ScriptPro®: Revolutionizing Pharmacy Operations with Technology

ScriptPro is at the forefront of integrating technology into pharmacy operations, offering a suite of solutions that encompass robotics, software, and financial tools designed to enhance the efficiency, safety, and profitability of pharmacies. This comprehensive approach not only streamlines pharmacy management but also significantly improves patient care through automation and advanced software solutions.

Robotics: The Heart of ScriptPro’s Innovation


ScriptPro’s pioneering efforts in pharmacy robotics began in the late 1990s with the launch of the SP200 robotic prescription dispensing system. This innovation marked the beginning of a new era in pharmacy operations, enabling the automated filling and labeling of prescription vials. Over the years, ScriptPro’s robotic solutions have evolved into a family of robots that support pharmacies of all sizes, from independent retail to large health systems and government pharmacies worldwide[1][3].

These robots are designed to efficiently and accurately provide prescriptions to patients in their desired format, including vials, pouch packs, and blister packs. ScriptPro also offers a robot that manages bagged prescriptions awaiting patient pickup, further enhancing the convenience and efficiency of pharmacy services[3].

Software Solutions: Enhancing Efficiency and Profitability


ScriptPro’s software solutions are comprehensive, integrated, and automated, supporting pharmacy operations and financial management at any scale. These solutions are profit-oriented and supported by ScriptPro’s expert team, ensuring that pharmacies can leverage automation to grow their business while maintaining a focus on serving patients[1].

The software suite includes systems for managing pharmacy operations, financial performance, inventory management, and accreditation support. ScriptPro’s commitment to safety and accuracy is evident in its carefully engineered solutions, which are designed to save time, increase patient satisfaction, and boost profits[1].

Support: A Commitment to Excellence


ScriptPro’s support system is robust, offering assistance from installation and training to ongoing customer service. The company’s customer service team is available 24/7/365, ensuring that pharmacies have access to the help they need, whenever they need it. This level of support is crucial for businesses that never stop, allowing pharmacies to solve problems and think ahead with confidence[1].

Financial Performance and Growth


ScriptPro is deeply invested in the complex business of pharmacy, offering tools and insights for managing third-party contracts, utilizing 340B programs, projecting financial performance, and supporting inventory management. These financial tools are designed to help organizations grow and prosper, demonstrating ScriptPro’s commitment to the success of its clients[1].



ScriptPro stands out as a leader in pharmacy automation and software solutions, offering a range of products and services that transform pharmacy operations. By focusing on robotics, software, and financial tools, ScriptPro enables pharmacies to increase efficiency, ensure safety and accuracy, and enhance profitability. With a strong support system and a commitment to innovation, ScriptPro is a valuable partner for pharmacies looking to navigate the complexities of modern healthcare[1][3].


9 Technology skills required for Pharmacists

Common technology skills required for pharmacists are here given.

Common technology skills required for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians are increasingly important as the healthcare industry becomes more reliant on digital tools and software for managing patient care and medication dispensing. Here are some of the key technology skills that are essential in the field of pharmacy:

1. **Proficiency with Pharmacy Management Software**:

Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians must be comfortable using specialized computer programs to manage patient records, process prescriptions, and handle inventory. Familiarity with popular pharmacy software and tools such as Baxa Rapid Fill (ASF), Baxa Repeater Pump, Omnicell, Parata RDS, McKesson PACMED, Kirby Lester, TORBAL Rx Balances, Baker Cells, Cerner, Epic, Connexus, and Nexgen is crucial[2].

2. **Electronic Health Records (EHR) Systems**:

A working knowledge of electronic prescribing systems and EHRs is essential. These systems are used to manage patient information, medication orders, and pharmacy operations. Being able to navigate and utilize these systems efficiently is critical for ensuring accurate and timely patient care[3].

3. **ScriptPro®**:

ScriptPro® offers a robotic prescription dispensing system, workflow systems, and a drug database. Pharmacists should be familiar with ScriptPro® Central Workflow, which helps in batching prescriptions and ensuring the delivery of proper medication[3].

4. **OneMAR**:

For those working in long-term care facilities, familiarity with OneMAR Innovation’s services is important. This web-based system integrates all pharmacy information and systems, replacing paper MAR (medication administration record) with an electronic version that includes comprehensive patient data[3].

5. **Accounts Receivable Software**:

Knowledge of software systems that provide control over cash flow and workflow in retail pharmacies is beneficial. These systems help manage finances, including automatic price updating based on competitive prices in the pharmacy’s region[3].

6. **Computer Literacy**:

Basic computer skills, including the ability to use email, word processing documents, and the Microsoft Office Suite (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Publisher), are fundamental. Being computer savvy helps pharmacists and pharmacy technicians access and process information efficiently[3].

7. **Automated Dispensing Machines**:

Understanding how to use and maintain automated dispensing machines is important for ensuring the accurate and safe preparation and dispensing of medication. This includes knowledge of how to troubleshoot and fix minor breakdowns[4][5].

8. **Data Entry and Management**:

The ability to accurately enter and manage patient and inventory data is crucial. This includes processing insurance claims, managing billing, and keeping patient records up to date[4].

9. **Continuous Learning**:

As technology in the pharmacy field evolves, continuous learning and adaptation to new software, systems, and automation technologies are necessary. Staying abreast of the latest technological advancements ensures pharmacists and pharmacy technicians can provide the best care and service to patients[4].

In summary, pharmacists and pharmacy technicians need a comprehensive set of technology skills to effectively perform their roles in today’s digital healthcare environment. These skills range from proficiency with pharmacy management software and EHR systems to familiarity with automated dispensing machines and continuous learning to adapt to new technologies[2][3][4][5].


Best Pharma News websites for Biotech Startups

what are the best pharma news websites for biotech startups? Which ones to follow ?

Some of the best pharma news websites that are particularly useful for biotech startups are:

BioPharma Dive – Provides in-depth journalism and insight into the most impactful news and trends in biopharma, covering topics from clinical readouts to FDA approvals, gene therapy to drug pricing, and M&A to research partnerships[1][5].


FierceBiotech – Covers all sorts of industry news relevant to biotech startups, including funding updates, recent discoveries, and special reports on industry trends. It is a sister website to FiercePharma and offers resources such as webinars and event listings[2][6].


BioWorld – Offers breaking news and analysis of the global biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical device, and medical technology sectors. It provides in-depth coverage of innovation, business, financing, regulation, science, product development, and clinical trials[5].


EndPoints News – An independent news organization that reports and analyzes the top global biotech and pharmaceutical R&D news of the day, including business deals, buyouts, corporate reorganizations, FDA actions, and clinical data on closely watched drugs[5].


Pharmaceutical Technology – Provides news and in-depth feature articles on new drug discoveries, healthcare research and development, big pharma trends, and company deals, which can be valuable for startups looking to understand the industry landscape[5].


Pharma Times – A leading pharmaceutical magazine offering a blend of news stories, interviews, features, case studies, analyses, and comments on critical issues facing the pharma and healthcare sectors[5]. – Focused on the biotech sector in Europe, this site provides updates on new drug developments, key industry players, and biotech innovations, which can be particularly relevant for startups in the European market[6].


GEN News – While not listed in the search results, GEN (Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News) is a well-known source for news on the biotech industry, including updates on research, business, and regulatory issues that affect startups.


The Catalyst – Focuses on discovering new and essential medicines for patients by researching through biopharmaceutical means. It is a good resource for startups interested in the latest research and drug developments[3].


Pharma Manufacturing – Provides in-depth information on how pharma and biopharma tackle pressing challenges, which can be useful for startups looking to understand the drug development process from beginning to end[3].


These websites offer a range of information that can help biotech startups stay informed about industry news, trends, and developments that are critical to their success.











Pharma News Websites on Clinical Trials for Mental Health Treatments – List

Do you know which pharma news websites cover clinical trials for mental health treatments?

Websites that cover clinical trials for mental health treatments provide valuable insights into the latest developments, results, and innovations in therapies for mental health conditions. Here are some of the top websites focusing on this area:

1. PhRMA (Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America) – PhRMA released a report covering 163 medicines in development targeting common mental illnesses, all of which are in clinical trials or awaiting review by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)[1].

2. Pharma News Intel – Discusses the importance of diversity and inclusion in clinical trials, which is key to advancing health equity. This is particularly relevant for mental health treatments, as diverse clinical trial participation ensures the efficacy and safety of new treatments across different demographics[2].

3. – An official website of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is a database of privately and publicly funded clinical studies conducted around the world, including those for mental health treatments. It offers comprehensive information on clinical trials, including their status, location, and results[3].

4. PR Newswire (Gilgamesh Pharmaceuticals) – Gilgamesh Pharmaceuticals, a biotechnology company, is developing a portfolio of rapid-acting and durable treatments for depression and other mental health conditions. The company raised $39 million in Series B funding to advance two programs into clinical trials[4].

5. UCSF News (University of California, San Francisco) – Reports on the latest trial results of MDMA-assisted therapy for patients with PTSD, offering hope for new mental health treatments. The trial’s sponsor, MAPS Public Benefit Corp., plans to submit its drug application to the FDA[5].

6. PharmaTimes – Covers Small Pharma’s initiation of a phase 1 mental health therapy trial. The study is a blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized, and dose-escalating study being conducted at MAC Clinical Research in Manchester, focusing on new therapies for mental health[6].

7. Johns Hopkins Center for Psychedelic and Consciousness Research – Leads the way in exploring innovative treatments using psilocybin for mental health conditions. The center has conducted several studies showing the potential of psychedelics to treat a wide range of mood and substance disorders[7].

These websites are essential for professionals, researchers, and anyone interested in the latest clinical trial activities and developments in treatments for mental health conditions. They provide timely updates, in-depth analyses, and comprehensive coverage of the trials that shape the future of mental health care.


10 Best Pharma Websites @ Pharmaceutical Industry News

10 Best Pharma Sites for Pharmaceutical Industry News

Based on the search results, here are 10 reputable websites where you can get pharmaceutical industry news:

1. BioWorld
BioWorld provides breaking news and analysis of the global biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical device, and medical technology sectors. It offers in-depth coverage of innovation, business, financing, regulation, science, product development, and clinical trials[1].

2. Fierce Pharma
Fierce Pharma delivers breaking news and analysis about drug companies, the FDA, and the broader pharmaceutical industry. It also features manufacturing news and research reports[1][3].

3. is a comprehensive source of drug information online, offering the latest health, medical, and pharmaceutical news updated daily[1].

4. Pharmaceutical Technology
Pharmaceutical Technology provides resources for the pharmaceutical and biochemistry industries, including news and in-depth feature articles on new drug discoveries, healthcare research and development, big pharma trends, and company deals[1].

5. Pharma Times
PharmaTimes is a leading pharmaceutical magazine for senior decision-makers, offering news stories, interviews, features, case studies, analyses, and comments on critical issues facing the pharma and healthcare sectors[1].

6. Pharma Dispatch
Pharma Dispatch is dedicated to breaking news and commentary on the pharmaceutical and life sciences sector in Australia[1].

7. Drug Topics
Drug Topics is a monthly news magazine that reports on all phases of community, retail, and health-system pharmacy issues and trends, providing a forum for pharmacists to share practical ideas for better pharmacy management and patient care[1].

8. Cafepharma
Cafepharma is a site for the pharmaceutical/medical industry, offering news and a forum for industry professionals[1].

9. Pharmaceutical Commerce
Pharmaceutical Commerce caters to biopharma commercial executive decision-makers, providing insights and perspectives on the latest industry trends, innovations, and best practices related to drug commercialization[3].

10. PharmaLive
PharmaLive offers news, analysis, and insights on the pharmaceutical industry, as well as events for pharmaceutical professionals[3].

These websites are valuable resources for staying informed about the latest developments, trends, and news in the pharmaceutical industry.


Should I do B Pharmacy Project in 4th eYar Course? WHY

Why students should do b pharmacy project at the end of the fourth year course?

Doing a B.Pharmacy project at the end of the fourth year course holds several significant advantages for students. Here are a few reasons why students should undertake a project as part of their B.Pharmacy curriculum:

Project offers Application of Knowledge:

A project provides an opportunity for students to apply the theoretical knowledge gained during their four-year course into practical scenarios. It helps bridge the gap between classroom learning and real-world application.

Skill Enhancement is core for B Pharm:

Engaging in a project enhances various skills such as research, critical thinking, problem-solving, data analysis, communication, and project management. These skills are highly valuable in both academic and professional settings.

Practical Experiential Learning through B pharm Projects:

Practical projects offer hands-on experience that textbooks and lectures cannot provide. Students get to face real challenges, make decisions, and learn from their successes and failures, which contributes to their overall development.

Industry Relevance Insight from Project you Choose:

B.Pharmacy projects often involve research or case studies related to the pharmaceutical industry. This experience gives students insights into the industry’s current trends, challenges, and innovations, making them better prepared for entering the job market.

Building Networking to grab Opportunities after course:

Students may collaborate with industry professionals, researchers, or faculty members during their project. This allows them to build a valuable network that can help them with career opportunities, references, and guidance.

Career Advancement Opportunity through right Project:

Undertaking a project can give students an edge in the job market. Employers often value candidates who have practical experience and a project demonstrates a student’s ability to independently manage and execute tasks. Hands on experience on something will give you an added advantage and gives you more points while getting hired.

Personal Development as a benefit :

Projects encourage self-discipline, time management, and self-motivation, which are vital skills for success in any field. Students also develop resilience as they tackle challenges throughout the project.

Project inculcate Problem Solving Skill in you:

Projects come in various forms, but they all have one thing in common – they require you to tackle real-world problems. Whether it’s formulating a new drug, conducting clinical trials, or addressing healthcare issues, these projects provide a unique opportunity for you to apply your problem-solving skills in a practical setting.

One of the key benefits of engaging in such projects is the improvement in your ability to address complex issues effectively. As you immerse yourself in these projects, you’ll encounter a wide range of challenges that require creative and analytical thinking. This will push you to think outside the box and find innovative solutions. This hands-on experience will not only deepen your knowledge but also enhance your problem-solving skills specific to that domain. Moreover, problem-solving projects provide an excellent opportunity for collaboration and teamwork.

Remember, developing problem-solving skills is not just about solving puzzles or riddles. It’s about gaining real-world experience and applying your knowledge to make a difference. So, embrace the opportunity to engage in problem-solving projects and watch your skills grow! In conclusion, participating in projects that involve problem solving is an excellent way to enhance your problem-solving skills

Projects often involve solving real-world problems related to drug formulation, clinical trials, or healthcare. These problem-solving experiences improve a student’s ability to address complex issues effectively.

Different Pharma Projects for Insights on Higher Education:

For students considering further studies like M.Pharmacy or research-based careers, a project provides a strong foundation in research methodologies and prepares them for more advanced academic pursuits.

Pharma Relevant Project Showcases as Achievements in Resume:

A successfully completed project can be added to a student’s portfolio, resume, or academic transcripts, highlighting their capabilities to potential employers or institutions.

In summary, a B.Pharmacy project serves as a culmination of a student’s academic journey, allowing them to apply their knowledge practically and develop essential skills for a successful career in the pharmaceutical field. It’s an opportunity to stand out, gain real-world experience, and contribute meaningfully to the industry.

Structure Physiology Anatomy of EYE

The eye is a specialized sensory organ of photoreception. The eye is an easily accessible organ for local or systemic drug delivery.

Clinically, the eye can be considered to be composed of two segments:

1. Anterior segment – all structures from (and including) the lens forward.
2. Posterior segment – all structures posterior to the lens.


  • The anatomical and physiological characteristics of the eye are described are outlined in this section.
  • Structure of the eye; The eye can be divided into two compartments: the anterior and posterior segments.
  • An internal cross section of an eye is shown in Fig.1
  • physiology of eye - structure of eye
  • Anterior segment; Externally, the anterior segment of eye is made up of cornea, conjunctiva, and sclera.
  • Internally, it consists of anterior chamber, iris/pupil, posterior chamber, and ciliary body.
  • The cornea, an optically transparent tissue that aids in refraction of light to the eye for focusing, is 1 mm thick at the periphery and 0.5 to 0.6 mm thick in the centre.
  • It is composed of squamous and basal columnar epithelium, Bowman’s membrane, substantia propria (stroma), limiting lamina, and the endothelium.
  •  The conjunctiva is a thin, transparent, vascularised mucous membrane with an area of 18 cm2 covering the eye globe and the inner eyelids.
  • It maintains the precorneal tear film and protects the eye. It produces mucus and lubricates the surface of the eye.
  • It is made up of stratified columnar epithelium and lamina propria. The conjunctiva epithelium is divided into bulbar (covering the eyeball), fornix (covering the cornea), and palpebral (covering the eyelid) conjunctivae.
  •  The sclera, the white outer coat of the eyeball, provides structural integrity, size, and shape to the eye.
  • There are three layers in the sclera, the anterior episclera, the middle scleral stroma, and the posterior lamina fusca.
  • The sclera is composed of gel like mucopolysaccharides, elastic fibers, bundles of dense collagen fibrils, and fibroblasts.
  • The iris is a diaphragm around the pupil (lens) and controls the amount of light entering the inner eye.
  • The ciliary body is made up of ciliary muscles, which aid in accommodation.
  • The anterior surface of the eye is constantly rinsed by tear fluid secreted at a flow rate of about 1 μL/min by the main lachrymal gland of the lachrymal apparatus.
  • Tears eventually drain into the nasal cavity through the nasolachrymal ducts.
  • Tear fluid contains mucin, lysozyme, lactoferrin, prealbumin, and serum proteins.
  • It functions as an antibacterial lubricant and aids in draining out foreign substances.
  • The normal volume of tear fluid is 5 to 10 μL.65


Posterior segment:

  • Externally, the posterior segment consists of the optic nerve and associated vasculature, and internally, it consists of the lens, vitreous, and rear ocular tissues. Vitreous is a colorless medium
  • Internal structure of the eye consisting of about 99 percent water, dissolved type II collagen, sodium hyaluronate, and proteoglycans.
  • The retina is the inner nervous layer of the eye responsible for the sensory function of sight.
  • The choroid is a dark brown vascular layer attached to the sclera and is believed to provide nourishment to the retina.

Basic Structure of the Eye

The eye has three layers or coats, three compartments and contains three fluids

1. The three coats of the eye are as follows:

(a) Outer fibrous layer:
• cornea
• sclera
• lamina cribrosa.
(b) Middle vascular layer (“uveal tract”):
• iris
• ciliary body – consisting of the pars
plicata and pars plana
• choroids.
(c) Inner nervous layer:
• pigment epithelium of the retina
• retinal photoreceptors
• retinal neurons.

2. The three compartments of the eye are as follows:

(a) Anterior chamber – the space between the cornea and the iris diaphragm.
(b) Posterior chamber – the triangular space between the iris anteriorly, the lens and zonule posteriorly, and the ciliary body.
(c) Vitreous chamber – the space behind the lens and zonule.

3. The three intraocular fluids are as follows:

(a) Aqueous humour – a watery, optically clear solution of water and electrolytes similar to tissue fluids except that aqueous humour has a low protein content normally.
(b) Vitreous humour – a transparent gel consisting of a three-dimensional network of collagen fibres with the interspaces filled with polymerised hyaluronic acid molecules and water. It fills the space between the posterior surface of the lens, ciliary body and retina.
(c) Blood – in addition to its usual functions, blood contributes to the maintenance of intraocular pressure. Most of the blood within the eye is in the choroid. The choroidal blood flow represents the largest blood flow per unit tissue in the body. The degree of desaturation of efferent choroidal blood is relatively small and indicates that the choroidal vasculature has functions beyond retinal nutrition. It might be that the choroid serves as a heat exchanger for the retina, which absorbs energy as light strikes the retinal pigment epithelium.


PPT PDF – HPLC – Principle Types Modes Advantages- Limitation

hplc instrumentation

If you want to know completely about High-Performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC you are at the right place.In this article you can find from the basics of chromatography along with the Principle of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and parameters that are used as a standard for a particular compound in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).Types of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Instrumentation and applications uses of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)are provided here. You can download the PPT AND PDF on HPLC in the following paragraphs.

What is chromatography ?

Chromatography is a separation technique that uses the size, shape, chemical properties or charge of molecules in a sample to separate the sample into its constituent components.
Chromatography is a physical method of separation in which the components to be separated are, distributed two phases, one of which is stationary phase while the other is mobile phase, moves in a definite direction.

Chromatography Principle

Chromatography is based on the principle where molecules in mixture applied onto the surface or into the solid, and fluid stationary phase (stable phase) is separating from each other while moving with the aid of a mobile phase. e factors effective on this separation process include molecular characteristics related to adsorption (liquid-solid), partition (liquid-solid), and affinity or differences among their molecular weights. Because of these differences, some components of the mixture stay longer in the stationary phase, and they move slowly in the chromatography system, while others pass rapidly into mobile phase, and leave the system faster


  • HPLC came about because not all compounds can be vaporized and analyzed on a GC
  • Separation of a wider range of compounds — high MW, polar, and ionic compounds
  • Highly efficient separations achieved in HPLC due to interactions of both m.p. and s.p. with the components of a mixture.
  • Improved separation within a much shorter time

 What is High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)?

HPLC represents an automated system for the separation of compounds in mixture using a liquid mobile phase, which is passed across the stationary phase under high pressure in order to speed up the operation.
The effluent of the column is monitored by special detectors and the signals for the eluted components are recorded in a special recorder which amplifies such signals and record them as peaks similar to those obtained in gas chromatography.



HPLC works on the principle of Affinity chromatography. The solution of the sample is injected into a column of a porous material (stationary phase) and a liquid (mobile phase) is pumped at high pressure through the column. The mixture on travelling through the stationary phase splits into its constituents and the component with high affinity for stationary phase travels late whereas one with less affinity elutes fast. This is also based partition coefficient of the material.

To make you understand, in simple terms HPLC follows the principle of separation in both normal phase mode and reverse phase mode is adsorption. When a mixture of components are introduced into a HPLC column, they travel according to their relative affinities towards the stationary phase. The component which has more affinity towards the adsorbent, travels slower. The component which has less affinity towards the stationary phase travels faster. Since no 2 components have the same affinity towards the stationary phase, the components are separated.


A. Based on modes of chromatography
1. Normal phase mode
2.Reverse phase mode
B. Based on principle of separation
1. Adsorption chromatography
2. Ion exchange chromatography
3. Ion pair chromatography
4.Size exclusion(or)Gel permeation chromatography
5. Affinity chromatography
6. Chiral phase chromatography
C. Based on elution technique
1. Isocratic separation
2. Gradient separation
D. Based on the scale of operation
1. Analytical HPLC
2. Preparative HPLC
E. Based on the type of analysis
1. Qualitative analysis
2. Quantitative analysis


1. Solvent delivery system
2. Pumps
3. Sample injection system
4. Column
5. Detectors
6. Recorders and Integrators

Applications of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

  • Pharmaceutical applications of HPLC are Tablet dissolution study of pharmaceutical dosages form, Shelf-life determinations of pharmaceutical products,  Identification of active ingredients of dosage forms, Pharmaceutical quality control applications,  Detection of phenolic compounds in Drinking Water, Identification of compounds in sediment samples, Bio-monitoring of pollutant, Quantification of the drug in biological samples. • Identification of anabolic steroids in serum, urine, sweat, and hair,Determination of cocaine and metabolites in blood Clinical Quantification of ions in human urine Analysis of antibiotics in blood plasma, Estimation of bilirubin and biliverdin in blood plasma in case of hepatic disorders,Detection of endogenous neuropeptides in extracellular fluids of brain.
  • Other applications include testing the quality of soft drink and drinking water, Analysis of beer, Sugar analysis in fruit juices, Analysis of polycyclic compounds in vegetables,Trace analysis of military high explosives in agricultural crops.
  • Chemical Separations
  • Purification



1. Separations fast and efficient (high resolution power)
2. Continuous monitoring of the column effluent
3. It can be applied to the separation and analysis of very complex mixtures
4. Accurate quantitative measurements.
5. Repetitive and reproducible analysis using the same column.
6. Adsorption, partition, ion exchange and exclusion column separations are excellently made
7. HPLC is more versatile than GLC in some respects, because it has the advantage of not being restricted to volatile and thermally stable solute and the choice of mobile and stationary phases is much wider in HPLC
8. Both aqueous and non aqueous samples can be analyzed with little or no sample pretreatment
9. A variety of solvents and column packings are available, providing a high degree of selectivity for specific analyses.
10. It provides a means for determination of multiple components in a single analysis.

Advantages of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

  • By using this High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique it is possible to perform structural, and functional analysis, and purification of many molecules within a short time.
  • This technique yields perfect results in the separation, and identification of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, steroids, and other biologically active molecules
  • In HPLC, mobile phase passes throuıgh columns under 10–400 atmospheric pressure, and with a high (0.1–5 cm//sec) flow rate.
  • In this technique, use of small particles,and application of high pressure on the rate of solvent flow increases separation power, of HPLC and the analysis is completed within a short time


1.Retention time
2.Retention volume
3.Separation factor
4. Resolution
5. Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate (HETP)
6. Efficiency
7. Asymmetry factor

What are hplc detectors

The work of detector is to detect and give the information to the recorder which shows it in a form of a chromatogram. Every compounds has its own properties which is not completely the same with one another, thus this arises a need to have different detectors for different compounds. Before beginning the separation by HPLC it is thus very important to study about the nature of the compound and select the detector accordingly. The selection of wrong detector misguides our journey of separation and quantification.

Types of hplc detectors

1. Refractive index detectors
2. U.V detectors
3. Fluorescence detectors
4. Electro chemical detectors
5. Evaporative light scattering detectors
6. IR detectors
7. Photo diode array detector:

what are most common hplc detector

Detectors used depends upon the property of the compounds to be separated.  Detectors  are elemental detectors (atomic absorption/emission, inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry and microwave-induced plasma); optical detectors (UV/visible, IR/Raman, optical activity, evaporative light scattering and refractive index); luminescent detectors (fluorescence/phosphorescence, chemiluminescence/bioluminescence); electrochemical detectors (potentiometry, novel material/modified electrodes, array electrodes and pulsed
and oscillometric techniques); mass spectrometric detectors (time-of-flight/MALDI, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, electrospray/thermospray, atmospheric pressure ionization and particle beam); and other detection systems (nuclear magnetic resonance, radioactivity detectors, surface plasmon resonance)


HPLC Modes
• Normal-phase (NPC)
– Separation based on adsorption of the analyte onto a polar surface (silica)
• Reversed-phase (RPC)
– Separation based on analytes’ partition coefficients between the mobile phase and the bonded  stationary phase
• Ion-exchange (IEC)
– Separation based on ion-exchanging with the counter-ions and ionic interaction with the bonded ionic group
• Size-exclusion (SEC orGFC)
– Separation based on analyte’s molecular size and  sieving action of the column packing

Limitations  of  HPLC

  • Lack of a Universal Detector.   The lack of a universal detector is often mentioned, although the UV–vis detector comes close to one for chromophoric compounds. Refractive index detection fits the bill, but suffers from low sensitivity and incompatibility with gradient elution. Evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was a contender, but was surpassed by charged aerosol detection (CAD). CAD uses a nebulizer with corona discharge detection and has better sensitivity (low ng) and ease-of-use than ELSD
  • Less Separation Efficiency than Capillary Gas Chromatography Conventional.  HPLC has a practi-cal peak capacity (Pc) of ~200 using columns with ~20,000 plates under gradient conditions — not particularly effective for very complex samples
  • Relatively More Difficult for Novices  The bewildering number of HPLC modules, columns, mobile phases, and operating parameters renders HPLC difficult for the novice.
  • Still Arduous, Particularly for Regulated Testing  HPLC is versatile, quantitative, sensi-tive, and extremely precise. It can also be time-consuming and arduous, particularly for regulated analysis under good manufacturing practices (GMP).


HPLC is a complex technique because of its myriad combinations of modules, columns or mobile phases, and operating parameters. Initially chromatographic techniques were used to separate substances based on their color as was the case with herbal pigments. With time its application area was extended considerably. Nowadays, chromatography is accepted as an extremely sensitive, and effective separation method.
HPLC technique which has many superior features including especially its higher sensitivity, rapid turnover rate, its use as a quantitative method, can purify amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, hydrocarbons, carbohydrates, drugs, antibiotics, and steroids

hplc ppthplc ppt office b pharm m pharm office b pharm m pharm

hplc ppt – complete information on high performance liquid chromatography office b pharm m pharm


  • Handbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis by HPLC, S. A huja and M.W. Dong , Ed s. (Elsevier/Academic Press, 2005).
  • HPLC for Pharma ceutical Scientists, Y.V. Kazakevich and R. LoBrutto, Eds. (Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey, 2007).
  • C.F. Poole, Essence of Chromatography (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2002).
  • Chromatog raphy: A Scien ce of Discovery, R.L. Wixom and C.L . Gehrke, Eds. (Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey, 2010).
  • UHPLC in Life Scie nce s, D. Guillarme, J-L Veuthey, and R.M. Smith, Eds. (Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2012).
  • M. Swartz, M. Emmanuel, A. Awad, and D. Hartley, “Advances in HPLC Systems Technology” supplement to LCGC North Am. 27(4), 40–48 (2009).
  • Mass Spectrometry for Drug Discovery and Drug Development, W.A. Korfmacher, Ed.(Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey, 2013).
  • J.E. MacNair, K.C. Lewis, and J.W. Jorgenson, Anal. Chem. 69, 983–989 (1997).
  • M.W. Dong, LCGC North Am. 25(7), 656– 666 (2007).
  • N. Wu a nd A.M. Clausen, J. Sep. Sci. 30,1167–1182 (2007).
  • D. Gui ll arme and M.W. Dong , Amer. Pharm. Rev., (2013) submitted.
  • M.W. Dong , D. Guillarme, S. Fekete, R. Rangelova, J. Richa rds, D. Prudhomme, and N.P. Chetwyn, J. Chromatogr. A. submitted.
  • L. Sannes, “Commercia lizing Biomarkers in Therapeutic and Diagnostic Application– Overview,” Insight Pharma Report

Important Questions on  HPLC

1. Contrast the advantages and disadvantages of thin layer chromatography
(TLC) versus modern HPLC.
2. What does HPLC stand for?
3. What are the advantages of dual reciprocating pumps have over syringe
4. How much does a basic HPLC system cost?
5. What are the sub-categories of liquid chromatography?
6. What is the difference between normal phase HPLC and reverse phase
HPLC? Which is most commonly used today?
7. What chemical factors determine if a chemical will be analyzed in a GC or LC?
8. Can moderately volatile, thermally stable chemical be analyzed on an LC?
9. Why do we filter analyte solutions before injection into an HPLC?
10. Draw a basic HPLC system and label all of the components.
11. Why are pressurized gases used in HPLC?
12. What two preparatory steps must be taken before a solvent can be used as an HPLC mobile phase?
In general, what is the maximum pressure limit of standard HPLC systems?
13. What is the purpose of the proportioning valve? How does this reduce the cost of an HPLC?
14. What is the difference in isocratic and gradient programming? Why is gradient programming sometimes necessary?
15. Why are dual piston pumps preferred over single piston pumps?
16. What is the purpose of a pulse damper?
17. Why are six-port valves used for injecting samples in HPLC?
18. Draw and explain how a six-port valve works.
19. Why are in-line filters used in HPLC systems?
20. What is the composition of the stationary phase and purpose of the guard
21. What are common stationary phases used in reverse phase HPLC?
22. Why do chromatographers purchase their analytical columns instead of self packing their own?
23. How will a poorly packed column affect performance?
24. What is the relationship between performance (resolution) and stationary
phase particle size?
25. Compile a list of HPLC detectors and provide a list of chemicals each can be
used to analyze.
26. Name three advanced types of LC.
27. Why is U-HPLC superior to standard HPLC?
28. How does IC differ from standard HPLC?
29. What is the purpose of the suppressor column in IC?
30. Draw a suppressor column for cation analysis in IC. Explain how it works.
Hope  you  like  the  article. please  leave  a  comment  if  you  have  any  doubts.

Lab syllabus SYLLABUS FOR 3rd Year B. Pharm. SEMESTER-V

3rd Year B. Pharm Organic Chemistry Lab II

Course Objectives
1. To introduce the learner to the basic techniques of separation of compound mixtures.
2. To introduce the learner to the procedure for identification of organic compounds
3. To introduce the learner to the methods for recrystallization of compounds
Course Outcomes
The learner will be able to:
1. To carry out the separation of simple compound mixtures.
2. To identify organic compounds based on simple tests
3. To recrystallize compounds use single solvent and binary solvent mixtures
List of Experiments:
1) Separation and quantification of binary mixtures by physical and chemical methods.
Identification of one component and confirmation by preparation of a suitable derivative.
Minimum eight binary mixtures, covering a wide variety of types to be studied
2) Theoretical aspects of recrystallization
3) Recrystallization of organic compounds: at least two with the use of different solvents.

3rd Year B. Pharm Pharmaceutics Lab syllabus

To teach the learner the practical aspects of preparation and evaluation of biphasic suspensions and emulsions, semisolid ointments
and creams, suppositories and aerosols formulations for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications.
Course Outcomes
Upon completion of the course, the learner shall be able to:
1. Understand the formulation aspects of biphasic and semisolid dosage forms
2. Explain calculations involved in formulations
3. Describe the importance of quality evaluation of biphasics, semisolids, suppositories, aerosols
No. Details
Formulation and Preparation of the following:
1 Biphasics: Suspensions and Emulsions
1. Paracetamol Paediatric Oral Suspension IP
2. Dry suspension for reconstitution (any one)
3. Antacid Suspension
5. Liquid Paraffin Emulsion IP
6. White Liniment BPC/ Turpentine Liniment IP
7. Evaluation of any one suspension & one emulsion
Evaluation Parameters: Organoleptic Properties, Particle/droplet size, Sedimentation/Creaming volume ,
pH, stability studies, rheology of any one preparation
2 Semisolids
1. Compound Benzoic acid Ointment IP
2. Aqueous Calamine Cream IP
3. Cetrimide Cream IP
4. Diclofenac Gel BP
Evaluation of any one Ointment / Cream
3 Suppositories
1. Glycerin Suppositories USP
2. Paracetamol Suppositories BP/Indomethacin Suppositories IP /
Bisacodyl suppositories IP/ Aspirin Suppositories USP
Evaluation of any one suppository
4 Pharmaceutical Aerosols
Introduction to different devices for inhalation and demonstration of evaluation of a suitable commercial
product for simple tests related to spray and weight / drug content per discharge
5 Cosmetics: Preparation & Evaluation
1. Toothpaste
2. Clear liquid Shampoo
3. Lipstick/ Nail lacquer
4. Vanishing Cream/Cold cream

3rd Year B. Pharm Experimental Techniques in Microbiology and Biotechnology Lab

Course Objectives
To introduce the learner to some of the common techniques used in microbiological work and biotechnology experiments.
Course Outcomes
1. Characterization and identification of bacteria using various staining techniques (morphological study), colony characterization,
serological and biochemical characteristics
2. Analyze quality of raw material, food and water and assessment of extent of microbial contamination using counting technique
and Evaluate sterility of products.
3. To impart the knowledge of bioassay of antibiotic and test antibiotic sensitivity of few antibiotics.
1. Study of microscope and common laboratory equipment e.g., B.O.D. incubator, laminar air flow unit, aseptic hood, autoclave,
hot-air sterilizer, deep freezer, refrigerator.
2. Sterilization of glassware and preparation and sterilization of nutrient broth, agar slants, plates and inoculation techniques.
3. Isolation of pure culture by T plate, pour plate and streak plate methods. Colony characterization and growth patterns in broth,
4. Study various staining techniques such as Gram Staining, Spore, Negative staining, Cell wall staining, Capsule,
Motility by hanging drop technique.
5. Bacteriological analysis of water (IMVIC and MPN)
6. Test for sterility as per IP (Injection water/ nonabsorbent cotton/soluble powder/ear drops).
7. Antimicrobial assay of antibiotic using cup plate method, introduction to zone of inhibition and calculation.
8. Study drug resistance using antibiotic sensitivity testing
9. Biochemical tests (Catalase, Oxidase, Urease, Nitratase, Protease, Gelatinase, Phosphatase, Amylase).
10. Demonstration experiments
a. Thermal death time and thermal death point.
b. Effect of Ultra-Violet exposure on growth of E. coli.
c. Selection and isolation of bacteria by replica plating.
d. Widal test
e. Counting of bacteria by total count, viable count, and biomass determination method


Pharma Related Associations You should know – Pharmaceutical Business Federations India

Pharma Related Associations You should know - Pharmaceutical Business Federations India

DDTA-(Delhi Drug Traders Association)
RCDA-(Raipur Chemist & Druggist Association) AICDF-(All
India Chemist & Distributor Federation) RCA-(Rajasthan
Chemist Association)
Sreema Medical Stores
Sikkim Chemists Association
Bengal Chemists’ & Druggists’ Association Ahmedabad
Chemists Association
Federation of Gujarat State Chemists’ & Druggists’
Pharmaceutical Wholesalers Association
Navi Mumbai Retail & Wholesalers Association
Retail & Dispensing Chemist Association
Ratnagiri District Chemist & Druggist Association
Tripura Chemists’ & Druggists’ Association
Anand Chemists’ Association
Gwalior Chemist Association
Jhansi Chemist Association
Jabalpur Chemist & Druggist Association
Bhopal Chemist Association
Indore Chemist Association
Indian Drug Manufacturers’ Association (Tamil Nadu,
Kerala & Puducherry State Board)
The Retail Chemists & Druggists Association, Vijayawada
Kurnool District Druggist Association
Andhra Pradesh Chemists & Druggists Association
Bulk Drug Manufactures Association (India)
All Pharma Chemists & Druggists Association of Telangana
Karnataka State Pharmacy Council
Madras Pharmaceutical Wholesalers Association
The Bangalore District Chemist & Druggists Association
(V. Harikrishnan, President)
Chandigarh Chemist Association
CIPI (Confederation of Indian Pharmaceutical Industry)
Raipur District Chemist & Druggist Association
All India Chemist & Druggist Federation
Lucknow Chemist Association
Pharma Distributor Association
Patna Chemist and Druggists Association
Agra Mahanagar Chemist Association
Indian Pharmacist Association
The Chemist & Druggist Association, Baroda

Pharma Related Associations You should know – Pharmaceutical Business Federations India

please add if you know any other associations in the comment section below