative estimation of urine chlorides by Volhard’s method.**
  • Quantitative estimation of urine creatinine by Jaffe’s method.**


  • Quantitative estimation of urine calcium by precipitation method.**
  • Quantitative estimation of serum cholesterol by Libermann Burchard’s method.**
  • Preparation of Folin Wu filtrate from blood.*
  • Quantitative estimation of blood creatinine.**
  • Quantitative estimation of blood sugar Folin-Wu tube method.**
  • Estimation of SGOT in serum.**
  • Estimation of SGPT in serum.**
  • Estimation of Urea in Serum.**
  • Estimation of Proteins in Serum.**
  • Determination of serum bilirubin**
  • Determination of Glucose by means of Glucoseoxidase.**
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis of Glycogen/Starch by Amylases.**
  • Study of factors affecting Enzyme activity. (pH & Temp.)**
  • Preparation of standard buffer solutions and its pH measurements (any two)*
  • Experiment on lipid profile tests**
  • Determination of sodium,calcium and potassium in serum.**


  • indicate major experiments & * indicate minor experiments




Format of the assignment


  1. Minimum & Maximum number of pages.


  1. It shall be computer draft copy.
  2. Reference(s) shall be included at the end.
  3. Name and signature of the student.


  1. Assignment can be a combined presentation at the end of the academic year.
  2. Time allocated for presentation may be 8+2 Min.



Scheme of Practical Examination:


Sessionals Annual
Synopsis 05 15
Major Experiment 10 25
Minor Experiment 03 15
Viva 02 15
Max Marks 20 70
Duration 03hrs 04hrs



Note : Total sessional marks is 30 (20 for practical sessional plus 10 marks for regularity, promptness, viva-voce and record maintenance).

























































Pharm.D – I YEAR




Theory : 3 Hrs. /Week


  1. Scope and objectives: This course is designed to impart a very good knowledge about


  1. IUPAC/Common system of nomenclature of simple organic compounds belonging to different classes of organic compounds;
    1. Some important physical properties of organic compounds;


  1. Free radical/ nucleophyllic [alkyl/ acyl/ aryl] /electrophyllic substitution, free radical/ nucleophyllic / electrophyllic addition, elimination, oxidation and reduction reactions with mechanism, orientation of the reaction, order of reactivity, stability of compounds;


  1. Some named organic reactions with mechanisms; and


  1. Methods of preparation, test for purity, principle involved in the assay, important medicinal uses of some important organic compounds.


  1. Course materials: Text books
    1. R.Morrison and R. Boyd – Organic chemistry,
    2. Bentley and Driver-Text book of Pharmaceutical chemistry
    3. L.Finer- Organic chemistry, the fundamentals of chemistry



Reference books


  1. Organic chemistry – J.M.Cram and D.J.Cram


  1. Organic chemistry- Brown
  2. Advanced organic chemistry- Jerry March, Wiley
  3. Organic chemistry- Cram and Hammered, Pine Hendrickson


  1. Lecture wise Programme: Topics
    • Structures and Physical properties:


  1. Polarity of bonds, polarity of molecules, M.P, Inter molecular forces, B.P, Solubility, non ionic solutes and ionic solutes, protic and aprotic Solvents, ion pairs,


  1. Acids and bases, Lowry bronsted and Lewis theories
  2. Isomerism


  • Nomenclature of organic compound belonging to the following classes Alkanes, Alkenes, Dienes, Alkynes, Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Amides, Amines, Phenols, Alkyl Halides, Carboxylic Acid, Esters, Acid Chlorides And Cycloalkanes.


  • Free radicals chain reactions of alkane : Mechanism, relative reactivity and stability


  • Alicyclic compounds : Preparations of cyclo alkanes, Bayer strain theory and orbital picture of angle strain.


  • Nuclophilic aliphatic substitution mechanism: Nucleophiles and leaving groups, kinetics of second and first order reaction, mechanism and kinetics of SN2 Stereochemistry and steric hindrance, role of solvents, phase transfer catalysis, mechanism and kinetics of SN1 reactions, stereochemistry, carbocation and their stability, rearrangement of carbocation, role of solvents in SN1 reaction, Ion dipole bonds, SN2 versus SN1 solvolyses, nucleophilic assistance by the solvents.


  • Dehydro halogenation of alkyl halides: 1,2 elimination, kinetics, E2 and E1 mechanism, elimination via carbocation, evidence for E2 mechanism, absence of rearrangement isotope effect, absence hydrogen exchange, the element effect, orientation and reactivity,




E2 versus E1, elimination versus substitution, dehydration of alcohol, ease of dehydration, acid catalysis, reversibility, orientation.


  • Electrophillic and free radicals addition: Reactions at carbon-carbon, double bond, electrophile, hydrogenation, heat of hydrogenation and stability of alkenes, markownikoff rule, addition of hydrogen halides, addition of hydrogen bromides, peroxide effect, electrophillic addition, mechanism, rearrangement, absence of hydrogen exchange, orientation and reactivity, addition of halogen, mechanism, halohydin formation, mechanism of free radicals additon, mechanism of peroxide initiated addition of hydrogen bromide, orientation of free addition, additions of carbene to alkene, cyclo addition reactions.


  • Carbon-carbon double bond as substituents: Free radical halogenations of alkenes, comparision of free radical substitution with free radical addition, free radical substitution in alkenes, orientation and reactivity, allylic rearrangements.


  • Theory of resonance: Allyl radical as a resonance hybrid, stability, orbital picture, resonance stabilisation of allyl radicals, hyper conjugation, allyl cation as a resonance hybrid, nucleophyllic substitution in allylic substrate, SN1 reactivity, allylic rearrangement, resonance stabilisation of allyl cation, hyper conjugation, nucleophilic substitution in allylic substrate, SN2 nucleophilic substituion in vinylic substrate, vinylic cation, stability of conjugated dienes, resonance in alkenes, hyper conjugation, ease of formation of conjugated dienes, orientation of elimination, electrophilic addition to conjugated dienes, 1,4- addition, 1,2-versus 1,4-addition, rate versus equilibrium, orientation and reactivity of free radical addition to conjugated dienes.


  • Elecrophilic aromatic substitution: Effect of substituent groups, determination of orientation, determination of relative reactivity, classification of substituent group, mechanism of nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, friedel craft alkylation, friedel craft acylation, reactivity and orientation, activating and deactivating O,P,M directing groups, electron release via resonance, effect of halogen on electrophilic aromatic substitution in alkyl benzene, side chain halogination of alkyl benzene, resonance stabilization of benzyl radical.


  • Nucleophilic addition reaction: Mechanism, ionisation of carboxylic acids, acidity constants, acidity of acids, structure of carboxylate ions, effect of substituent on acidity, nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction, conversion of acid to acid chloride, esters, amide and anhydride. Role of caboxyl group, comparison of alkyl nucleophilic substitution with acyl nucleophilic substitution.


  • Mechanism of aldol condensation, claisen condensation, cannizzaro reaction, crossed aldol condensation, crossed cannizzaro reaction, benzoin condensation, perkin condensation. Knoevenagel, Reformatsky reaction, Wittig reaction, Michael addition.


  • Hoffman rearrangement: Migration to electron deficient nitrogen, Sandmeyer’s reaction, basicity of amines, diazotisation and coupling, acidity of phenols, Williamson synthesis, Fries rearrangement, Kolbe reaction, Reimer tieman’s reactions.


  • Nucleophilic aromatic substitution: Bimolecular displacement mechanisms, orientation, comparison of aliphatic nucleophilic substitution with that of aromatic.


  • Oxidation reduction reaction.


  • Study of the following official compounds- preparation, test for purity, assay and medicinal uses of Chlorbutol, Dimercaprol, Glyceryl trinitrate, Urea, Ethylene diamine dihyrate, Vanillin, Paraldehyde, Ethylene chloride, Lactic acid, Tartaric acid, citric acid, salicylic acid, aspirin, methyl salicylate, ethyl benzoate, benzyl benzoate, dimethyl pthalate, sodium lauryl sulphate, saccharin sodium, mephensin.








Pharm.D – I YEAR




Practical : 3 Hrs./Week


  1. Introduction to the various laboratory techniques through demonstration involving synthesis of the following compounds (at least 8 compounds to be synthesised):


  1. Acetanilde / aspirin (Acetylation)
  2. Benzanilide / Phenyl benzoate (Benzoylation)
  3. P-bromo acetanilide / 2,4,6 – tribromo aniline (Bromination)


  1. Dibenzylidene acetone (Condensation)
  2. 1-Phenylazo-2-napthol (Diazotisation and coupling)
  3. Benzoic acid / salicylic acid (Hydrolysis of ester)
  4. M-dinitro benzene (Nitration)


  1. 9, 10 – Antharaquinone (Oxidation of anthracene) / preparation of benzoic acid from toluene or benzaldehyde
  2. M-phenylene diamine (Reduction of M-dinitrobenzene) / Aniline from nitrobenzene
  3. Benzophenone oxime
  4. Nitration of salicylic acid
  5. Preparation of picric acid
  6. Preparation of O-chlorobenzoic acid from O-chlorotolune
  7. Preparation of cyclohexanone from cyclohexanol


  1. Identification of organic compounds belonging to the following classes by :



Systematic qualitative organic analysis including preparation of derivatives Phenols, amides, carbohydrates, amines, carboxylic acids, aldehyde and ketones, Alcohols, esters, hydrocarbons, anilides, nitrocompounds.


III. Introduction to the use of stereo models:


Methane, Ethane, Ethylene, Acetylene, Cis alkene, Trans alkene, inversion of configuration.


Scheme of Practical Examination:


Sessionals Annual
Synopsis 05 15
Major Experiment 10 25
Minor Experiment 03 15
Viva 02 15
Max Marks 20 70
Duration 03hrs 04hrs


Note : Total sessional marks is 30 (20 for practical sessional plus 10 marks for regularity, promptness, viva-voce and record maintenance).












Pharm.D – I YEAR




Theory : 2 Hrs. /Week


  1. Scope and objectives: This course mainly deals with fundamentals of Analytical chemistry and also the study of inorganic pharmaceuticals regarding their monographs and also the course deals with basic knowledge of analysis of various pharmaceuticals.


  1. Upon completion of the course student shall be able to:


  1. under stand the principles and procedures of analysis of drugs and also regarding the application of inorganic pharmaceuticals;


  1. know the analysis of the inorganic pharmaceuticals their applications; and
  2. appreciate the importance of inorganic pharmaceuticals in preventing and curing the disease.


  1. Course materials: Text books
    1. A text book Inorganic medicinal chemistry by Surendra N. Pandeya


  1. H. Beckett and J. B. Stanlake’s Practical Pharmaceutical chemistry Vol-I & Vol-II
  2. Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry III-Edition P.Gundu Rao





  1. Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Anand & Chetwal
  2. Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry by Dr.B.G.Nagavi
  3. Analytical chemistry principles by John H. Kennedy
  4. I.P.1985 and 1996, Govt. of India, Ministry of health


  1. Lecture wise programme:



1   Errors

2   Volumetric analysis

3   Acid-base titrations

4   Redox titrations

5   Non aqueous titrations

6   Precipitation titrations

7   Complexometric titrations

  • Theory of indicators
  • Gravimetry
  • Limit tests


  • Medicinal gases
  • Acidifiers
  • Antacids
  • Cathartics
  • Electrolyte replenishers
  • Essential Trace elements
  • Antimicrobials
  • Pharmaceutical aids
  • Dental Products


  • Miscellaneous compounds
  • Radio Pharmaceuticals







Pharm.D – I YEAR




Practical : 3 Hrs./Week


  1. Limit test (6 exercises)
    1. Limit test for chlorides
    2. Limit test for sulphates
    3. Limit test for iron
    4. Limit test for heavy metals
    5. Limit test for arsenic


  1. Modified limit tests for chlorides and sulphates


  1. Assays (10 exercises)
    1. Ammonium chloride- Acid-base titration
    2. Ferrous sulphate- Cerimetry
    3. Copper sulpahte- Iodometry
    4. Calcilugluconate- Complexometry
    5. Hydrogen peroxide – Permanganometry
    6. Sodium benzoate – Nonaqueous titration
    7. Sodium chloride – Modified volhard’s method
    8. Assay of KI – KIO3 titration
    9. Gravimetric estimation of barium as barium sulphate


  1. Sodium antimony gluconate or antimony potassium tartarate


  1. Estimation of mixture (Any two exercises)
    1. Sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate
    2. Boric acid and Borax
    3. Oxalic acid and sodium oxalate


  1. Test for identity (Any three exercises)
    1. Sodium bicorbonate
    2. Barium sulphate
    3. Ferrous sulphate
    4. Potassium chloride


  1. Test for purity (Any two exercises)
    1. Swelling power in Bentonite


  1. Acid neutralising capacity in aluminium hydroxide gel
  2. Ammonium salts in potash alum
  3. Adsorption power heavy Kaolin
  4. Presence of Iodates in KI


  1. Preparations (Any two exercises)
    1. Boric acids


  1. Potash alum
  2. Calcium lactate
  3. Magnesium suphate





Scheme of Practical Examination :


Sessionals Annual
Synopsis 05 15
Major Experiment 10 25
Minor Experiment1&2 03 15
Viva 02 15
Max Marks 20 70
Duration 03hrs 04hrs


Note :                                                        Total sessional marks is 30 (20 for practical sessional plus 10 marks for regularity, promptness, viva-voce and record maintenance).




  1. Scope and objectives: This is an introductory course in mathematics. This subjects deals with the introduction to matrices, determinants, trigonometry, analytical geometry, differential calculus, integral calculus, differential equations, laplace transform.


  1. Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to :


  1. Know Trignometry, Analytical geometry, Matrices, Determinant, Integration, Differential equation, Laplace transform and their applications;
  2. solve the problems of different types by applying theory; and
  3. appreciate the important applications of mathematics in pharmacy.


  1. Course materials: Text books
    1. Differential calculus By Shantinarayan
    2. Text book of Mathematics for second year pre-university by Prof.B.M.Sreenivas




  1. Integral calculus By Shanthinarayan
  2. Engineering mathematics By B.S.Grewal
  3. Trigonometry Part-I By L.Loney


  1. Lecture wise programme :




  • Algebra : Determinants, Matrices
  • Trigonometry : Sides and angles of a triangle, solution of triangles
  • Analytical Geometry :Points, Straight line, circle, parabola


  • Differential calculus: Limit of a function, Differential calculus, Differentiation of a sum, Product, Quotient Composite, Parametric, exponential, trigonometric and Logarithmic function. Successive differentiation, Leibnitz’s theorem, Partial differentiation, Euler’s theorem on homogeneous functions of two variables


  • Integral Calculus: Definite integrals, integration by substitution and by parts, Properties of definite integrals.


  • Differential equations: Definition, order, degree, variable separable, homogeneous, Linear, heterogeneous, linear, differential equation with constant coefficient, simultaneous linear equation of second order.


  • Laplace transform: Definition, Laplace transform of elementary functions, Properties of linearity and shifting.









  1. Scope and objectives: This is an introductory course in Biology, which gives detailed study of natural sources such as plant and animal origin. This subject has been introduces to the pharmacy course in order to make the student aware of various naturally occurring drugs and its history, sources, classification, distribution and the characters of the plants and animals. This subject gives basic foundation to Pharmacognosy.


  1. Course materials: Text books
    1. Text book of Biology by S.B.Gokhale
    2. A Text book of Biology by Dr.Thulajappa and Dr. Seetaram.





  1. A Text book of Biology by B.V.Sreenivasa Naidu


  1. A Text book of Biology by Naidu and Murthy
  2. Botany for Degree students By A.C.Dutta.
  3. Outlines of Zoology by M.Ekambaranatha ayyer and T.N.Ananthakrishnan.
  4. A manual for pharmaceutical biology practical by S.B.Gokhale and C.K.Kokate.


  1. Lecture wise programme :





01   Introduction

  • General organization of plants and its inclusions


  • Plant tissues
  • Plant kingdom and its classification
  • Morphology of plants
  • Root, Stem, Leaf and Its modifications
  • Inflorescence and Pollination of flowers
  • Morphology of fruits and seeds
  • Plant physiology


  • Taxonomy of Leguminosae, umbelliferae, Solanaceae, Lilliaceae, Zinziberaceae, Rubiaceae
  • Study of Fungi, Yeast, Penicillin and Bacteria




  • Study of Animal cell
  • Study animal tissues


  • Detailed study of frog
  • Study of Pisces, Raptiles, Aves
  • Genearal organization of mammals
  • Study of poisonous animals















Pharm.D – I YEAR



Practical : 3 Hrs./Week





  1. Introduction of biology experiments
  2. Study of cell wall constituents and cell inclusions
  3. Study of Stem modifications
  4. Study of Root modifications
  5. Study of Leaf modifications


  1. Identification of Fruits and seeds
  2. Preparation of Permanent slides
  3. S. of Senna, Cassia, Ephedra, Podophyllum.
  4. Simple plant physiological experiments
  5. Identification of animals
  6. Detailed study of Frog
  7. Computer based tutorials


Scheme of Practical Examination :


Sessionals Annual
Identification 04 10
Synopsis 04 10
Major Experiment 07 20
Minor Experiment 03 15
Viva 02 15
Max Marks 20 70
Duration 03hrs 04hrs



Note:   Total sessional marks is 30 (20 for practical sessional plus 10 marks for regularity, promptness, viva-voce and record maintenance.


Question Number: 1
Which state cabinet has announced to increase the financial assistance given to the
families of martyrs from Rs. 25 lakh to Rs. 1 crore?
Question Number: 2
Which among the following cricketers has been inducted to ICC Hall of Fame?
Sachin Tendulkar
Question Number: 3
In which state were the highest number of beneficiaries reported under the Pradhan
MantriShram Yogi Maan-dhan (PM- SYM) scheme?
Question Number: 4
The World Bank Group announced its first female Managing Director on Friday- an
Indian national. Her name is _______________________?
Anshula Kant
Question Number: 5
Foundation stone of Baba Guru Nanak International University has been kept in which
Question Number: 6
Who has been appointed as an International Judge of the Singapore International
Commercial Court in July 2019?
A K Sikri
Question Number: 7
Which place in Italy added to UNESCO Heritage list recently?
Question Number: 8
The World Health Organization has declared which country as measles free?
Sri Lanka
Question Number: 9 (Geography)
Consider the following statementsa. The Godavari Arch Bridge is the latest of the five bridges that span the Godavari
River at Rajahmundry.
b. The bridge is located in two channels, the Kovvur channel and the Rajahmundry
channel, and hence the bridge is also known as the Kovvur-Rajahmundry Bridge.
Which of the above statement/s is/are correct?
Only b
Question Number: 10
Consider the following statementsa. The Prakasam Barrage was conceptualised by Major Captain Lake of the East
India Company.
b. The Prakasam Barrage is located in the Vijayawada in the Krishna District of
Andhra Pradesh.
c. Prakasam Barrage is built across the River Krishna connecting Guntur and Krishna
Which of the above statements are correct?
Both b and c
Question Number: 11
Which of the following statement is incorrect about Kakinadaa. It is the second most populated city of East Godavari district.
b. The Indian Standard Time (IST) passes through this city.
c. The city was selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a
smart city under PM Narendra Modi’s flagship, Smart Cities Mission.
None of above
Question Number: 12
Which of the following river is known as “Sorrow of Nandyal”?
Question Number: 13
Consider the following statements in respect of „Yaganti Temple‟-
a. Yaganti is located in the Kurnool District in the state of Andhra Pradesh.
b. The three famous caves situated around the temple are the Agastya Cave, the
Venkateswara Cave and the VeeraBrahmam Cave.
c. The Nandi (Bullock, Lord Shiva‟s) idol in front of the temple is continuously
increasing its size.
Which of the above statements are incorrect?
None of above
Question Number: 14
Which of the following city is known as „The City of Destiny‟?
Question Number: 15
Consider the following statements about „Tirupati‟-
a. Tirupati is located at 13.65°N 79.42°E in the Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh.
b. The city is also referred to as the “Spiritual Capital of Andhra Pradesh”.
c. For the year 2012–13, India’s Ministry of Tourism named Tirupati as the “Best
Heritage City”.
Which of the statements are correct?
All of above
Question Number: 16
President Ram NathKovind has appointed AnusuiyaUikey as Governor of _____________.
17 Communicated Information can be termed as
18 Department of Culture set up a Committee in the year ____under the chairmanship of
_____for the formulation of a National Policy for a Library and Information System.
1984, D.P. Chattophadhyya
19 Information is piecemeal, ______ particular; while knowledge is _____and coherent
20 Which type of IPR protects the rights of cine film producers?
Copy right
21 In which year The Indian Copyright Act was amended first time?
22 _________ of the constitution protects the right to free speech and expression irrespective
of the medium of communication.
Article 19
23 Under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting which body regulates the public
exhibitions of films in India
Central Board of Film Certification
24 Which is incorrect in the context of Right to information means
Obtained security information
25 In Andhra Pradesh Public Library Movement, name of Paturi Naga Bhushanam is a
pioneer in conducting
boat Library Service
26 The Andhra Pradesh Public Library Act,1960 has the provision of
27 An ISSN is a _____digits code for publications.
28 S.M.Ganguly-IASLIC Award has been instituted for
Librarian of the year
29 It is a plastic ribbon, usually half a inch wide that is coated on one side with an iron
oxide material which can be magnetized. Identify this storage device
Magnetic tape
30 Software is a collection of programmes which allows to communicate ______.
31 The web server maintains information in the ________which have all the text marked
with _________tags.
33 Among the following groups, which is group is most reliable for primary source of
(Information Sources)
34 Abstract which not only describes the content of the work but also evaluates the work
and its presentation is called
Critical abstract
35 Match the following:
a)Survey of the primary literature
b)Organized list of primary or other sources relating to a given subject(s) or person
c)Comprehensive compilation on a subject
d)Focuses on developing understanding about the subject
I Treatise
II Text book
III Bibliography
IV Review
36 Information Literacy means
Skill of defining, locating and accessing information
37 Andhra DesaGranthaBhandagaraSanghom is the first
library association in India
38 Dictionary which gives the history of words and their origin referred as
Etymological dictionary
39 Among the following which product qualifies for ISBN?
40 World of Learning includes information about
Universities, Colleges, Libraries, Museums, Archives, Research Institutes and Learned
It accesses webpages and displays them on the computer screen
Web browser
41 Match the first edition of encyclopedia with the publication year
a)Encyclopaedia Britannica I 1858
b)Encyclopaedia Americana II1977
c)Chamber‟s Encyclopaedia III 1771
d) Random House Encyclopaedia IV 1829
42 Manorama Yearbook is an Indian annual published by
Malayala Manorama
43 e-journals are usually published on
A communication channel
44 The difference between the mean of a sample and the mean of the population is known as
Sampling error
45 Find out the median of the following set of numbers:
46. „The Hindu‟ daily news paper was founded in the year
47. According to ____________, printing of names and addresses of printers, editors and
publishers was mandatory.
First Press Regulations
48. Which film industry is sometimes referred as „Tollywood‟?
49. News reporters attached with security forces are called
Embedded reporters
50. „Ticker‟ is related to
51. „Anchor story‟ is related to
Print media
52. _________ is a structured sequence of events in time.
53. Which is a low-priced book having cheaper, flexible covers and pages?
54. Dealing with legislators and government officials to promote or defeat legislation
and regulation is called
55. “Tamasha” performance belongs to which state
56. TV Channels dedicated to the subjects of home, garden and family :
Lifestyle channels
57. A __________is a member of a group or an individual who is affected or is affected
by the success of an organization.
Question Number: 58
Atoms are composed ofElectrons and nuclei
Question Number: 59
What is a homepage?
A web site’s main page
Question Number: 60
The strategy of „Divide and Rule‟ was adopted byLord Curzon
Question Number: 61
Indian National Flag designer „PingaliVenkayya‟ belong to which state?
Andhra Pradesh
Question Number: 62
Fundamental Rights Resolution was adopted inKarachi session of Indian National Congress
Question Number: 63
Untouchability is an offenceAccording to the constitution and is punishable in accordance with law
Question Number: 64
Who characterizes Indian union as “a federation with a centralizing tendency”?
Ivor Jennings
Question Number: 65
The Constituent Assembly held its first meeting on __________ and last meeting on
December 9, 1946 and January 24, 1950.
Question Number: 66
The sum of 15% of a positive number and 10% of the same number is 70. What is twice of
Question Number: 67
The average of four consecutive numbers A, B, C and D respectively is 56.5. What is the
product of A and C?
Question Number: 68
A thermometer is to temperature as a compass is toDirection
Question Number: 69
Find the same relationship from given
Chef: Restaurant
Teacher: School
70. Values underlying Social Work profession are
All the above
Q.71. Horse gram is known in Telugu as
Q.72. The ICDS is the flagship programme of which ministry under the government?
Ministry of Women and Child Developmen
Q.73. Which of the following is a non-projected aid?
Q.74. The main objective of the first five year plan was:
Agriculture and irrigation
Q.75. Which of the following is the nodal institute for all State Institutes of Rural
National Institute of Rural Development & Panchayati Raj
Q.76. It was one of the first community radios started in 2008 and managed by a team
of dalitwomen:
Radio Sangham in Medak District
Q.77. Which of the following is a project floated under the National e-Governance
Programme under mission mode?
78. Retrogradation of starch is the prominent factor bringing about:
79) Which of the following has anti-infective property?
80) The term undernutrition comprises which of the following:
i. Protein energy malnutrition
ii. Micronutrient deficiency
iii. Stunting
iv. Overweight
v. Wasting
vi. Obesity
Tick mark the correct option:
81. HDI (Human Development Index) Rank of AP in 2017 was :
82. W. Nordhous and ________ won 2018 Nobel Prize in Economics
Paul Romer
83. Theme of Asia Pacific Summit addresses interdependence, mutual prosperity and
Universal values
84. One of the following is not a crypto currency :
85. Integration of 11 types of agricultural schemes is called :
Krishnonnati yojana
86. “You can tell the condition of a nation by looking at the status of its women. “Who
said this ?
Jawaharlal Nehru
87. Gross National Happiness ( GNH) was adopted by :
88. What is the name of India‟s monetary denomination when Sher Shah Suri introduced
it in 1540-45 ?
89. “Small is Beautiful “ is a book written by :
90. “ The Coming China Wars “ is a book written by :
Peter Novarro
91. Bank Note Press (BNP) is located at :
92. A project providing time- bound skill upgradation for railway employees :
Project Saksham
93 . Modern Coach Factory is a third such facility located in :
Rae Bareli
94. The Third Pillar : How Markets and State leave the community behind is a book
written by :
Raghuram Rajan
95. What measure is taken for Life Insecurity ?
96. King Fisher Airlines seized its operations from the year
97. Hyundai Motor Company headquarters is in
‘The Nehru Memorial Museum and Library’ is an autonomous institution under
the Ministry of ————–.
Q99 National Register of Translators is maintained by ______.
National Translation Mission
Q100 What is ICOLC ?
International Coalition of Library Consortia.
An online search in which all aspects of the records in natural language may be used as sought terms is
known as________
Free text searching
Q102 National Medical Library is located in
Q103 Linux is an example of _____________ software .
Operating System
Q104 Who developed ‘Access to libraries for persons with disabilities – checklist ‘ ?
Q105 Encapsulation is a term associated with:
Digital preservation
106 The Delivery of Books (Public Libraries) Act was enacted in the year_________.
107 National Library Week is celebrated in India in the month of ____________.
108 ‘ Where is the wisdom, we have lost in knowledge ’ is a famous quote by ?
Q109 ‘Technology Preservation’ is also referred to as:
Computer Museum
Q110 The value of the variable having maximum frequency is known as:
111. INB stands for
Indian National Bibliography
112. A study preceeding the main study to check the viability is known as:
Pilot study
113. Term used for large volume of high velocity, complex and variable data is:
Big data
114. What is MBO?
Management by Objectives
115. Which of the following is not associated with a virtual library:
With distributed physical locations
116. Information for All Programme (IFAP) was launched by
117. Method of assessing information needs of user community is known as
User studies
118. Mean, Mode and Median are called________
Measures of central tendency
119. The whole group from which the units of sample are selected is called:
120. According to hierarchy needs theory, which one of the following needs is the
highest in the hierarchy?
121. Personal computer falls in the category of
Micro computer
122. A machined readable code consisting of vertical bars of varying widths to
represent data is known as
Bar code
123. A pictorial representation of sequence of steps of computation for a problem is
known as
124. An assumption or proposition whose validity is to be tested is known as
125. Directing the user to appropriate sources of information available elsewhere is known as
126. National Science Library is located in
NISCAIR, New Delhi
127. FAIFE stands for
Freedom of Access to Information and Freedom of Expression
128. What is maximum number of characters you can use while writing a message on
Question Number: 129
Which of the following countries was admitted as the full time member of the ICC?
130. Which of the following drama was translated by Madhusudan Dutt in English?

Neel Darpan
131. Who of the following from Andhra Pradesh was the first Indian woman to win an
individual medal in the Olympics?
132. Which of the following is a part of Union Territory located in Andhra Pradesh?

Q133 Who wrote “Modernization of Indian Tradition”?
Yogendra Singh
Q134 „My Experiment with truth‟ is written by—
Q135 Multiple choice Questions makes us use of which form of retrieval of memory:
Question Number: 136
The average of 20 numbers is zero. Of them, at the most, how many may be greater than zero?
Q137. Who declared 1990 as “Year of the girl Child”. ?
Q138. The Environment Protection Act was executed in India in the year
Question Number: 139
One year ago Jaya was four times as old as her daughter Nikitha. Six years hence, Mrs.Jaya’s age will
exceed her daughter’s age by 9 years. The ratio of the present ages of Jaya and her daughter is:
13: 4
Q140 Which of the following agency regulates education?
According to 2011 Census Reports, the difference between literacy rates of men and women in India
was about:
Q142 The policy recommended by the Kothari Commission Vis-à-vis language is :
Three language formula
Q143. The First Open University in India was established in the year :
Question Number: 144.
Find the next term in the given series.
Q.145. Maxim Gorky’s novel ‘The Mother” was translated into Telugu by
Krovvidi Lingaraju
Q.146.Who was the first editor of “Andhra Patrika”?
Kasinathuni Nageswara Rao
Q.147.The International Telugu institute was established in the year
Q.148. If BAG = 71, then VICE=?
Q.149. 24:84::______:21

Q.150. What according to Census 2011, is the Sex ratio in India ?

Acidifying Agents- Achlorhydria – Acidifying Agents in Pharmaceuticals

What does Achlorhydria mean?

Acidifying agents

Acidifying agents are used in condition where there is absence or insufficient secretion of hydrochloric acid in stomach which leads to disease called Achlorhydria or Hypochlorhydria. Achlorhydria can be treated by various acidifying agents like ammonium chloride, dilute HCl, Calcium chloride etc.

Causes of Achlorhydria:

What causes Achlorhydria?

The cause of achlorhydria in first case may be subtotal gastrectomy, atrophic gastritis, carcinoma, gastric polyp etc while in later case it may be chronic nephritis, tuberculosis, hyperthyroidism, chronic alcoholism, sprue, pellagra etc. The symptoms vary with associated disease but they generally include mild diarrhoea or frequent bowl movement, epigastric pain and sensitivity to spicy food.

The pH of stomach is 1.5 -2 when empty and rises to pH 5-6 when food is ingested. The pH of stomach is so low because of the secretion of HCl. Gastric HCl act by destroying the bacteria in the ingested food and drinks. It softens the fibrous food and promotes the formation of the proteolytic enzyme pepsin. This enzyme is formed from pepsinogen at acidic pH (>6). Pepsin helps in the metabolism of proteins in the ingested food. Therefore lack of HCl in the stomach can cause Achlorhydria.

  • Pernicious anemia (anti-parietal and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies): It is an autoimmune phenomenon in which antibodies are formed. These autoantibodies cause the autoimmune destruction of parietal cells leading to atrophic gastritis.
  • Use of antisecretory medications: Short-term standard dose treatment with PPI has been shown to have low risk, but long-term use of PPI has been linked to hypochlorhydria.
  • Helicobacter pylori infection: Acute H. pylori infection of gastric epithelial cells represses H-K-ATPase alpha subunit gene expression leading to transient hypochlorhydria and supporting H. pylori proliferation. This growth of H. pylori may even initiate a pathological process causing gastric cancer.
  • Gastric bypass: Gastric bypass is a gastric exclusion operation performed in patients with massive obesity to reduce food intake. Studies show that the acid secretion unbuffered by the food in the excluded stomach results in lowered gastrin secretion hence leading to achlorhydria in such patients.
  • VIPomas: VIPoma is an endocrine tumor that usually arises from beta-pancreatic cells and secretes Vasoactive intestinal peptide. It may be associated with MEN1. The massive amounts of VIP secretion cause watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, achlorhydria, vasodilation, hypercalcemia, and hyperglycemia.
  • Hypothyroidism: Thyroid hormone plays a role in hydrochloric acid secretion hence hypothyroidism can lead to achlorhydria.
  • Radiation to stomach: Radiation to stomach has also been reported to cause achlorhydria.
  • Gastric cancer: Animal studies have shown evidence of achlorhydria in gastric cancer.
  • Ref: Achlorhydria
    Rawish Fatima; Muhammad Aziz

Types of achlorhydria

Two types of achlorhydria are known:
1) where the gastric secretion is devoid of HCl, even after stimulation with histamine phosphate
2) where gastric secretion is devoid of HCl, but secreted upon stimulation with histamine phosphate.




What is an acidifying agent?

What drugs acidify urine?

Acidifying Agents in Pharmaceuticals

Acetic Acid
Acetic Acid, Glacial
Citric Acid, Anhydrous
Citric Acid Monohydrate
Fumaric Acid
Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrochloric Acid, Diluted
Malic Acid
Nitric Acid
Phosphoric Acid
Phosphoric Acid, Diluted
Propionic Acid
Sulfuric Acid
Tartaric Acid





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