Complete Renewal Procedure PCI Registration Andhra Pradesh Pharmacy Council

PCI pharmacy renewal Andhra Pradesh

Complete Procedure to Renew Your Andhra Pradesh Pharmacy Council Registration.

 Validity of your Andhra Pradesh pharmacy council registration expired? No need to worry now, here is your step by step guide to renew your AP Pharmacy council registration online.

It is very easy and hassle free now to renew your registration at Andhra Pradesh pharmacy council. Just by uploading necessary documents on the official website of the AP pharmacy council you can easily get your renewal certificate by your e-mail id  without necessarily appearing to the council office.

“My pharmacy council registration has expired and i am not able to reach out to the pharmacy council office to register for the updated certificate”. If you are facing the same issue then you should follow the procedure defined below and sit back as the Renewal Certificate will be delivered to you through your e-mail id.

 Online method for AP Pharmacy Council registration renewal:

 

  1. Visit Andhra Pradesh pharmacy council portal
  • Click Online Services Tab from the top
  • Select Renewal tab from the box

(You are advised to read terms and conditions carefully.)

  • Download and fill  the Candidate  Verification Form by Gazetted Officer Click Here ,Self Declaration Form Click Here and in case of unemployed pharmacist  Format of Affidavit on Rs.20/- NON-judicial Paper of Andhra Pradesh Attested by Notary Click Here

  1. Click Agree to the terms and conditions and Proceed to fill the form

  1. FIll up the form with basic informations such as Name, Gender, Father’s

name, Mobile No., E-mail etc in their respective columns

  1. You will recieve Link for Activation and Transaction ID for online

Payment via email and Pharmacist Reference ID to your mobile

  1. (Application)

                 

  1. Fill the application form
  2. Scan and upload the documents (checklist link below) in jpg. or jpeg. format (Below 250 Kb)

 

  1. (Payment)

  1. You will be redirected to Meeseva Online payment gateway
  2. Provide Transaction ID and Pharmacist Reference ID click submit button to complete the process.

After submitting the form, the pharmacy council will intimate you through your email and mobile number after the verification and approval by Registrar of the Council and you will be able to download the Renewal Certificate.

 

Checklist of the documents required for the online registration renewal application form .

ANDHRA PRADESH PHARMACY COUNCIL GUNTUR ADDRESS

D No 25-16-116/1B,

Behind Gowthams Hero Show Room,

Chuttugunta, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh – 522004

Email:[email protected]

[email protected]

MOBILE: +91 8374379304 (only video calls for candidates living outside india)
FAX: 0863 2224525 ( FAX ONLY )
LAND LINE: 0863 2224524

Dry Granulation – STEPS METHOD USES PPT PDF

Dry Granulation

Dry granulation is a powder agglomeration process used in the pharmaceutical industry to improve the flowability of powders by increasing the particle size (granules). This operation is achieved using a roller press, which can have different configurations and equipment designs.
In simple terms Granulation is the process in which primary powder particles are made to adhere to form larger multiparticle entities called granules.

Dry granulation Roller compactor

Dry Granulation Advantages & Limitations:

(Slugging of rollercompaction)
Advantages:
* Eliminates exposure to moisture and drying.
* Dusty procedure.

This is also called double compression or slugging method, this is valuable alternative to direct compression,
where the dose of drug is too high or to wet granulation when the drug is sensitive to heat, moisture or both.
This method is also used when other methods of granulation yield granules with poor flow or compression
properties, because there are less chances of segregation of drug and excipients.

Limitations:
* Not suitable for all compounds.
* Slow process.

Long processing time, a relatively high capital investment on heavy duty presses or compactors.

 

Steps involved in dry granulation process

I. Milling of drugs and excipients
II. Mixing of milled powders
III. Compression into large, hard tablets to make slug
IV. Screening of slugs
V. Mixing with lubricant and disintegrating agent
VI. Tablet compression

 

In dry granulation method the primary powder particles are aggregated at high pressure. There are two main processes – either a large tablet (known as slug) is produced in a heavy duty tableting press( known as slugging) or the powder is squeezed between two rollers to produce a sheet of material (roller compaction) . The two different types are illustrated in below:

Slugging process

how well a material may slug will depend on the below terms

  1. Compressibility or cohesiveness of the matter,
  2. Compression ratio of powder
  3. Density of the powder
  4. Machine type
  5. Punch and die size
  6. Slug thickness
  7. Speed of compression
  8. Pressure used to produce slug

Granulation by slugging is the process of compressing dry powder of tablet formulation with tablet press having die cavity large enough in diameter to fill quickly. The accuracy or condition of slug is not too important. Only sufficient pressure to compact the powder into uniform slugs should be used. Once slugs are produced they are reduced to appropriate granule size for final compression by screening and milling

Slugging (Old Method)Slugging (Old Method) • material to be granulized is first made into a large compressed mass or “slug” typically by way of a tablet press using large flat-faced too long.

Disadvantages of Slugging:

  1. single batch processing
  2. frequent maintenance changeover
  3. poor process control
  4. poor economies of scale
  5. low manufacturing output per hour
  6. excessive air and sound pollution,
  7. Increased use of storage containers,
  8. more energy and time required to produce

Roller compaction:

In a roller compactor material particles are consolidated and densified by passing the material between two high-pressure rollers. The densified material from a roller compactor is then reduced to a uniform granule size by milling.
Roller compaction dry granulation process is capable of handling a large amount of material in a short period of time. As a special subtype briquetting utilizes special designed compaction rolls which divides the compacted powder in pieces (briquettes).
For dry granulation the compaction force in extend and uniformity of distribution is essential in regard to uniformity of granules porosity to ensure uniform hardness and disintegration of the final product. Because of its advantages, roll compaction is being increasingly used as a granulation technique, but it is not a simple process and may involve many variables for example roll pressure, roll speed, horizontal/vertical feed screw speed, roller gap, screen size. These parameters need to be optimized depending on the materials and the type of equipment used in order to obtain products of desirable quality.

Pneumatic Dry Granulation:

The pneumatic dry granulation process is a new and patent pending technology. The granulation process is based on the
use of roller compaction with very low compaction force together with a proprietary air classification method. The method enables production of granules with extraordinary combination of flow ability and compressibility. The granules produced by Pneumatic Dry Granulation and tablets produced show fast disintegration properties, offering the potential for fast
release dosage forms, and Release time can be tailored to requirements.
PDG technology can achieve, high drug loading, even with difficult APIs and combinations along with Taste masking and Excellent stability

 

References:

  1. Ankit Sharma, Pooja sethi, Dinesh pawar. “Granulation techniques and innovations”, Inventi Rapid: Pharmtech, Vol.10, 2011
  2. Himanshu.K.Solanki, Tarashankar Basuri, Jalaram H.Thakkar, “Recent advances in granulation technology, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 3(5), 48,2010 . 11.
  3. Nidhi Prakash Sapkal, Vaishali A. Kilor, Minal Nandkumar Bonde. Application of a convenient and cost and effective granulation technology for the formulation of tablets using conventional excipients, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics – 225-254, 2014.
  4. Rudnic EM, Schwartz JD. Oral solid dosage forms In: Remington: The science and practice of pharmacy Gennaro, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, USA, 2000: 858.
  5. Gohel MC. A review of co-processed directly compressible excipients. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci 2005; 8: 76-93.
  6. Schwartz JB, Fonner DE, Anderson NR, Banker GS. Granulation and tablet characteristics, Lieberman HA, Lachman L, eds. Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Tablets. Vol. 2, New York, Marcel Dekker, 1981:201.

Pharmacy Near ME – Bangalore 24/7 Free Online Home Delivery – Contact

Pharmacy Near ME - Bangalore 24/7 Free Online Home Delivery - Contact

List of 24/7 Pharmacies in Bangalore with shop pharmacy Name  Address Mobile Phone

  • Apollo Pharmacy (A Unit of Apollo Hospitals Enterprises ltd)
    No.06, Ground floor, Railway
    bridge road,Kumara park
    East,560001
    9900054615 Bangalore Circle
  •  SUGUNA NARAYANA HEART CENTRE( UNIT OF NH PRIVATE LIMITED)
    No.1A/87, Dr.Rajkumar Road,
    SUGUNA HOSPITAL -2
    FLOOR,4th N Block,
    Rajajinagar,560010
    9538066577 Bangalore Circle
  • function of hospital pharmacy
  • GREEN APPLE ( A UNIT OF RADIANT HEALTH CARE PVT. LTD.)
    # 2 VITTAL MALYA ROAD, ( In
    patient )BANGALORE560001
    9342497305 Bangalore Circle
  • CYTESPACE RESEARCH PVT.LTD
    K.NO.9/3, NITESH
    BROADWAY, GF, MG
    ROAD,MG ROAD560001
    9986243891 Bangalore Circle
  • SAI HOSPI ESSENTIALS
    #117,DODDABETTAHALLI,
    GFVIDYARANYAPURA
    POST560097
    720436696 Bangalore Circle
  • ALARIC ENTERPRISES # 11/1, 4TH FLOOR, 8TH
    CROSS,MALLESHWARAM560
    003
    8095033311 Bangalore Circle
  •  MANJUSHREE MEDICALS
    SHOP NO.01, NO.13, 7TH
    MAIN, BHUVANESHWARI
    NAGAR,HESARAGHATTA
    MAIN ROAD,560057
    9611297373 Bangalore Circle
  • COLUMBIA ASIA REFERRAL HOSPITAL
    (PHARMACY)
    # 26/1, SUBRAMANYANAGAR
    INDUSTRIAL
    SUBURB,MALLESWARAM
    WEST560055
    9448051876 Bangalore Circle
  • People Tree Pharma (Unit of TMI Healthcare Pvt.Ltd)
    No.2, Service Road, Opp.Taj
    Vivanta, Tumkur Road,NH-4,
    Gorguntepalya,
    yeshwanthpur,560022
    9886058284 Bangalore Circle
  • AVEKSHA MEDICALS (AVEKSHA HOSPITAL PREMISES)
    NO.647/4,5,6/102/103/121/122A
    , GF, VARADARAJASWAMY
    LAYOUT,SINGAPURA
    VILLAGE, M.S.PALYA,
    VIDYARANAYAPURA
    POST,560097
    9886553086 Bangalore Circle
  • MANIPAL NORTHSIDE HOS,O.P. PHARMA(A UNIT OF MANIPAL HEALTH
    NO.5/2, 8TH MAIN ROAD,
    13TH CROSS,
    GF,MALLESHWARAM560003
    9740311505 Bangalore Circle
  • FAMILY PHARMA ( A
    UNIT OF FAMILY
    HEALTH PROVIDERS
    PVT, LTD.)
    NO.423/2, NEW NO.11/1, 60ft,
    Rd,1st MAIN 1st STAGE,
    GOKULAMATHIKERE MAIN
    ROAD, MATHIKERE560054
    9448189988 Bangalore Circle
  • PALS HEALTHCARE #15, Shop No.02, 1st Floor,
    Aditya Nagar,1st stage,
    Chickkabettahalli,
    Vidyaranyapura(P)560097
    8904087542 Bangalore Circle
  • FRANK ROSS PHARMA
    (A DIVISION OF EMAMI
    FRANK ROSS LTD)
    NO.53,GF,RATAN MAHAL
    LODGE COMPLEX,4 th
    CROSSSAMPIGE
    ROAD,MALLESHWARAM560003
    9535056899 Bangalore Circle
  • Religare Wellness
    (Religare Welness ltd)
    Old No;37, New No;36, Castle
    street,Ashok Nagar,560025
    9663368681 9663368681 Bangalore Circle
  • JENUSHREE MEDICALS & GENERAL STORES
    NO-115/1, GROUND FLOOR,
    6TH CROSS, BAPUJI
    LAYOUT,Opp. CHANDRA
    LAYOUT CANARA
    BANK,560040
    9448949830 Bangalore Circle
    4-
    43329 CHAYA PHARMA NO.6, (GROUND FLOOR), 5TH
    MAIN,O.M.B.R. LAYOUT,
    B.CHANNASANDRA ,560043
    9880847339 Bangalore Circle
  •  PLASMAGEN BIOSCIENCES PVT.
    LTD.
    #1342, ground floor, Dr.
    Shivaramkaranth
    Nagar,M.C.E.H.S Lay out,
    Yelahanka Hobli560064
    9731557200 Bangalore Circle
  • SHREE RANGANATHA
    MEDICALS
    #493,GF,17TH
    CROSS,JAKKUR
    LAYOUT560064
    9611261394 Bangalore Circle
  • CHAITANYA PHARMA NO.971/24, K.H.B.COLONY, A
    SECTOR,YELAHANKA NEW
    TOWN,560064
    9845625363 Bangalore Circle
  • APPLE PHARMA APPLE HOSPITAL, PLOT NO.
    17/B-18, 19, 20 C
    SECTOR,YELAHANKA NEW
    TOWN, YELAHANKA,
    DODDABALLAPURA MAIN
    ROAD,560064
    9945690149 Bangalore Circle
  • M/S PRUNUS
    LIFESCIENCES INDIA
    PVT LTD
    NO. 7, SRI MATHA, RAJA
    RAJESHWARI
    BLOCK,HEBBAL,560024
    9482510759 Bangalore Circle
    5-
    38024 Sure Fertilityy (India) Pvt
    Ltd
    No 115,Kodihalli,Old Airport
    road560017
    9900533338 Bangalore Circle
  • St. Johns Medical
    Collage Hospital Pharma
    St. Johns Medical Collage
    Hospital CampusSarjapura
    Road560034
    9999999999 Bangalore Circle
  • St.JohnS Medical
    College Hospital Pharma
    (2nd Floor)
    No-67-3-141/2, 2nd Floor
    St.JohnS Medical College
    HospitalPremises Sarjapur
    Road560034
    8022065000 Bangalore Circle
  • St.JohnS Medical
    College Hospital Pharma
    (3rd Floor)
    No-67-3-141/2, 3rd Floor
    St.JohnS Medical College
    HospitalPremises Sarjapura
    Road560034
    8022065000 Bangalore Circle
  • St.JohnS Medical
    College Hospital Pharma
    (4rd Floor)
    No-67-3-141/2, 4th Floor,
    St.JohnS Medical College
    HospitalPremises Sarjapura
    Road560034
    9036178807 Bangalore Circle
  •  Munipal Hosptal ICU
    Pharma
    No.133, (old No. 98), 3rd Floor,
    Manipal HospitalRustom Bagh,
    Old Airport Road,560017
    9844582343 Bangalore Circle
  • S&S Pharma Sy. No-29 M/s.Shiva & Shiva
    Orthopadic Hospital
    PrimesesKitegenahalli
    Village560099
    9242820155 Bangalore Circle

Free Home Delivery Pharmacies in Bangalore

  • 24688 Hrudayalaya Pharma &
    General Stores
    No-258/A, Narayana
    HrudayalaBommasandra Ind
    Area, Anekal Taluk,560099
    9900193614 Bangalore Circle
  • 29912 Trust Chemists &
    Druggist Ltd.
    No-86, Hosur
    RoadMadiwala560068
    9902973291 Bangalore Circle
  • 10165 Vijayashree Medicals No-03, G Floor, Bannerghatta
    Main RoadGottigere560083
    9945671947 9980512867 Bangalore Circle
  • 34759 Spring Leaf Healthcare
    Pvt Ltd.
    No-60/3, G Floor, Electronic City
    Next to Andra BankHosur Main
    Road560100
    8867346685 08067345000 Bangalore Circle
  • 42709 THE OXFORD DRUG
    STORES (CHILDERN
    EDUCATION SOCIETY)
    The Oxford Medical Hospital
    and Research Centre,S.No 20,.
    Yedavanahalli, Attibele Hobli,
    Anekal (TQ),562107
    9845037176 Bangalore Circle
  • 44289 SHAKTI MEDICAL AND
    GENERAL STORES
    NO. 9-10-172, SHOP NO.2,
    GROUND
    FLOOR,KUMBARWADA ROAD,
    9448125855 Bidar Circle
    43223 SRI OM SAI MEDICAL
    AND GENERAL STORE
    SHOP NO:1 BUILDING
    NO:1005/1OPP BASAVA HIGH
    AND PRIMARY
    SCHOOL,MANAHALLI
    9448572203 Bidar Circle
    43322 RATNADEEP
    MEDICALS (
    PHARMACEUTICAL
    DISTRIBUTORS )
    CMC NO:12-1-34 & 12-1-37,
    ROOM NO. 1,2 & 3, GROUND
    FLOORNAZARATH COLONY
    ,BEHIND KARNATAKA
    COLLEGE585401
    8861055999 Bidar Circle
    23303 BASAVA MEDICAL
    AND GENERAL
    STORES
    19-91/18,MAIN RAOD 9945511891 Bidar Circle
    28350 NEW BHARATHI
    MEDICAL & GENERAL
    STORES
    DOOR NO: 117/2/1, WARD NO:
    17, GROUND FLOORSHOP
    NO: 1, MAYURA HOTEL
    COMPLEX, DOUBLE
    ROAD583101
    9448234437 9738598776 Bellary Circle
  • 21874 SWETHA MEDICAL &
    GENERAL STORES
    DOOR NO: 81,Opp to GOVT
    PRIMARY SCHOLL,583115
    9448941511 Bellary Circle
  • 11782 BELLARY MEDICALS
    AND GENERALS ( 24
    HOURS )
    STALL NO: 5, WARD
    NO:17,EDIGA HOSTEL
    COMPLEX, COURT
    ROAD,583101
    968600838 Bellary Circle
  • 36341 K.L.E. Pharma Gokak CTS.No.3777/A-1,Main
    Road,591307
    9448420863 08332229977 Belgaum Circle
    34478 B. H. C. S. Pvt. Ltd,
    Lake View Medical
    Stores
    B.H.S. Lakeview Hospital
    Premises,RS. No.73/7, CTS.
    No.11888, Opp. Fort
    Lake590016
    8747945929 Belgaum Circle
  • 20235 THE MEDICAL
    SUPERINTENDENT OF
    BLDEA CENTRAL
    DRUGS STORES,
    SHR.B. M. PATIL HOSPITAL
    AND RESEARCH CENTRE,
    CTS NO. 30-6,WARD NO. 1,
    GROUND FLOOR, ASHRAM
    ROAD,586101
    9448245534 Bijapur Circle
    16123 M.V.J.Medical College &
    Research Centers
    Pharmacy
    K.No: 149, 152/1 &
    150,Dandupalya562114
    8453304403 Bangalore Circle
    Rural
    41182 Sri Basaweshwara
    Medicals , (Unit of
    Basaweshwara medical
    college Hospital &
    Research Center)
    Katha No. 6891/C , 5th Block
    A.No.14386/C Paediatric
    BlockBasaweshwara medical
    college Hospital Premises NH4
    Bye Pass577501
    9008861111 Chitradurga
    Circle
    44645 Ekadantha Associates 1st Block ,B.M.
    ROAD,BYCHANAHALLI571234
    9845381040 Kodagu Circle
    45975 LIFE LINE HOSPITAL, NO 271,24/18,PONNAMPET
    ROAD,571213
    9448720175 Kodagu Circle
    31992 PRASHANTH PHARMA. DOF-105,KONDANGERI. 9480256291 Kodagu Circle
    22578 CAUVERY MEDICALS NO:5TMC COMPLEX, G T
    ROAD,
    9448887570 Kodagu Circle
    22580 VINOD MEDICALS SHOP NO:4, BLOCK NO:20,
    MUDDU COMPLEX,CHIKPET,
    9845353439 Kodagu Circle
    29241 SRI GANESH
    MEDICALS,
    NO: 29/11A,
    ADHARACOLLEGE
    ROAD,571201
    9448976839 08272229662 Kodagu Circle
    29239 KANARA STORES # 6-7-1,CHOWKI,571201 9916808136 08272229314 Kodagu Circle
    22576 SURAKSHA MEDICALS SHOP NO:1,MAIN ROAD, 9448011434 Kodagu Circle
    24732 JANATHA BAJAR
    MEDICALS,
    SURVEY NO:88/3, SHOP NO:
    1,GOVT BUS STAND, B.M.
    ROAD,
    9448278168 08276274496 Kodagu Circle
    24857 ASHWINI MEDICALS, SMPT 92/8, 1ST BLOCKB.M.
    ROAD,
    9448720102 08272662322 Kodagu Circle
    34277 RAMA MEDICALS # 66/1,MYSORE MANGALORE
    ROAD,571237
    9448582053 08276262412 Kodagu Circle
    31952 SRI GANESH
    MEDICALS,
    HOUSE NO: 16A, R.NO:
    124/B,SIDDAPURA ROAD,
    9448448763 0827446655 Kodagu Circle
    32368 VAISHNAVI MEDICALS BAPU COMPLEX,NEAR BUS
    STAND,
    9880877187 08274249624 Kodagu Circle
    32397 ATHREYA DRUG
    HOUSE,
    NO:15,16 AND 16/2,BLOCK
    NO:10, S. S. RAMA MOORTHY
    ROAD,
    9999999999 08274257483 Kodagu Circle
    31130 MAHAVEER MEDICALS MAIN ROAD,VIRAJPET571218 9008509929 Kodagu Circle
    30947 SRI RAMA MEDICALS, SURVEY NO:37/10, SHOP
    NO:4/46,4TH BLOCK, NANDI
    COMPLEX, KUDIGE
    ROAD,571234
    9448504328 08276320080 Kodagu Circle
    31089 BHAGAVATHI
    MEDICALS,
    NO:521, SURVEY NO:
    35/1,5TH BLOCK, NEAR
    GANAPATHI TEMPLE, MAIN
    ROAD,
    9448217187 08276260205 Kodagu Circle
    31112 BHAGYALAKSHMI
    MEDICALS.
    DOOR NO:49, MUNICIPALITY
    BUILDING,NEAR PRIVATE
    BUS STAND,
    9845537456 08274256457 Kodagu Circle
    31976 AMBIKA MEDICALS, NO:1-135,MAIN ROAD, 9449253701 Kodagu Circle
    31800 SHIFA MEDICALS, SHOP NO: 1, BLOCK NO:1-
    58,BASEMENT FLOOR
    DADUTHI CHOWK, FMC
    ROAD,
    9241986262 9880927707 Kodagu Circle
    38670 GOUTHAM MEDICALS SHOP NO:8, MUDDU
    COMPLEX,G. T. ROAD,
    9448368397 Kodagu Circle
    40336 M.S.COORG
    MEDICALS
    BLDG # 81/5, BLOCK # 5,
    BASEMENT, CORNER
    SHOPINDIRAGANDHI CIRCLE,
    CHOWK571201
    9483615791 Kodagu Circle
    40423 VAATSALYA
    MEDICALS A UNIT OF
    VAATSALYA H.C.S
    PVT LTD.,
    Ass No: 13548/8702, JOLDAL
    HEALTHCARE
    COMPLEX,RATNA GIRI
    ROAD,577101
    9448899572 Chickmagalore
    Circle
    35080 VAATSALYA MEDICAL
    (Unit of Vaatsalya H.C.S
    Pvt. Ltd)
    A. No: 4781/4632A, Room No:
    6,Vaatsalya Hospital Ashirvad
    Health Care Complex , B.H.
    Road577228
    9611948124 Chickmagalore
    Circle
    44688 SREE LAKSHMI
    MEDICARE
    ASS NO: 5858/4185BELT
    ROAD, AMBEDKAR
    CIRCLE577101
    9481157430 Chickmagalore
    Circle
    39244 M/s, Sri Amogha
    Enterprises,
    01, Kathe No C20/15,Sampige
    Road,571313
    9980562848 Chamarajanagar
    Circle
    41549 SRI VIGNESHWARA
    DISTRIBUTERS
    #2069/12, 1st Floor, Davalagi
    Building2nd Main, 2nd Cross,
    MCC A Block
    9844690777 Davanagere
    Circle-
    19269 Basaveshwara Drugs &
    Ssurgical -UNIT II
    Building No. 1-11, G. F. HKES
    Society,Basaveshwara Teaching
    And General Hospital
    PRE585105
    8886858578 Gulbarga Circle
    25049 Vaatsalya Life Hospital
    Medical Store
    Site No: 178/19 to 178/23,
    SY.No. 117/1-4, inside
    VaatsalyaHospital, Ground
    Floor, Badepur RTO Cross,
    Sedam Road,585105
    9742725786 Gulbarga Circle
    46070 SDM PHARMA-IV BUILDING NO.114/3 TO 120/1,
    GR. FLOOR,SDM COLLEGE
    OF MEDICALSCIENCES &
    HOSPITAL, SUPER
    SPECIALITY HOSPITAL
    BLOCK,580009
    9742267797 Dharwad Circle
    25925 SRI
    CHANNAVEERESHWA
    R MEDICAL AND
    GENERAL STORES.
    VPC NO.75K,BASAVESHWAR
    TEMPLE ONI,
    9886864120 294232 Dharwad Circle
    18343 Kavyashree Medicals K.No:1483/1239,Chikkamagalur
    u Road, Nehru nagar573115
    9620335060 Hassan Circle
    46281 VEERAPUR MEDICALS CTS NO. 28 D, PLOT NO.2,
    GROUND FLOOR,NEXT TO
    VEERAPUR MULTI
    SPECIALITY
    HOSPITAL,581110
    8095441380 Haveri Circle
    45265 M/s. Punyakoti Medical
    and General Stores
    Katha No.1392,Ground
    floor,Opp.Govt Hospital, Main
    road563139
    9448722271 Kolar Circle
    20209 M/s.Apollo Hospital
    Enterprises Ltd Unit of
    Apollo Pharmacy
    Survey
    no:3571/3441/2878,Shop no04MC road563131
    9999999999 08159243344 Kolar Circle
    44064 NEW SRI SAI GANESH
    PHARMA
    PROP NO: 2-1-66, GROUND
    FLOOR, WARD NO: 03,SRI
    SHARANABASAVESHWARA
    TEMPLE ROAD, NEAR
    ESHWAR TEMPLE,583229
    9480794140 Koppal Circle
    45261 APOORVA MEDICAL &
    GENERAL STORES
    PROP NO: 9-3-72/2, WARD
    NO: 04,BEHIND GOVT. CHC
    HOSPITAL,583232
    9538491363 Koppal Circle
    41399 Adichunchanagiri
    Hospital Pharma
    no-2, sy no-42/E, gd
    flr,Adichunchanagiri hospital &
    Research centres
    premises571448
    9742574778 Mandya Circle
    46065 Sri Kalabhyraveshwara
    Pharma
    K no-D6/2373/9648/361/A, 2nd
    flr, 2nd rossNehru nagar
    9945629834 Mandya Circle
    13358 Trust Chemist &
    Druggist Limited
    2, Sri Adichunchanagiri Hospital
    & Research centre,N.H.48,
    B.G.Nagar
    9845226989 Mandya Circle
    37566 Vikram Pharma K.No-1220,(D5/271/1219B) &
    (D5/272/1220), gd flrVikram
    Hospital Premises, 3rd Cross,
    Ashok nagar
    9008489261 0821-241212 Mandya Circle
    24401 KMC HOSPITAL
    MEDICAL STORES,((A
    UNIT OF MANIPAL
    ENTERPRISES
    DOOR NO.14-3-211/3,
    GROUND
    FLOOR,DR.AMBEDKAR
    CIRCLE,575001
    9901677117 0824-2444590 Mangalore Circle

    40874 M/s Yenepoya Medical
    College Hospital Medical
    Stores ( Yenepoya
    University)
    D.No.2-331/15, Room No. 3 D
    Wing, Basement FloorYenepoya
    Medical College Hospital575018
    9249436909 Mangalore Circle

    42649 M/s. RADHA
    MEDICALS ( A UNIT
    OF SAI RADHA
    PHARMA (I) PVT. LTD.,
    DOOR NO. 4-6-574/11-14,
    GROUND FLOOR, BRIGADE
    PLAZA,K.R. RAO ROAD,
    KARANGALPADY,575003
    9243310605 Mangalore Circle

    45869 MYSORE MEDICALS # 891/2, OPPOSITE
    VAATSALYA
    HOSPITAL,N.S.ROAD,
    LAKSHMIPURAM570004
    8095831607 Mysore Circle 2
    44814 SRI. CHAMUNDI
    PHARMA
    # 452, SHOP # 1, 1ST
    FLOOR,CHAVADI STREET,
    M.G.ROAD570004
    9900252833 Mysore Circle 2
    43213 ISH KRUPA NO. 2/1, PEER KHAN
    STREETOFF CHAMUNDI
    VIHAR STADIUM,
    NAZARBAD570010
    9480029837 Mysore Circle 2
    43496 ARYAN PANACEA SHOP NO. 4, # 199, B
    BLOCK10TH MAIN ROAD,
    J.P.NAGAR570008
    9743514071 Mysore Circle 2
    45222 SURGICAL
    CORPORATION
    31/A, MASHALLAH COMPLEX,
    MAHDEVPURA HUDCO
    EXTENSIONLASHKAR
    MOHALLA, UDAYAGIRI570019
    9448281723 Mysore Circle 2
    46041 AAYUSHMAN
    MEDICALS
    # 2/206,
    DEVAIYANAHUNDI,SRIRAMPU
    RA, 2ND STAGE,570023
    9916688379 Mysore Circle 2
  • 45945 VENKATESHWARA MEDICALS
    # 42, SHOP # 2, 1ST MAIN,2ND
    CROSS, J.C.NAGAR,570011
    9901996913 Mysore Circle 2
  • 44508 DRUG CENTRE, JSS HOSPITAL[ JSS MEDICAL SERVICES TRUST]
    # 1219, FIRST FLOOR, JSS
    HOSPITAL,M.G.ROAD,570004
    9900182215 Mysore Circle 2
    23925 KARNATAKA MEDICAL
    & GENERAL STORES
    SHOP NO. 6-1-70 (O), 6-1-81
    (N)MAIN ROAD,
    9972891260 Raichur Circle
  • 34997 IMPANA MEDICALS KHATA NO.
    835A/15/86A/411/598/311A, GR
    FLIMPANA HOSPITAL,
    VIVEKANANDA NAGAR, B M
    ROAD,562159
    948880996 Ramanagara
    Circle
    39450 APARNA MEDICALS
    AND GENERAL
    STORES
    ROOM NO 03, S NO 36/1A,
    GROUND FLOOR,W
    NO04HOLEHONNUR ROAD
    VIDYA NAGAR
    9449699193 Shimogga Circle
  • 43354 OLO GOOD HEALTH
    PHARMA
    Ward No:19, Khata No:208-198-
    248 & 209-199-249,3rd Floor,
    Louisa Mansion, Old Post Office
    Road577202
    9916024333 Shimogga Circle
  • 45923 Malleshwara Pharma W No 8, K No 526-525-37-38/4,
    Shop No 1, Bellibetta
    Complex,Basaveshwar Nagar,
    2nd Cross, Savalanga
    Road,577201
    9916124199 Shimogga Circle
  • 46231 SARJI PHARMA W No 5, Plot No 11, UPOR No
    S12-5786, Ground Floor,Sarji
    Hospital Premises, R.M.R.
    Road, Park Extension,577201
    9448899572 Shimogga Circle

Functions of Hospital Pharmacy PPT PDF

function of hospital pharmacy

Primary Function of Hospital Pharmacy:

  1. Selection of reliable suppliers
  2. storing and dispensing of Drugs
  3. Determining specifications of the required medicament
  4. Maintenance of manufacturing records
  5. quality control of purchased and manufactured products
  6. Manufacturing sterile & non sterile products
  7. Expecting and knowing the hospital demands

What are functions of hospital pharmacy

Functions of hospital Pharmacy PPT

Functions of Hospital Pharmacy Management Panel:

  1. Ensure than all drugs are stored, dispensed correctly
  2.  check the accuracy of the dose prepared
  3. keep proper records and preparation of bills
  4. coordinate the over all pharmaceutical needs of the “patient care”
  5. ensure that the established policies and procedures laid down are
    followed.
  6. maintain professional competence
  7. communicate with all pharmacy staff regarding new developments
  8. co ordinate the activities of the area
  9. To maintain liaison between nurses
  10. Reviewing of drug administration in each patient
  11. provide instruction and assistance to junior Pharmacist
  12. co ordinate over all pharmaceutical services on the running unit level
  13. Identification of drugs bought into hospital by the patient
  14. Obtaining all medication history and communicating all information t
    the attending Physician
  15. assist in the selection of drug products and their identities
  16. monitor patient’s total drug therapy for:
    1)effectiveness 2)side effects 3) toxicity 4) allergic reactions 5)drug interaction
  17. Patient counseling
  18. Participating in cardio pulmonary emergencies
  19. provide in service training and information for:
    * the Pharmacists
    * the pharmacy students
    * nurses and nursing students
    * Physicians and medical students
  20. The pharmacist ensures that:
    • Proper techniques are used in extemporaneous compounding
    • Provides for adequate record keeping and billing
    • Correctly maintaining prescription files
    • Keep the outdoor pharmacy in a neat and tidy manner

General FUNCTIONS OF A HOSPITAL PHARMACIST

  1. To provide and evaluate pharmaceutical services
  2. To draw a plan for hospital pharmacy administration
  3. To establish liaison between administrative authorities and medical Doctors.
  4. To estimate the requirements for the department and enforce the policies and procedures for the recruitment of adequate and competent staff
  5. To develop and maintain an effective system of clinical and administrative records and reports

Oxytocin: Functions Drugs Side Effects Contraindications Pharmacokinetics Dynamics

Oxytocin: Functions Drugs Side Effects Contraindications Pharmacokinetics Dynamics

Oxytocin is a hormone, predominately belonging to mammalian family; it is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. After its release in the blood stream it cannot re-enter the brain due to the presence of blood brain barrier .Oxytocin is a hormone that has both peripheral and central actions. y are synthesized in the magnocellular neurons present in the supra–optic and Para –ventricular nucleus present in the hypothalamus. The universally known functions would include its role at the time of labour and ejection of milk. The functions which remain partially unknown are in erectile responses, ejaculation, bonding, and feeling of love and maintenance of eye contact during a conversation. 

Functions and roles of Oxytocin:

Oxytocin plays a key role in establishing trust , falling in love , parturition , milk ejection, mother – child bond , erection and ejaculatory response in males. Oxytocin insuffiency is leads to increased stress and sleep disturbances. The solution to the above mentioned problem lies in creating a drug which can mimic the functional properties of Oxytocin, which was achieved. Oxytocin has been widely used in the field of gynaecology to induce labour. It is also administered to patients i.e. mothers who are unable to produce milk after parturition. The invention of Oxytocin nasal sprays is not unknown. Recommended doses when administered to autism patients are proven to increase the sense of trust at the time of communication.

Mechanism of OXYTOCIN

Oxytocin is a naturally occurring nonapeptide hormone which acts through a G-protein coupled cell surface receptor to stimulate contractions of the uterus. A synthetic version of this hormone is used to induce contractions of the uterus which are indistinguishable from spontaneous labour.

Pharmacokinetics

Oxytocin is administered as a slow intravenous infusion (to induce or augment labour), or as a single intramuscular or intravenous injection to help prevent and treat uterine atony and postpartum haemorrhage. In pregnant women, oxytocin is metabolised very quickly in the maternal circulation by an aminopeptidase enzyme which cleaves the protein leaving it without biological function. This oxytocinase activity is also seen within the placenta and uterine tissue, and activity increases throughout pregnancy where at term the half -life of oxytocin is between 2 and 20 minutes.

Oxytocin: Functions Drugs Side Effects Contraindications Pharmacokinetics Dynamics

Adverse effects

The main side effects are related to overstimulation of the uterus which can compromise the placental blood supply and fetal well-being, and can also contribute to rupture of the uterus especially in women who have had a previous caesarean delivery. Oxytocin is similar in structure to Vasopressin which is also produced by the posterior pituitary, and prolonged administration with intravenous fluids may lead to fluid overload, pulmonary oedema and water intoxication.

Oxytocin Molecular Formula

It has a molecular formula of C43H66N12O12S 2.

Oxytocin drugs:

Oxytocin is also known as Pitocin, Syntocinon, Ocytocin, Endopituitrina, Oxitocina, Oxytocine, Oxytocinum, Oxytocic hormone and Orasthin.

It has a molecular formula of C43H66N12O12S 2. They are commercially available as intravenous and intramuscular injections , nasal sprays and sublingual tablets .The commonly used Anirudha kabilan /J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol. 6(4), 2014, 220-223 221 drug types are pitocin and syntocinon, the chemical resemblance to Oxytocin makes them an ideal drug of choice for various cases for example at time if parturition . Pitocin is composed of oxtocic acid/ml along with chlorobutanol , a chloroform derivative. However medical supervision is mandatory to rule out the onset of complications (20,31). The general uses of these Oxytocin drugs would include induction of labour .Under appropriate level , at the time delivery, Oxytocin binds to the receptors present in the myometrium , activates the pathway of hydrolysis of phoshotidyl inositol and diacyl glycerol, there by activating the same. This activation causes the release of intracellular Ca+ which causes contraction of the uterus .In conditions associated with low level of Oxytocin production this process is carried out by Oxytocin drugs (29, 27) Incase of people suffering from autism, administration of pitocin is said to reduce repetitive behaviour and also enhances speech. Few researches have proved the improvement of trust in people affected by autism when they were given pitocin nasal sprays. It also enhances eye to eye contact in these individuals. Pitcoin helps in social interaction in people who suffer from schizophrenia . So pitocin may not only combat hallucinogens and psychosis, but also make human interaction easier . Being a new field if research there is not enough evidence to prove the role pitocin in both autism and schizophrenia. Further, they are also used to cure problems in erectile responses, ejaculation, depression, anxiety, and stress management

Dosage of Oxytocin:

10 units by intravenous route or 20-40 mUnit/min by Intramuscular route are injected for post partum haemorrhage. 0.5-1 mUnit/min by intravenous route for the induction of labour.10-20 mUnit/min is administered along with other drugs for termination of pregnancy.

Pharmacodynamics

Uterine contractions are seen after 3-5 minutes and approx 1 minute of aministration through intramuscular and intravenous routes respectively. A steady state of the drug is reached after 40 mins of parenteral route of administration. It is distributed throughout extracellular fluid compartment of the mother; small amounts may cross the placental barrier and reach foetus. Metabolism takes place rapidly via the liver and plasma by the enzyme oxytocinase a few steps of metabolism also takes place via mammary gland. It has a half-life of 1-5 minute. Kidney and liver help in the elimination of Oxytocin drugs( 9) unchanged form of this drug is rarely excreted in urine (30). Overdose can cause titanic uterine contractions, impaired blood flow to the uterus, uterine ruptures, seizures and amniotic fluid embolism contractions, impaired blood flow to the uterus, uterine ruptures, seizures and amniotic fluid embolism.

Contraindications:

Significant cephalopelvic disproportion
Unfavourable foetal positions
Obstetric emergencies which favours surgery
Hyperactive or hypertonic uterus
When vaginal delivery is contraindicated,
Anaphylactic patients, Foetal distress
Polyhydramnios
Partial placenta pervia
Elective labour induction

Side effects

 Nausea or vomiting
 Memory problems or confusion
 Runny nose, sore throat, or coughing
 severe headaches
 hallucinations
 vomiting
 confusion
 Seizures and severe hypertension

Clinical Scenario 1

 Which of the following abnormalities of labor is associated with a significantly increased incidence of neonatal
morbidity?
a. Prolonged latent phase
b. Protracted descent
c. Secondary arrest of dilation
d. Protracted active-phase dilation
Answer: c (Secondary arrest of dilation)
Explanation:
Three significant advances in the treatment of uterine dysfunction have reduced the risk of perinatal morbidity (PNM) and
mortality: (1) the avoidance of undue prolongation of labor, (2) the use of intravenous oxytocin in the treatment of some patterns
of uterine dysfunction, and (3) the liberal use of cesarean section (rather than midforceps) to affect delivery when oxytocin fails.

Clinical Scenario 2

Management of obstructed labor includes all, except:
[AIIMS May 2004]
a. IV fluids
b. Oxytocin use
c. Antibiotics
d. Cesarean section
Answer: b (Oxytocin use)
Explanation:
Two main principles in management of obstructed labor are:
1. Never wait and watch.
2. Never use oxytocin.
In patients of obstructed labor, the uterine contractions (power) are always adequate.
There is a problem with the passage or the passenger.
By increasing the power (by giving oxytocin) we are increasing the risk of rupture uterus.
It is like flogging a dead horse. Uterus is already contracting, and there is no point in increasing the contractions further in
a case of obstructed labor.
The patient should be given IV fluids to correct the dehydration and ketoacidosis, which usually develops due to prolonged
labor. Patient should be given antibiotics to prevent infection, and then steps should be taken to immediately relieve
the obstruction either by instrumental deliver or by LSCS. LSCS may have to be done even if the baby is dead and if vaginal
delivery is not possible, or else rupture uterus will occur.
NOTE: In cases of prolonged labor where there are hypotonic uterine contractions, oxytocin is justified.

Storage Temperature on Label – Freeze Cold Cool Dry Label Storage Temperature

Storage Temperature on Label - Freeze Cold Cool Dry Label Storage Temperature

Hello buddies. Pharmawiki.in here with another amazing and most important article “Storage Temperature on Label – Freeze Cold Cool Dry Label Storage Temperature” for all the pharma students pharmacists and any one who is into pharmaceutical field. This article not only helps pharma people but also the general public as we see these terms daily on all the pharmaceutical products we use. Specifically today we are talking about storage temperature on the label. These temperatures and definitions will also help you in many competitive and entrance examinations like GPAT Pharmacist exam, Drug Inspector examination. Then why delay just jump into the points straight away. 

Storage Temperature and Humidity

Specific directions are stated in some monographs with respect to the temperatures and humidity at which official articles shall be stored and distributed (including the shipment of articles to the consumer) when stability data indicate that storage and distribution at a lower or a higher temperature and a higher humidity produce undesirable results. Such directions apply except where the label on an article states a different storage temperature on the basis of stability studies of that particular formulation. Where no specific storage directions or limitations are provided in the individual monograph, but the label of an article states a storage temperature that is based on stability studies of that particular formulation, such labeled storage directions apply. ) The conditions are defined by the following terms.

Freezer

“Freezer” indicates a place in which the temperature is maintained thermostatically between −25° and −10° (−13° and 14°F).

Cold

Any temperature not exceeding 8° (46°F) is “cold.” A “refrigerator” is a cold place in which the temperature is maintained thermostatically between 2° and 8° (36° and 46°F).

Cool

Any temperature between 8° and 15° (46° and 59°F) is “cool.” An article for which storage in a cool place is directed may, alternatively, be stored and distributed in a refrigerator, unless otherwise specified by
the individual monograph.

 Controlled Cold Temperature

Storage Temperature on Label - Freeze Cold Cool Dry Label Storage Temperature

“Controlled cold temperature” is defined as temperature maintained thermostatically between 2° and 8° (36° and 46°F), that allows for excursions in temperature between 0° and 15° (32° and 59°F) that may be experienced during storage, shipping, and distribution such that the allowable calculated mean kinetic temperature is not more than 8° (46°F). Transient spikes up to 25° (77°F) may be permitted if the manufacturer so instructs and provided that such spikes do not exceed 24 hours unless supported by stability data or the manufacturer instructs otherwise.

Room Temperature

“Room temperature” indicates the temperature prevailing in a working area.

Controlled Room Temperature

“Controlled room temperature” indicates a temperature maintained thermostatically that encompasses the usual and customary working environment of 20° to 25° (68° to 77°F); that results in a mean kinetic temperature calculated to be not more than 25°; and that allows for excursions between 15° and 30° (59° and 86°F) that are experienced in pharmacies, hospitals, and warehouses. Provided the mean kinetic temperature remains in the allowed range, transient spikes up to 40° are permitted as long as they do not exceed 24 hours. Spikes above 40° may be permitted if the manufacturer so instructs. Articles may be labeled for storage at “controlled room temperature” or at “up to 25°”, or USP Pharmacists’ Pharmacopeia

General Notices other wording based on the same mean kinetic temperature. The mean kinetic temperature is a calculated value that may be used as an isothermal storage temperature that simulates the nonisothermal effects of storage temperature variations.  An article for which storage at controlled room temperature is directed may, alternatively, be stored and distributed in a cool place, unless otherwise specified in the individual monograph or on the label.

Warm

Any temperature between 30° and 40° (86° and 104°F) is “warm.”

 Excessive Heat

“Excessive heat” means any temperature above 40° (104°F).

Protection From Freezing

Where, in addition to the risk of breakage of the container, freezing subjects an article to loss of strength or potency, or to destructive alteration of its characteristics, the container label bears an appropriate instruction to protect the article from freezing.

Dry Place

The term “dry place” denotes a place that does not exceed 40% average relative humidity at Controlled Room Temperature or the equivalent water vapor pressure at other temperatures. The determination may be made by direct measurement at the place or may be based on reported climatic conditions. Determination is based on not less than 12 equally spaced measurements that encompass either a season, a year, or, where recorded data demonstrate, the storage period of the article. There may be values of up to 45% relative humidity provided that the average value is 40% relative humidity. Storage in a container validated to protect the article from moisture vapor, including storage in bulk, is considered storage in a dry place.

I hope this Storage Temperature on Label – Freeze Cold Cool Dry Label Storage Temperature article helped you. You need to know the definitions of these exactly to know where to store your medicines.

HOW TO FILL AN OMR ANSWER SHEET – UPSC APPSC GPAT Exams

HOW TO FILL AN OMR ANSWER SHEET

Tod we will discuss HOW TO FILL AN OMR ANSWER SHEET in the recent examinations. All the public service commissions and other government private and entrance examination are likely to follow the same pattern of OMR marking answering system for the evaluation. I think this is the best evaluation and one need to be very careful while filling up the form. So, We thought to publish an article on your favorite pharmawiki.in to help all the students and other aspirants to have a safe practice while attempting your examinations.

HOW TO FILL AN OMR ANSWER SHEET – UPSC APPSC GPAT Exams

First let us start with a picture of Sample OMR sheet. Have a look at it keenly.

 

Sample OMR Sheet

HOW TO FILL AN OMR ANSWER SHEET

INSTRUCTIONS for filling OMR Sheet

Fill boxes in BLUE/BLACK ball point pen only.

INSTRUCTIONS for filling OMR Sheet

Darken the circles by BLUE/BLACK ball point pen only.

Sample OMR Sheet

Do not write anything else on this OMR sheet.

Darken the circles only like this.

UPSC INSTRUCTIONS for filling OMR Sheet

Roll Number

EXAMPLE:
IF YOUR ROLL NO IS “06393”
YOU MUST DARKEN AS SHOWN BELOW

hall ticket INSTRUCTIONS for filling OMR Sheet

SET CODE IS “D”

 

IF YOUR QUESTION SET CODE IS “D”
YOU MUST DARKEN AS SHOWN BELOW

 

entrance exam INSTRUCTIONS for filling OMR Sheet

DATE OF BIRTH

IF YOUR DATE OF BIRTH IS 06/05/1997
YOU MUST DARKEN AS SHOWN BELOW

 

This is another important section for you to concentrate and do the work. You need to fill the bubble with right date of birth if not you may be out as it can be a reason for your disqualification in the examination you are giving right now for your better  career prospects. So be careful while filling your entire OMR sheet.

Appsc INSTRUCTIONS for filling OMR Sheet

IMPORTANT POINTS :
1. “SET CODE” -AS MENTIONED IN THE QUESTION PAPER.
2. 5 (FIVE) DIGIT WRITTEN ROLL NUMBER -AS MENTIONED IN PERFORMANCE -CUM-IDENTITY CARD
3. DATE OF BIRTH – As mentioned in the application form

I hope our article “HOW TO FILL AN OMR ANSWER SHEET – UPSC APPSC GPAT Exams” helped you to a small extent before you take up any offline competitive exams. This is a small guide to the instructions for filling the omr sheet without any mistake as our exams are very important to us. All the best my friends and I wish you all the very best for all your future endeavors. May God Bless.

Percentage of Marks You Need To Maintain In M. Pharm Course

Percentage of Marks You Need To Maintain In M. Pharm Course

Let us discuss Percentage of Marks You Need To Maintain In M. Pharm Course: First of all let us gather some general idea about the degree course of Master of Pharmacy (M. Pharm). It is a 2 year post graduate course that trains the students imparting the knowledge of practical aspects of topics like industrial operations, instrumental techniques, research methodologies and emerging areas. In order to take admission to an M. Pharm course, you should have a B. Pharm degree from a PCI-approved institute and should have scored at least 55% marks over the 4 years of the graduate course. In M. Pharm course too, at the end of every semester candidates are to appear for examinations. At the end of last semester, the candidates also need to submit thesis. It offers specializations in subjects for which Post-graduate degree in pharmacy can be awarded by the Indian universities are as below:-

  • Pharmaceutics
  • Industrial Pharmacy
  • Nutrition pharmacy
  • Oncology pharmacy,
  • Psychiatry pharmacy,
  • Nuclear pharmacy
  • Infectious disease pharmacy.
  • Pharmaceutical Technology
  • Pharmaceutical Chemistry
  • Pharmaceutical Analysis
  • Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance
  • Regulatory Affairs
  • Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
  • Pharmacy Practice
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacognosy
  • Phytopharmacy & Phytomedicine
  • Cardiovascular pharmaceutics
  • Medicinal chemistry and pharmacognosy

The other specialties can be prescribed by the Pharmacy Council of India from time to time.

The academic semester shall consist of a minimum of 15 weeks or tentative 90 instructional days. A minimum of 75% attendance in the theory and practical of each subject is compulsory for appearing at the external (university) examination. Now to clear the examination paper of any subject, candidates must obtain at least 40 percentage of the marks (including sessional marks) in theory and practical separately in each subject and in addition must obtain at least 50 percentage of the total marks (including sessional marks) assigned to the subject examination. To pass a subject, a candidate must appear in theory and practical at a time. For each internal (sessional) examination Twenty (20) marks shall be allotted and Eighty (80) marks for external (university) examination in theory and/or practical of each subject. The internal (sessional) marks in practical are allotted based on the actual performance in one internal (sessional) examination of 10 marks and attendance record, conduct, practical performance, laboratory records, viva, inclusive of another 10 marks. On the basis of average of all semester leading to award of the degree of M.Pharm the classes of percentage are determined. Percentage to be awarded is 70% or more for First class with Distinction. For percentage of 60% or more, but less than 70% the student gets First class and for 50% or more, but less than 60% it will be Second class. For the percentage below 50% are considered as Pass class.

Percentage of Marks You Need To Maintain In M. Pharm Course

Thus to maintain the M.Pharm course 50% of the marks are necessary. It’s obvious for a candidate to score high in the M.Pharm degree the students must work hard as it is a higher degree and it requires knowledge to become an expertise.

How To Become A MedPlus Pharmacy Franchisee in India? Profitable Money Making Pharma

Here in this article give you a perfect answer for you with your question How to get a pharmacy franchise in India. This will also help you to know more about other questions like Is a Mediplus franchise profitable? How much money can I make from a franchise of MedPlus? in detail.

How To Become A MedPlus Pharmacy Franchisee in India ?

Pharmacies can be operated all round the year, round the clock because medicines are one of the basic needs and families may cut down on luxuries but continue to purchase medicines to maintain health. When it comes to pharmacy business it’s obviously a recession free business and if the stock is well managed and the necessary products are available in time, then success is assured. The operational activities involved in running a retail pharmacy are similar to a trading business. Operations of pharmacy primarily consist of channelizing the required and some general products from many suppliers and selling them to the end customers through the retail counter.

Who are eligible to become a MedPlus Pharmacy Franchisee?

The experience would really matter alongside the education background. A pharmacist qualification is helpful however at a minimum level the candidate should have completed SSC or Intermediate level education. Ideally a Pharmacy diploma/degree holder can be able to understand the pros and cons of the technicality of the products. Prior experience in Pharmacy or managing a small business is countable. Individuals possessing the quality to work hard, diligent and dedicated would see growth from the inception. The determination to personally manage the pharmacy operations rather than through employees is important and the ability of understanding trade terms, margins, profit & loss in terms of mathematics are sufficient.

Investment Details for MedPlus Franchise

To set up a MedPlus Franchise one requires a total investment up to 20 lakhs depending on the location and the size and condition of the premises. The refundable security deposit to premise-owner/rental advance franchisee fee, interior decors, storage racks, computer systems, branded stationary and initial inventory (stocks) are inclusive of the amount. Of this amount, the franchisee should be able to invest Rs 6-7 lakhs of his own to receive a loan under the special scheme towards remaining investment through State Bank of India across India, subject to having collateral of around 6 lakhs.

Location & Premises Criteria for MedPlus franchisee

The location plays an important role in setting up of the MedPlus franchisee. The clutter size determines the demand of the products availability. Considering any city with more than population count of 50,000 would be suitable for a MedPlus Pharmacy to run. Across India, MedPlus Franchises are being offered only in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka presently.

For the pharmacy premise a minimum of 300 Sq.ft or more is required in the main market area with good frontage and unrestricted access to the customers. The enrollment procedure is simple as any individual interested in joining hands with MedPlus Pharmacy Business can register themselves by dropping a mail at [email protected] or make a call to head office.

Running the Franchise Business

Firstly maintaining necessary registrations, documentation and procedures to comply with the laws of the state and drug regulatory authorities is inevitable. Also, to be able to do the operational activities successfully, a pharmacy should be well versed in these:

  1. Identifying and estimating the demand for the products in the area
  2. Maintaining stock levels of the most sold products and continuous updating of stock over time
  3. Minimizing stock loss due to expiry, damage, theft or pilferage
  4. Locating multiple suppliers for all the products
  5. Negotiating prices, discounts and payment terms with the suppliers
  6. Procuring in time and as per need
  7. Keeping records of customer details, sales data and stock outs
  8. Managing cash with an understanding of costs, revenue, profit and loss
  9. Managing the staff members so as to satisfy customers with great service
  10. Generating demand by marketing and promotional schemes

MedPlus Franchise Training and Support

For setting up a MedPlus franchise one need some help that is backed by the Training & support team. The following services are afforded by the franchisor

  • Assistance in selecting the proper location for the store and all aspects of operating the franchise  
  • Help with store identification and lease finalization, in entire layout plan, branding materials and furniture and systems required.
  • Facilitate a bank loan if required.
  • Supply of all products sold through the store, all types of equipment to manipulate the pharmacy related purchases, sales, bank deposits, customer records without any complications.
  • Training for the franchise and its staff with Audit support.

How To Become A MedPlus Pharmacy Franchisee in India Profitable Money Making Pharma.

MedPlus Franchisee Benefits – Profitable Money making Pharmacy

  • Be the pride owner of the brand in a reputable profession with assured income
  • Get assured of the best training, knowledge, and support for running a large pharmacy because of strong operations expertise and sourcing, technology and execution capabilities
  • Initial credit facility or loan from State Bank of India under a special scheme for about 60% of your basic investment requirement
  • You generate a volume of business that is 2 or 3 times higher than other marketers and enjoy higher customer retention yielding high profit margins.
  • Repeat purchases due to brand pull and enjoy the attractiveness of the loyalty and reward program naming as FlexiRewards

Hope this article have helped you with your question How to get a pharmacy franchise in India. Let us know more about other questions like Is a Medplus franchise profitable? How much money can I make from a franchise of MedPlus? in detail in next articles.

ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION PPT PDF 10 Routes of Drug Administration

Which drug administration route is fastest?,

ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION: The possible routes for drug entry into the body. Most drugs can be administered by a variety of routes. The choice of appropriate route in a given situation depends both on drug as well as patient related factors. Mostly common sense considerations, feasibility and convenience dictate the route to be used. Generally routes of drug administration refer to the right path or the required route through which a drug has to be administered into the body to obtain maximum benefit. Here is the list of  5, 10+ outes of drug administration.

  1. oral
  2. sublingual
  3. rectal
  4. nasal
  5. ocular
  6. otic
  7. inhalation
  8. nebulization
  9. transdermal
  10. Subcutaneous (under the skin)
  11. Intramuscular (in a muscle)
  12. Intravenous (in a vein)
  13. Intrathecal (around the spinal cord

Factors governing choice of route

  1. Physical and chemical properties of the drug (solid/ liquid/gas; solubility, stability, pH, irritancy).
  2. Site of desired action—localized and approachable or generalized and not approachable.
  3. Rate and extent of absorption of the drug from different routes.
  4. Effect of digestive juices and first pass metabolism on the drug.
  5. Rapidity with which the response is desired (routine treatment or emergency).
  6. Accuracy of dosage required (i.v. and inhalational can provide fine tuning).
  7. Condition of the patient (unconscious, vomiting).

Routes of Administration can be broadly divided into those for

(a) Local action and (b) Systemic action.

LOCAL ROUTES

These routes can only be used for localized lesions at accessible sites and for drugs whose systemic absorption from these sites is minimal or absent. Thus, high concentrations are attained at the desired site without exposing the rest of the body. Systemic side effects or toxicity are consequently absent or minimal. For drugs (in suitable dosage forms) that are absorbed from these sites/routes, the same can serve as systemic route of administration, e.g. glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) applied on the skin as ointment or transdermal patch. The local routes are:

  1. Topical

This refers to external application of the drug to the surface for localized action. It is often more convenient as well as encouraging to the patient. Drugs can be efficiently delivered to the localized lesions on skin, oropharyngeal/ nasal mucosa, eyes, ear canal, anal canal or vagina in the form of lotion, ointment, cream, powder, rinse, paints, drops, spray, lozengens, suppositories or pesseries. Nonabsorbable drugs given orally for action on g.i. mucosa (sucralfate, vancomycin), inhalation of drugs for action on bronchi (salbutamol, cromolyn sodium) and irrigating solutions/jellys (povidone iodine, lidocaine) applied to urethra are other forms of topical medication.

  1. Deeper tissues

Certain deep areas can be approached by using a syringe and needle, but the drug should be in such a form that systemic absorption is slow, e.g. intra-articular injection (hydrocortisone acetate in knee joint), infiltration around a nerve or intrathecal injection (lidocaine), retrobulbar injection (hydrocortisone acetate behind the eyeball).

  1. Arterial supply

Close intra-arterial injection is used for contrast media in angiography; anticancer drugs can be infused in femoral or brachial artery to localise the effect for limb malignancies.

SYSTEMIC ROUTES

The drug administered through systemic routes is intended to be absorbed into the blood streamand distributed all over, including the site of action, through circulation

  1. Oral

Oral ingestion is the oldest and commonest mode of drug administration. It is safer, more convenient, does not need assistance, noninvasive, often painless, the medicament need not be sterile and so is cheaper. Both solid dosage forms (powders, tablets, capsules, spansules, dragees, moulded tablets, gastrointestinal therapeutic systems— GITs) and liquid dosage forms (elixirs, syrups, emulsions, mixtures) can be given orally.

Limitations of oral route of administration

  • Action of drugs is slower and thus not suitable for emergencies.
  • Unpalatable drugs (chloramphenicol) are difficult to administer; drug may be filled in capsules to circumvent this.
  • May cause nausea and vomiting (emetine).
  • Cannot be used for uncooperative/unconscious/ vomiting patient.
  • Absorption of drugs may be variable and erratic; certain drugs are not absorbed (streptomycin).
  • Others are destroyed by digestive juices (penicillin G, insulin) or in liver (GTN, testosterone, lidocaine).
  1. Sublingual (s.l.) or buccal

The tablet or pellet containing the drug is placed under the tongue or crushed in the mouth and spread over the buccal mucosa. Only lipid soluble and non-irritating drugs can be so administered. Absorption is relatively rapid—action can be produced in minutes. Though it is somewhat inconvenient, one can spit the drug after the desired effect has been obtained. The chief advantage is that liver is bypassed and drugs with high first pass metabolism can be absorbed directly into systemic circulation. Drugs given sublingually are—GTN, buprenorphine, desamino-oxytocin.

  1. Rectal

Certain irritant and unpleasant drugs can be put into rectum as suppositories or retention enema for systemic effect. This route can also be used when the patient is having recurrent vomiting or is unconscious. However, it is rather inconvenient and embarrassing; absorption is slower, irregular and often unpredictable, though diazepam solution and paracetamol suppository are rapidly and dependably absorbed from the rectum in children. Drug absorbed into external haemorrhoidal veins (about 50%) bypasses liver, but not that absorbed into internal haemorrhoidal veins. Rectal inflammation can result from irritant drugs. Diazepam, indomethacin, paracetamol, ergotamine and few other drugs are some times given rectally.

  1. Cutaneous

Highly lipid soluble drugs can be applied over the skin for slow and prolonged absorption. The liver is also bypassed. The drug can be incorporated in an ointment and applied over specified area of skin. Absorption of the drug can be enhanced by rubbing the preparation, by using an oily base and by an occlusive dressing.

 

Transdermal therapeutic systems (TTS)

 

These are devices in the form of adhesive patches of various shapes and sizes (5–20 cm2) which deliver the contained drug at a constant rate into systemic circulation via the stratum corneum (Fig. 1.2). The drug (in solution or bound to a polymer) is held in a reservoir between an occlusive backing film and a rate controlling micropore membrane, the under surface of which is smeared with an adhesive impregnated with priming dose of the drug. The adhesive layer is protected by another film that is to be peeled off just before application. The drug is delivered at the skin surface by diffusion for percutaneous absorption into circulation. The micropore membrane is such that rate of drug delivery to skin surface is less than the slowest rate of absorption from the skin. This offsets any variation in the rate of absorption according to the properties of different sites. As such, the drug is delivered at a constant and predictable rate irrespective of site of application. Usually chest, abdomen, upper arm, lower back, buttock or mastoid region are utilized. Transdermal patches of GTN, fentanyl, nicotine and estradiol are available in India, while those of isosorbide dinitrate, hyoscine, and clonidine are marketed elsewhere. For different drugs, TTS have been designed to last for 1–3 days. Though more expensive, they provide smooth plasma concentrations of the drug without fluctuations; minimize interindividual variations (drug is subjected to little first pass metabolism) and side effects. They are also more convenient— many patients prefer transdermal patches to oral tablets of the same drug; patient compliance is better. Local irritation and erythema occurs in some, but is generally mild; can be minimized by changing the site of application each time by rotation. Discontinuation has been necessary in 2–7% cases.

 

  1. Inhalation

Volatile liquids and gases are given by inhalation for systemic action, e.g. general anaesthetics. Absorption takes place from the vast surface of alveoli—action is very rapid. When administration is discontinued the drug diffuses back and is rapidly eliminated in expired air. Thus, controlled administration is possible with moment to moment adjustment. Irritant vapours (ether) cause inflammation of respiratory tract and increase secretion.

  1. Nasal

The mucous membrane of the nose can readily absorb many drugs; digestive juices and liver are bypassed. However, only certain drugs like GnRH agonists and desmopressin applied as a spray or nebulized solution have been used by this route. This route is being tried for some other peptide drugs like insulin, as well as to bypass the bloodbrain barrier.

  1. Parenteral

Conventionally, parenteral refers to administration by injection which takes the drug directly into the tissue fluid or blood without having to cross the enteral mucosa. The limitations of oral administration are circumvented. Drug action is faster and surer (valuable in emergencies). Gastric irritation and vomiting are not provoked. Parenteral routes can be employed even in unconscious, uncooperative or vomiting patient. There are no chances of interference by food or digestive juices. Liver is bypassed. Disadvantages of parenteral routes are—the preparation has to be sterilized and is costlier, the technique is invasive and painful, assistance of another person is mostly needed (though self injection is possible, e.g. insulin by diabetics), there are chances of local tissue injury and, in general, parenteral route is more risky than oral.

The important parenteral routes are:

(i) Subcutaneous (s.c.)

The drug is deposited in the loose subcutaneous tissue which is richly supplied by nerves (irritant drugs cannot be injected) but is less vascular (absorption is slower than intramuscular). Only small volumes can be injected s.c. Self-injection is possible because deep penetration is not needed. This route should be avoided in shock patients who are vasoconstricted— absorption will be delayed. Repository (depot) preparations that are aqueous suspensions can be injected for prolonged action. Some special forms of this route are:

 (a) Dermojet

In this method needle is not used; a high velocity jet of drug solution is projected from a microfine orifice using a gun like implement. The solution passes through the superficial layers and gets deposited in the subcutaneous tissue. It is essentially painless and suited for mass inoculations.

(b) Pellet implantation

The drug in the form of a solid pellet is introduced with a trochar and cannula. This provides sustained release of the drug over weeks and months, e.g. DOCA, testosterone.

(c) Sialistic (nonbiodegradable) and biodegradable implants

Crystalline drug is packed in tubes or capsules made of suitable materials and implanted under the skin. Slow and uniform leaching of the drug occurs over months providing constant blood levels. The nonbiodegradable implant has to be removed later on but not the biodegradable one. This has been tried for hormones and contraceptives (e.g. NORPLANT).

 (ii) Intramuscular (i.m.)

The drug is injected in one of the large skeletal muscles—deltoid, triceps, gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, etc. Muscle is less richly supplied with sensory nerves (mild irritants can be injected) and is more vascular (absorption of drugs in aqueous solution is faster). It is less painful, but self injection is often impracticable because deep penetration is needed. Depot preparations (oily solutions, aqueous suspensions) can be injected by this route. Intramuscular injections should be avoided in anticoagulant treated patients, because it can produce local haematoma.

(iii) Intravenous (i.v

.) The drug is injected as a bolus (Greek: bolos–lump) or infused slowly over hours in one of the superficial veins. The drug reaches directly into the blood stream and effects are produced immediately (great value in emergency). The intima of veins is insensitive and drug gets diluted with blood, therefore, even highly irritant drugs can be injected i.v., but hazards are—thrombophlebitis of the injected vein and necrosis of adjoining tissues if extravasation occurs. These complications can be minimized by diluting the drug or injecting it into a running i.v. line. Only aqueous solutions (not suspensions, because drug particles can cause embolism) are to be injected i.v. and there are no depot preparations for this route. Chances of causing air embolism is another risk. The dose of the drug required is smallest (bioavailability is 100%) and even large volumes can be infused. One big advantage with this route is—in case response is accurately measurable (e.g. BP) and the drug short acting (e.g. sodium nitroprusside), titration of the dose with the response is possible. However, this is the most risky route—vital organs like heart, brain, etc. get exposed to high concentrations of the drug.

ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION 10 Fastest routes

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routes of administration PPT

(iv) Intradermal injection

The drug is injected into the skin raising a bleb (e.g. BCG vaccine, sensitivity testing) or scarring/multiple puncture of the epidermis through a drop of the drug is done. This route is employed for specific purposes only.

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