How to become Pharmacist in Canada from India – Registered Pharmacist Clinical Pharmacy Technician

How to become Pharmacist in Canada from India

The Question answered in this article is How to become Pharmacist in Canada from India
Is this really possible?? I will give you the answer right away without bragging. You cannot be a registered pharmacist or a clinical Pharmacist or Pharmacy technician of Canada while you’re in your country like INDIA. But it is really happy to know that you can start the process of becoming a pharmacist in CANADA from India. Although, to finish this process you have to be actually a resident of the CANADA.

To know about how to become a registered pharmacist in Canada you need to first know about PEBC. Wonder what is PEBC? PEBC is an organization assessing the qualifications and competence of candidates for licensing by pharmacy provincial regulatory authorities in CANADA. To be crisp Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada (PEBC) is the national certification body for the pharmacy profession in Canada. The PEBC Board evaluates qualifications, develops and administers examinations including a national Qualifying Examination, and issues Certificates of Qualification. how to become a clinical pharmacist in Canada from India
All you need to know is that there’s no connection between taking the exam and having a PR or express entry or anything about immigration, yet, you will need some sort of visa to be able to enter Canada to take the exams, as long as you can enter and be present for the exam at the time, that all that matters for the PEBC

How to become a Registered Pharmacist in Canada for International students/ Immigration

The PEBC Certificate of Qualification for pharmacy technicians is an entry-to-practice licensing requirement in all provinces that have regulated pharmacy technicians. he PEBC Certificate of Qualification for pharmacists is a licensing requirement for entry-to-practice applicants (whether trained in Canada or elsewhere) in all provinces, except Quebec.

How to be Canadian Registered Pharmacist?
If you are from India or any other country, you need to take PEBC Qualifying Examination to become Pharmacist or Pharmacy technician in Canada. The Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada (PEBC) invites qualified pharmacists and pharmacy technicians to consider participating in the PEBC Qualifying Examination. The PEBC OSCE and OSPE consists of a series of clinical stations designed to assess communication and interpersonal skills and clinical or technical problem solving.
The PEBCQE-Part II for pharmacists is known as an OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination) and the PEBCQE-Part II for pharmacy technicians is known as an OSPE (Objective Structured Performance Examination). The exams are held in major Canadian cities, you can find a list on the website.

How to know more information on PEBC Qualifying Examination

Log on to to know more. The PEBC office hours are Monday to Friday, 9:00 am to 4:00 pm Eastern Time, for receiving telephone calls and written correspondence by regular mail, email and fax. PEBC is not available for in-person candidate visits. Application forms may not be delivered in person, to the PEBC office. Note that the office is closed for lunch between 12:00 noon and 1:00 pm Eastern Time and no telephone calls are received during the lunch break.


Pandemic period allowed the Part 1 of the exam to be conducted online.  PEBC’s multiple-choice computer-based testing (CBT) examinations: the Pharmacist Evaluating Examination and Pharmacist/Pharmacy Technician Qualifying Examination – Part I (MCQ).egardless of where they live in Canada or internationally, candidates have the option to take PEBC’s upcoming exams either on-site at a Prometric test centre or by using Prometric’s ProProctor Remote Proctoring Platform. Please check out the official site for more information.

Medical Sales Representative Important Questions for Interview & Exam

Medical representative job help

Hello readers. Here are thirty Medical Sales Representative Important Questions for  you to attend an job related Interview or an Examination. First three questions are for experience medical reps and all the later are for both freshers and experienced medical representatives.

How to do Competitive Analysis in work field?
(1) Know who is your competitor.
(2) What are the rates of that product.
(3) What is the weight of that product regarding to manufacture price.
(4) Compare your product with weight and price.
(5) Check out the ingredients of your competitor product and figure out which is harmful for patients.
(6) Compare your product does that also contain that ingredients.
(7) Collect information about competitor’s company.
(8) Total no. of depos, workers, product availability, company background and number of products.
(9) Do they have any certificate.
(10) Any frauds about that company


  • What information you need to collect as a medical rep about Product
  • For example if you are talking to a doctor about crocin then collect all information related to crosin first because doctor may ask you about crosin.
  • In my case all the doctors asked something about my products.
  • Now Collect all the good things about your product For example if crosin is my product than you will collect this information:-
  • Ingredients of crosin.
  • Effect of crosin on patients
  • Side effects of crosin.
  • How many doctors have prescribed this products.
  • Weight of product(Many medical representatives do not know what is the weight of their product).


Know the Summary about your company without fail

First gather all the detailed information about your company.
Extract 5 achievement of your company like:-
(1) Any award given to your company.
(2) Approved with ISI Certificate.
(3) No. of offices in country.
(4) Total No. of workers and Total No. of depos.
(5) Total no. of products in market.

Exp & Fresher Medical Sales Representative MCQ  

1. Who controls the Pharmacovigilance regulations on adverse drug reaction events in India?
a. Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO)
b. National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA)
c. Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR)
d. Central regulatory Affairs Division (CRAD)

2. To which of the following should an MSR sell medicinal products?
a. All pharmacies in the area
b. Registered pharmacy only
c. Any new pharmacy
d. Retail shops

3. How can market information on pricing of competitors’ product be gathered?
a. By contacting the competitor’s head office
b. By discussing with the distributor
c. By discussing with the pharmacist
d. By contacting the competitor’s representative

4. What is the best method to gather information on competitor’s delivery schedules?
a. Monitoring promotional camps
b. Monitoring distributor activity
c. Monitoring selling activity of pharmacist
d. Monitoring prescriptions of the doctor

15. Whose activity should be monitored by an MSR?
a. Doctor’s activity
b. Patient’s activity
c. Competitors’ activity
d. Hospital staff activity

6. Which is the best used method to find out competitors’ pricing?
a. Search engine
b. Newspaper
c. Friend’s network
d. Manual survey

7. How is health service activity monitored in a specific area?
a. By attending conferences
b. By following local news papers
c. By interacting with the pharmacist
d. By reviewing medical journals

8. Which one of the following is a method to identify potential client base?
a. Conduct dealers meet
b. Attend regional conferences
c. Monitor health service activity of an area
d. Identify lacunas in competitors product

9. Where should an MSR monitor health service activities?
a. All areas which are accessible
b. Within specific allotted area
c. Hospitals in other geographical areas
d. Pharmacies in other geographical areas

10. Which one of the following is an after sales service to a health service center?
a. Explaining the standards
b. Arranging appointments with doctor
c. Identifying prospective customers
d. Delivering pending orders

11. How does a medical sales representative (MSR) brief the technical data during meetings?
a. By presenting customers profile
b. By presenting product literature
c. By presenting a list of customers met
d. By presenting the number of visits made

12. Who is the key contact person in a hospital to be consulted for sales improvement?
a. HR in-charge
b. Administrative staff
c. Purchase in-charge
d. Nursing staff

13. Who is the contact person at the front office in a hospital?
a. Medical representative
b. Doctor
c. Nurse
d. Receptionist

14. What should an MSR do when a physician looks convinced with the product?
a. Leave, with a promise to return soon
b. Understand the doctor’s likes and dis-likes
c. Continue with the product knowledge
d. Request him to prescribe the product

15. How can a person become a successful medical representative?
a. Complete sales on time
b. Good communicating skills
c. Regular contact with patients
d. Good network with dealers and pharmacies

16. How should the latest clinical data be presented to a health care professional?
a. By highlighting the offers on the product, if purchased
b. By explaining cost impact against competitor product
c. By emphasizing on the salient features of the product
d. By comparing the data against competitor product

17. What type of data should be discussed with health professionals during presentation?
a. Latest market data
b. Personal data
c. Product data
d. Latest clinical data

18. What should an MSR do to improve his professional knowledge?
a. Read educational literature
b. Read latest pharma publications
c. Interact with patients
d. Visit hospitals regularly

19. Which of the following should an MSR refer to for general information about drug regulatory
a. The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act
b. Drugs (Price Control) Order
c. The Drugs and Magic Remedies act
d. Central drugs standard control organization

20. What is the full form of FDA?
a. Fever and Diabetes Administration
b. Food and Drug Administration
c. Fetor and Dental Administration
d. Fatality and Disease Administration

21. What is the basis of recommending changes to the company’s products and services by an MSR?
a. Interrogation of patients
b. Analysis of market data
c. Taking inputs from subordinates
d. Considering discounts offered

22. Which data should be analyzed for product improvement suggestions?
a. NGO and social work information
b. Employee opinion on the popularity of product
c. Product specific market information
d. Data generated from corporate social responsibility activity

23. How can a retail chemist prescription audit (RCPA) help an MSR to improve business
a. It helps allocate extra visits to the respective area
b. It helps to negotiate product pricing against competitor
c. It helps to analyze purity of the product sold
d. It helps to recommend required changes in the product

24. What helps the company to change its products and services?
a. Advertisement
b. Feedback from customer
c. Latest news
d. Distributor behavior

25. What factors are considered while preparing a travel plan to an outstation location?
a. Availability of patients, dealers and nurses
b. Availability of doctors, patients and stockist
c. Availability of colleagues, doctors and subordinates
d. Availability of doctors, pharmacists and dealers

26. How is an appointment with the doctor arranged?
a. By calling the pharmacist and ensuring doctor’s availability
b. By sending an email regarding the date and month of the visit
c. By calling the doctor and confirming his availability
d. By informing the front officer to take doctor’s appointment

27. With whom does a medical representative discuss the needs of the customer?
a. Manager
b. Public
c. Doctor
d. Receptionist

28. What strategies are developed to increase opportunities to meet and connect with contacts in the
healthcare sector?
a. Offer product subsidies
b. Offer free medical checkups
c. Exhibit advertising boards
d. Organize group events

29. What is the purpose of using visual aids for product presentation?
a. To avoid unwanted interactions
b. To exhibit knowledge on presentation skill
c. To please the customer
d. To increase presentation effectiveness

30. What is the key factor to give product demonstrations to customers?
a. To highlight the USP of the product
b. To highlight the value of the product
c. To ensure that customers are happy
d. To state the type of technology used

Cetrizine COLD act Tablet Syrup || Child Adults Dose || Uses || Side Effects || Structure

cetrizine kids adult dosage side affects

Cetirizine comes as a tablet, a chewable tablet, an extended release tablet, and a syrup (liquid) to take by mouth. It is usually taken once a day with or without food.
Cetirizine hydrochloride, is an orally active and selective H1-receptor antagonist. The chemical name is (±) – [2- [4- [ (4-chlorophenyl)phenylmethyl] -1- piperazinyl] ethoxy]acetic acid, dihydrochloride. Cetirizine hydrochloride is a racemic compound with an empirical formula of C21H25ClN2O3•2HCl.

The molecular weight is 461.82

cetrizine kids adult dosage side affects

Cetirizine USES

Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis:

This is indicated for the relief of symptoms associated with seasonal allergic rhinitis due to allergens such as ragweed, grass and tree pollens in adults and children 2 years of age and older. Symptoms treated effectively include sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal pruritus, ocular pruritus, tearing, and redness of the eyes.

Perennial Allergic Rhinitis:

Cetrizine is indicated for the relief of symptoms associated with perennial allergic rhinitis due to allergens such as dust mites, animal dander and molds in adults and children 6 months of age and older. Symptoms treated effectively include sneezing, rhinorrhea, postnasal discharge, nasal pruritus, ocular pruritus, and tearing.

Chronic Urticaria:

Cetrizine is indicated for the treatment of the uncomplicated skin manifestations of chronic idiopathic urticaria in adults and children 6 months of age and older. It
significantly reduces the occurrence, severity, and duration of hives and significantly reduces pruritus.

Citrizine Adult and kids dosages


5 mg
10 mg
Tablet, oral-disintegrating

10 mg
Tablet, chewable

5 mg
10 mg

5 mg/5 ml

5 mg/5 ml

5 mg orally once per day, may increase to 10 mg per day maximum, depending on the severity of the symptoms, not to exceed 5 mg per day in patients over 77 years old

Cetrizine side effects

excessive tiredness
dry mouth
stomach pain

Cetirizine Mechanism of Actions:

Cetirizine, a human metabolite of hydroxyzine, is an antihistamine; its principal effects are mediated via selective inhibition of peripheral H1 receptors. The
antihistaminic activity of cetirizine has been clearly documented in a variety of animal and human models. In vivo and ex vivo animal models have shown negligible anticholinergic and
antiserotonergic activity. In clinical studies, however, dry mouth was more common with cetirizine than with placebo. In vitro receptor binding studies have shown no measurable affinity
for other than H1 receptors. Autoradiographic studies with radiolabeled cetirizine in the rat have shown negligible penetration into the brain. Ex vivo experiments in the mouse have shown that
systemically administered cetirizine does not significantly occupy cerebral H1 receptors.

Cetirizine Pharmacokinetics:


Cetirizine was rapidly absorbed with a time to maximum concentration (Tmax) of approximately 1 hour following oral administration of tablets or syrup in adults. Comparable bioavailability was found between the tablet and syrup dosage forms. When healthy volunteers
were administered multiple doses of cetirizine (10 mg tablets once daily for 10 days), a mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of 311 ng/mL was observed. No accumulation was observed.
Cetirizine pharmacokinetics were linear for oral doses ranging from 5 to 60 mg. Food had no effect on the extent of cetirizine exposure (AUC) but Tmax was delayed by 1.7 hours and Cmax
was decreased by 23% in the presence of food.


The mean plasma protein binding of cetirizine is 93%, independent of concentration in the range of 25-1000 ng/mL, which includes the therapeutic plasma levels


A mass balance study in 6 healthy male volunteers indicated that 70% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in the urine and 10% in the feces. Approximately 50%
of the radioactivity was identified in the urine as unchanged drug. Most of the rapid increase in peak plasma radioactivity was associated with parent drug, suggesting a low degree of first-pass
metabolism. Cetirizine is metabolized to a limited extent by oxidative O-dealkylation to a metabolite with negligible antihistaminic activity. The enzyme or enzymes responsible for this
metabolism have not been identified.


The mean elimination half-life in 146 healthy volunteers across multiple pharmacokinetic studies was 8.3 hours and the apparent total body clearance for cetirizine was
approximately 53 mL/min.

Interaction Studies
Pharmacokinetic interaction studies with cetirizine in adults were conducted withpseudoephedrine, antipyrine, ketoconazole, erythromycin and azithromycin. No interactions were
observed. In a multiple dose study of theophylline (400 mg once daily for 3 days) and cetirizine (20 mg once daily for 3 days), a 16% decrease in the clearance of cetirizine was observed. The
disposition of theophylline was not altered by concomitant cetirizine administration.

Trade names of Cetirizine


A Cet (10mg)
A Cet (60ml)
A Cold
A Cold Susp.
A -Rest
Aalervin Plus (60 ml)
Aaptol CZ
Acet (10mg)
Acit (10mg)
Affycet (10mg)
Aglocet (10mg)
Aglocet (30ml)
Agrocet (10mg)
Agrus NS
Agrus NS
Aiday (10mg)
Airtis (5mg) (Cetirizine)Alcare (10mg)
Alce (10mg)
Alcet (10mg)
Alcet (10mg) (Acron Pharma)
Alcet (10mg) (Acron Pharma)
Alcet (10mg) (Jocund India)
Alcet (10mg) (Pharmatech)
Alcet (Suzikem Drugs) (10mg)
Alday (10mg)
Alday tab (10mg)
Alego (10mg)
Alerbloc (10mg)
Alerbloc (60ml)
Alergid (10mg)
Alergo (10mg)
Alerid (10mg)Alerid (30ml)
Alerid Cold
Alerid Cold
Alertac (10mg)
Alertac (60ml)
Alertac Paed (5mg)
Alervin (10mg)
Alervin (60ml)
Alervin Plus
Alerzo (10mg)
Alger (5mg)
Alger (60ml)
Algine (10mg)
Alid (10mg)
All Care Plus
Allercet (10mg)
Allercet (60ml)
Allercet P (5mg)
Allerhin (10mg)
Allerhin (60ml)
Allerzine (10mg)
Allicet (10mg)
Alocet (60ml)
Alquit (10mg)
Alrin Plus
Alvin (10mg)
Alzine Plus
Ambrolite-D (5mg/10mg/5mg/1.5mg/5mL)
Ambrolite-D (5mg/10mg/5mg/1.5mg/5mL)
Amven-C (2.5mg/30mg)
Analar (10mg)
Analer -C
Ancet (10mg)
Antized (10mg)
Antized (30ml)
Antized Plus
Anzin (10mg)
Arizine (10mg)
Arzyt (10mg)
Atcet (10mg)
Atcet MD (10mg)
Atozine (10mg)
Avcet (10mg)
Avizin (10mg)
Avizin (60ml)
AZ (10mg)
Bancet (10mg)
Bealert (10mg)
Benz AP
Benz -AP
Bio act (10mg)
Bio -Cold
Bioder Plus
Bio-Drug Laboratories Pvt Ltd
Biozin (10mg)
Bocet -BD
Cetiriz (10mg)
Cetiriz (30ml)
Cetirizine (10mg)
Cetirizine-Di Hcl (10mg)
Cetiz (10mg)
Cetiz (10mg) (safe)
Cetiz (10mg) (vega pharma)
Cetlar (10 mg)
Cetlong (10mg)
Cetlong (50ml)
Cetmac (10mg)
Cetmac (30ml)
Cetmax (10mg)
Cet-Max (10mg)
Cetmex (20mg)
Cetnac (10mg)
Cetnaz (10mg)
Cetnet (10mg)
Cetoday (10mg)
Cetoday Plus
Ceton – P
Ceton (10mg)
Ceton (30ml)
Cetos (10mg)
Cetoz (10mg)
Cetpine (30ml)
Cet-Q (10mg)
Cetra (10mg)
Cetracare MD (10mg)
Cetract (10mg)
Cetrad (30ml)
Cetrahist (30ml)
Cetram (10mg)
Cetramac (10mg)
Cetree (10mg)
Cetrezol (10mg)
Cetrezol (5mg)
Cetrezol (60ml)
Cetrezol-D Forte
Cetri (10mg)
Cetri -Plus
Cetricent-DT (10mg)
Cetrich (10mg)
Cetricon (10mg)
Cetrid (10mg)
Cetrid OD (10mg)
Cetridoc (10mg)
Cetriken (10mg)
Cetril (10mg)
Cetril (30ml)
Cetrila (10mg)
Cetrila (60ml)
Cetrila Plus
Cetrila Plus (50 ml)
Cetril-DT (10mg)
Cetrilin (10mg)
Cetrilin (30ml)
Cetrilin (5mg)
Cetrimin (10mg)
Cetrimol (10mg)
Cetrimol P
Cetrimol Plus
Cetrina-MD (10mg)
Cetrine (10mg)
Cetrine (60ml)
Cetrino (10mg)
Cetrisan (10mg)
Cetrish (10mg)
Cetrison (10mg)
Cetrison (60ml)
Cetrisyn (10mg)
Cetritab (10mg)
Cetritop (10mg)
Cetriwal (10mg)
Cetriwin (10mg)
Cetriz (10mg)
Cetrizet (10mg)
Cetrizet (5mg)
Cetrizine (10mg)
Cetrizine (10mg) (Low Cost)
Cetroffin (10mg)
Cetrose (10mg)
Cetscal (10mg)
Cettop (10mg)
Cetup (10mg) (UPS Healthcare)
Ceture-DT (10mg)
Cetven DT (10mg)
Cetvil (10mg)
Cetvil (60ml)
Cet-Z (10mg)
Cetzen (10mg)
Cetzid-DT (10mg)
Cetzikan (10mg)
Cetzin (30ml)
Cetzine (10mg)
Cetzine (60ml)
Cetzy (10mg)
Cez (10mg)
Cezen (10mg)
Cezor (10mg)
Cheston Cold
Cheston Cold (Susp.)
Cistin (10mg)
Cistin (60ml)
Citerid (10mg)
CITI (10mg)
Citiz (10mg)
Citizen DT (10mg)
Citmol -D
Citol (60ml)
Citol DT (10mg)
Citol Plus
Citraclor (10mg)
Citrazan (10mg)
Citri A (10mg)
Citrimin (10mg)
Citrimin (30ml)
Citrimin D
Citrimin D (50 ml)
Citriz (10mg)
Citrizine (10mg)
Cizeb (10mg)
Claritec (10mg)
Cofstop Z
Cold Best
Cold Releive
Cold Relief
Coldace CT
Coldar +
Coldar + (50 ml)
Coldariv – All
Colday Plus
Colday Plus (60 ml)
Coldec (5mg/500mg/10mg/5mg)
Coldeon Plus
Colder + (50 ml)
Coldmed Plus
Coldwar Tab
Cope (10mg)
Coryza – CT
Coszin (10mg)
Coszin (30ml)
CPS – 30
Crab (10mg)
CT (10mg)
CT Cold
CTZ (10mg)
Cypzine (10mg)
CZ 3 (10mg)
CZ 3 (60ml)
Cz Cold
D – CD
D – Ice
D Cet (10mg)
D Quill
Daily (10mg)
Decet -BD
Decet -BD (100 ml)
Decet -BD (200 ml)
Decet -OD
Decocet Plus
Dio 1 (10mg)
Disnee tablets
Dofcet (10mg)
Doriz (10mg)
E Cet MD (10mg)
Ecitra (10mg)
Effmin – CZ
Ekon (30ml)
Ekon DT (10mg)
Ekon DT (5mg)
Elart (10mg)
Elcet (10mg)
Elgnil (10mg)
Elgnil cold
Eltrazin (10mg)
Eltrazin (10mg)
Eltrizin (10mg)
Embargo (10mg)
Encet – D Plus
Encet (10mg)
Encold-P Tablet (5mg/325mg/5mg/30mg)
Endocard India Pvt.Ltd
Enecet (30ml)
Enecet -P
Enocet (10mg)
Esnopil Syrup
Etric DT (10mg)
Etrizin (10mg)
Excet (10mg)
Excet (60ml)
Eze DT (10mg)
Fastcet (10mg)
Fastcet (30ml)
Fazine (5mg)
Fazine DT (10mg)
Fedrine 555
Flamoset (60ml)
Flomicet (10mg)
Floramin (10mg)
Flu 4XN
Flugo Plus
Fomicet (10mg)
Formicet (10mg)
Fulday (10mg)
Grecet (10mg)
Gripcold -Plus
GRS Cet (10mg)
Haricold (100 ml)
Haricold (60 ml)
Hicet (10mg)
Hicet (30ml)
Hicet DT (10mg) (Flora)
Hicet-DC (10mg/10mg)
Hiikold CZ
Hisdin CT (10mg)
Hisnofil (10mg)
Hist OD (10mg)
Histacet (10mg)
Histacet -DA
Histacid (10mg)
Histanit (50ml)
Histazin (10mg)
Histodan Z
Hycet (10mg)
Ifycet – P2
Ifycet DT (10mg)
Ifycet P
Illah (10mg)
IN Cold
Inalam (10mg)
Incetin (10mg)
Incetin (60ml)
Incez (60ml)
Incez DT (10mg)
Incid L (10mg)
Incid L (60ml)
Incold Syrup
Indikof -A
Intazin (10mg)
Intazin (30ml)
Intazin (5mg)
Jecet (10mg)
Jocet (10mg)
Jpee (10mg)
Jyocet (10mg)
Jyocet -P
Kidcet (60ml)
Kidcold Z
Kofcet DT (10mg)
Kofrid D (60 ml)
Kofrid D Syr (100ml)
Kold Clear
Kold Time
Kolder Plus
L Cid (10mg)
L R G (10mg)
Lancizin (10mg)
Lancizin (60ml)
Lecet (10mg)
Lemohist C
Lergi (10mg)
Lexicet (10mg)
Lgnil (30ml)
Lifcet (10mg)
Lifcet Cold
Lifcet Cold (60 ml)
Lynacold (60 ml)
M Cet (10mg)
M Cet (30ml)
M Cit DT (10mg)
Marcold Tab
Mcet (10mg)
Mcet (30ml)
Metacet -Cold
Metriz (10mg)
Morazin (10mg)
Morazin (60ml)
MucoRespules-CZ (30mg/2.5mg/5mL)
Myzin (10mg)
N Cet Cold
N Zin (10mg)
N Zin (30ml)
Nacet (10mg)
Nam Cold (60 ml)
Nam Cold Paed DPS (125mg/15mg/2mg)
Nam Cold paed drops
Nam Cold Syr
Nam Cold Z
Natcold Plus
Nbcet (10mg)
Nemeriv – CP
Neusonil (10mg)
Nimucet Cold
Nine Cold (325mg/10mg/5mg/30mg/100mg)
No Aller (10mg)
Noalzy (10mg)
Noalzy Plus
Noco Syp
Nucod -PP
Nymopt Cold
Ocet (10mg)
Ocitiriz (10mg)
Odacet (10mg)
Odacet (30ml)
Odacet (60ml)
Odiday (60ml)
Odiday DT (10mg)
Okacet (30ml)
Okacet cold
Olcet (10mg)
Olcit (10mg)
Onacold SF
Onacold Syrup
Oncet (10mg)
Oncet -CF
Oneday (10mg)
Opner -Fast
Opticet (10mg)
Osalka (100ml)
Oshzin (10mg)
P -Cold
P -Dex Cold
Pace (Bewell)
Pamagin C
Pamagin C tab
Pancet (10mg)
Paracet (60 ml)
Paracet DT (10mg)
Paracold Susp
Parcet PP
C Day (10mg)
C -Knot
C T Cold
C Tec (10mg)
Carcet FC
Carcet Forte
Ce-10 (10mg)
Cedo Plus
Ceetive PlusCefid (10mg)
Cepar Cold
Ceriz (10mg)
Ceriz (30ml)
Cerizine FT (5mg)
Certen (10mg
Certen D
Certiwon (10mg)
Cet (10mg)
CET (10mg) (libra)
Cetag (10mg)
Cetall (10mg)
Cetanj DP





Cold tablet names in Telugu

Cetirizine is indicated for the relief of nasal and ocular symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis.
– Cetirizine is indicated for the relief of symptoms of chronic idiopathic urticaria.

Posology and method of administration
Children aged from 6 to 12 years: 5mg twice daily (a half tablet twice daily).
Adults and adolescents over 12 years of age: 10mg once daily (1 tablet)
The tablets need to be swallowed with a glass of liquid.

Cetrizine Overdose

Symptoms observed after an overdose of cetirizine are mainly associated with CNS effects or with effects that could suggest an anticholinergic effect. Adverse events
reported after an intake of at least 5 times the recommended daily dose are: confusion, diarrhoea, dizziness, fatigue, headache, malaise, mydriasis, pruritus, restlessness,
sedation, somnolence, stupor, tachycardia, tremor, and urinary retention.
There is no known specific antidote to cetirizine. Should overdose occur symptomatic or supportive treatment is recommended. Gastric lavage should be considered
following ingestion of a short occurrence. Alternatively consider activated charcoal.
Cetirizine is not effectively removed by dialysis.

Best APT Names for a NEW Pharmacy Medical Shop & Drug Store Start UP Business

Latest names for new pharmacy store medical shop

Medical Store Names are given in this article for those who like to choose a best pharmacy store name for their start u business in medical field. These names are unique and gives you confidence for your new venture. All you need to do is to make a list of your favorite pharmacy names in a paper or on your phone and filter them according to your ideas tastes and situations. 
Explore all the list of Medical Store Names from this article and It’ll help you in getting suggestions to name your dream project of medical shop.

English names for Indian Pharmacy stores:


Best Medicines

Best Pharma

Good Life Pharma

Good news Pharmacy

GoodGod Pharma

Medi Den Medical store

 Longlife Medical Store

Good Health Medical Store

Blessing Good Medical Store

Better Health

Wellness Niche

Healthy Remedies

Cure & Well/ Wellness

Health Pharmacy

Pharmacy names in Hindi 

Naveena Pharma

Navnithya Pharmacy

DavaDen = DD pharma

Pharm Adda Medical store

Drug Gruha Pharma

Sanjeevini Medical Store

Swaasthya Pharmacy

Shikara Pharma

sehath Pharma

 Aarogydaan Pharma

Akhila Arogya Medicals

मिज़ाज Pharmacy

तंदुरुस्ती Medicals

मिज़माज Drug store

General Names for New Medical shops

Best Care Pharmacy
Generation Pharmacy
Medilane Pharmacy

Pharma Ethics

Pharma Dost

Health Element

Pharma Mart

Hearty Mart

Townside Pharmacy

Wellfresh MEdicals


New Era

Pride Pharmacy

Reliable Pharmacy

Unique names for New Pharmacy Venture

Healthlink Pharma

Baseball Drug Stores

Lifechek Medics

Medic Guru Pharma

Ninja Medics

Lyfe Pharmacy

Mediserv Medicals

Omnicare Pharmacy 

Right Pharma

RX Express Medical shop

Best Names for new Start Up Pharmacy Store:

Bestie Drugs

Justify Medics

Medical Adda

Lively Drug store

Hero Pharma

Super Drug Pharmacy

Solvent Pharma

No games Pharma

Naya Pharma

Good Names for Ayurvedic Drug Medical Shop

More Nature Medicals

Naturally Fit Medical store

Ayugang Pharmacy

Arogya Medicals

Nature Devata Pharma

Wellnature Store


Cool names for medical store

Latest names for new pharmacy store medical shop

Duane Reade
90th Street Pharmacy
Avalon Chemists
Ivan Pharmacy
Drug Loft
Alpina Pharmacy INC
Pharmacy Channel
All Health Pharmacy
Royal Care Pharmacy
Brennen Drugs Co
Cherry Street Pharmacy
City Drug
Eastlake Pharmacy
Family Fare
Health Harvest
North East Pharmacy
Pharma Street
Rejuvva Drugs
Roosevelt Clinic
Southwest Pharmacy
Union Center Pharmacy
Jan Aushadhi Store.
Vandana Medical Stores.
New Sharma Medico.
Zestica Pharma
Joshi Medico & Supermarket.
C. New Empire Chemists.
Madina Chemist.
Janta Medical & General Store.
Amar Medical Stores.



Name of Shops








Publix Pharmacy
Pharma First
Net Pharmacy
Evolve Health
Heal & pure
Arrow Pharmacy
Med-X Drug
Fruth Pharmacy
Mount Natural
Publix Pharmacy
Sure Save
Grand Health
Jaros Pharmacy
People Choice Pharmacy
New London Pharmacy
Ally Scripts
Assured Rx
Banks Apothecary
Bioplus Specialty
Blink Health
Confidential Drug
DFW Wellness
Envolve Health
Express Scripts
Foundation Care
GoGo Meds
Good RX
Grand Medicine
Health Warehouse

Atlas Drugs
Better You
Beyond Health
Care Pharmacy
Pill Pack
Prescription Hope
Prescription Lifeline
RX Universal
Simple Meds
The Pill Club
The Rx Advocates
Tru Script
True Pill
Cool Pharmacy Names
Absolute Care
Better Life
Cardinal Health
Cash Saver Pharmacy
Discount Drug Mart
Drug Blend
Everyday Drugs
First Care Rx
Wellport Drugs
Cashway Pharmacy
Discount Drugs
Express Food & Pharmacy
First Hill Pharmacy
Gem Drugs

Geneva Woods
Health Hexa Drugs
Hometown Pharmacy Services
Jack’s Discount Pharmacy
Lifeshave Pharmacy
Northwest Pharmacy
Outpatient Pharmacy
Pharma Best
Premier Long Term Care Pharm
Sand Point Pharmacy
Sharp Specialty Pharmacy
Sure Save
Wellness Craft
Bio Scrip
Central Drug Store
Concord Pharmacy
Essential Pharmacy
First Pharmacy
Good Life Rx
Health Aura
Health Corner
Heartland Pharmacy
Keystone Pharmacy
Louis And Clark Drug
Max Health
Midtown Express
Planet Health
Powerhouse Pharmacy
Priority Pharmacy
Pure Life
Smart Pharmac

Clever Pharmacy Names
Alliance Community
Central Rx
Friends & Family Pharmacy
Kerr Drug
Lowry’s Prescriptions
Northport Pharmacy
Pharmaca Integrative
Providence Plaza
Reliable Rexall
Revco Discount Drugs
The Chemist
The Downtown Dispensary
University Pharmacy
Wellness RX

Unusual Pharmacy Names
Covenant Pharmacy
Customceutical Compounding
Frost Medical Pharmacy
Globe Pharmacy
Greensburg Family Pharmacy

Spot Rx
Trinity Pharmacy
Vista Pharmacy
City Drug
Eastlake Pharmacy
Eastside Pharmacy and Compounding
Guardian Pharmacy
Healthy Floyds
Innovia Drug Stores
Maplewood Pharmacy
Med-X Drug
Northwest Medication Management
Pearl River Pharmacy
Pure Care Pharmacy
Rite Aid
Avalon Chemists
pharma select
Planet Health
Wellport Drugs
Kings Pharmacy
Hudson Square
Family Drug Mart
Cashway Pharmacy
Robust pharmacy
Simple Meds
Divine Path Pharmcy
Prime Life Pharmacy
Stanley’s Pharmacy
Center Pharmacy
Grand Health
Sure Synergy
Heartland Pharmacy
Better You
All Health Pharmacy
Kerr Drug
AllWell Pharm
Forward Drugs
Health Aura
Windsor Pharmacy
healthy Floyyds
90th Street Pharmacy
Hearty mart
Marsh Drug Store
Friends & Family Pharmacy
Windsor Pharmacy
Smart Pharmacy
Pharma First
Kings Pharmacy
Wellness Peers
Goodness Pharmacy
Better Quest
Follansbee Pharmacy
Northwest Pharmacy
Prescription Hope
Pharmacy Channel
Alpha Crew
Medilane Pharmacy
Also Read: Fitness Team Names
Health tonic Pharmacy
Ally Scripts
The Pill Club
Pacific Medical
Vista pharmacy
Lifeshave Pharmacy
Dahls Pharmacy
Economy Drug
Concord Pharmacy
Health Corner
Dakota Drug
Pharmacy Alliance
Syngex Drugs
Union Center Pharmacy
Globe Pharmacy
GenX drugs
Smart Pharmacy
Discount Drugs
Dakota Drug
Simple Meds

Online Pharmacy names

E- Med



OnlineDrug adda

e- cure


e -MedicalVibe
 Ur Medic

Downtown Pharmacy
Best Care Pharmacy

Revco Discount Drugs
Alego Health
Keystone Pharmacy
ABC Pharmacy
Jaros Pharmacy
Thriftway Pharmacy
Lyfe Pharmacy
NuCare Pharmacy
Generation Pharmacy
Drug Blend
Medicines To Midnight
Brighton Pharmacy
Family Fare Pharmacy

Healthy Pharmacy
Buller Pharmacy
LifeCrest Medical store
Pavilions Pharmacy
Newday Drug store
Thriftway Pharmacy
Drug Blend Medical store
Center Pharmacy
Health Warehouse
Care Pharmacy
Confidential Drug
Brennen Drugs Co
Pride Pharmacy
Pharmanic Medical store
Scripts Prime Medical store
Brightwell pharmacy
Wellport Drugs
AllWell Pharm
Vital Edge
Good RX
be well
White Pigeon pharmacy
Health & Life
pharma select
Hearty mart
Healthbest Pharmacy
Getbest Medicine
High Health
Health element
Health Corner
Smart Pharmacy
Health Aura Drugs
Better you
Pharma First
Evolve Health
Also Read: Soap Company Names

Pharmacy Store Names
Below some best names for Pharmacy Store:

Layers of Wellness
Better you
Health element
Shoprite Pharmacy
Pharmacy Direct
Grand Medicine
Planet Health
Allergy Pharmacy
Xpress Lane Pharmacy
Pharma Best
Pure Life
Apple Discount Drugs
Outpatient Pharmacy
Central Pharmacy
278 Pharmacy
Gem Drugs
Martin Hedler
Sand Point Pharmacy
Atlas Drugs
Maplewood Pharmacy
Hearty Mart
Great pharmacy
Pharma best
Wellness RX
Spot Rx
Giant Eagle, Inc.
Buy-Rite Pharmacy
Lyfe pharmacy
Healthy Pharmacy
Goodness Pharmacy
Great pharmacy
Life Day Health
Health & Vibe
Innovia Drug stores

Innovative Pharma names

REAdy medicine

remedy district

curestcure pharma



GoGo Meds
Beyond health Drug store
E healthy Floyyds
TruHope Pharmacy
Grand Medicine
Getbest Medicine
First Hill Pharmacy
Foundation Care
Wellport Plaza
Health Chemist
Community Pharmacy
Pharma Street
Absolute Care
Pharma Street
Heal & Vibes
Health Element
Right Drugs
Vista pharmacy
Drug blend
lifeshave Pharmacy
Pharma best
Brett pharma
Pharma Street
Zest Life Pharmacy
Forward Drugs
Rejuvva Drugs
Heal & pure
The Panax Pharmacy
Layers of Wellness
urban Drug
Newday Drug store
Robust pharmacy
Essential Pharmacy
Syngex Drugs
Lyfe pharmacy
Virgo Pharmacy
Ginna Pharma
Cute Phgarma

Pharma Game

Medical Maaza



D Pharmacy 1st Year Notes PDF Download -ADME -Pharmacology

D Pharmacy 1st Year Notes PDF Download -ADME -Pharmacology


Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion are sometimes referred to collectively as ADME processes. These processes determine when the drug appears in the blood stream and for how long it remains in the blood stream to give noticeable action.

  • Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion

  • When & how long the drug appears in the blood stream

  • therapeutic response is dependent upon the ADME processes

In order for a drug to cause a therapeutic response, it must reach adequate concentrations in the blood so that it can reach and interact with drug receptors in adequate numbers to trigger a noticeable action. The course of drug action is, therefore, directly correlated with the concentration of the drug in the blood stream, and is dependent upon the ADME processes.


Absorption is the transfer of a drug from its site of administration to the bloodstream. The rate and extent of absorption depends on the route of administration, the formulation and chemical properties of the drug, and physiologic factors that can impact the site of absorption.

  • Transfer of a drug from site to the blood

  • route of administration, Drug properties

  • IV route is fastest and effective for ABSORPTION

  • Highly water-soluble drugs absorb more readily than fat-soluble drugs

  • Drugs with smaller particle sizes ABSORB easily

When a drug is administered intravenously, absorption is not required because the drug is transferred from the administration device directly into the bloodstream. In the case of intravenous administration, the entire dose of the drug is available to move to the sites of drug action. Administration by other routes may result in less availability due to incomplete absorption. When this occurs, less of the drug is delivered by the bloodstream to the site of action. When a tablet or capsule is swallowed it must dissolve before it can be absorbed. The dissolving of a tablet or capsule is referred to as dissolution. Manufacturing processes and the water solubility of the drug affect dissolution rates. Highly water-soluble medications dissolve more readily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, while fat-soluble drugs dissolve more slowly. Drugs with smaller particle sizes go into solution more readily. The inert ingredients added to formulations can also affect their dissolution


Distribution is a process when a drug is absorbed into the bloodstream it can be carried throughout the body. This process specifically carrying is called distribution. It is a reversible process; while some molecules may be interacting with receptors on cell membranes or inside of cells, other molecules may move back into the bloodstream.

  • Process of distribution of a drug from the bloodstream to the site of absorption.

  • Factors influencing distribution are blood flow, capillary permeability, the degree of binding and its solubility.

  • Blood-brain barrier protects the brain from entering high concentrations of drugs to CNS central nervous system.

The delivery of a drug from the bloodstream to the site of drug action primarily depends on blood flow, capillary permeability, the degree of binding (attachment) of the drug to blood and tissue proteins, and the relative lipid-solubility of the drug molecule. Blood flow to different organs of the body is not equal. The most vitally important organs of the body receive the greatest supply of blood. These organs include the brain, liver, and kidneys. Skeletal muscle and bone receive less blood, and adipose tissue (fat) receives the least. If blood flow were the only factor affecting distribution, it would be reasonable to expect that high concentrations of administered medications would always appear in the brain and liver. In reality, few drugs exhibit good penetration of the central nervous system. The anatomical structure of the capillary network in the brain creates a significant barrier to the passage of many drugs and is commonly referred to as the blood-brain barrier. This barrier is an adaptation that for the most part protects brain tissue from invasion by foreign substances. To readily penetrate into the brain, drugs must be fairly small and lipidsoluble or must be picked up by the carrier-mediated transport mechanism in the central nervous system. This explains why the small and highly fat-soluble anesthetic gases quickly and easily penetrate the brain to cause anesthesia, while other larger and water soluble molecules like penicillin antibiotics penetrate the central nervous system to a much lesser degree.


Drugs are eliminated from the body either unchanged through the kidneys and bile, or they may undergo chemical changes that allow them to be more easily excreted. The process of undergoing chemical changes is called biotransformation, or metabolism. As previously noted, anything absorbed through the GI tract goes directly into the portal circulaextracellular Outside of the cell or cells. interstitial Situated within or between parts of a particular organ or tissue. intracellular Existing or functioning inside a cell or cells. hydrophilic Having an affinity for, readily absorbing, or mixing with water. lipophilic Having an affinity for, or ability to absorb or dissolve in, fats. biotransformation Chemical alterations of a compound that occur within the body, as in drug metabolism. prodrug An inactive drug precursor that is converted in the body to the active drug form. Absorption  that feeds into the liver. The liver is adapted to clear toxins from the body and is the major site for drug metabolism, but specific drugs may undergo biotransformation in other tissues. The kidneys cannot efficiently excrete highly fat-soluble drugs that readily cross cell membranes because they are reabsorbed in the last stages of filtration. These compounds must first be metabolized in the liver to more water-soluble compounds and then removed. There are two types of metabolic processes drugs undergo in the liver. Most undergo one or both types of reactions. In the first type of reaction drugs are made more polar through oxidation-reduction reactions or hydrolysis. These reactions use metabolic enzymes, most often those of the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, to catalyze the biotransformation.

  • Metabolism is the process of undergoing chemical changes to get excreted easily is called metabolism

  • Biotransformation is also known as metabolism

  • Major site for drug metabolism is liver and Kidney

  • two types of metabolic processes

  • hydrolysis an enzyme-catalyzed reactions

  • conjugation reactions with glucuronic acid, sulfuric acid, acetic acid, or an amino acid like Glucuronidation.

  • Metabolism converts the prodrug to the active form. Example: Fosphenytoin is a prodrug of phenytoin,


In enzyme-catalyzed reactions, the rate of the reaction is accelerated by the presence of enzymes. A limited amount of enzyme is present at any given time in the liver. Since the rate of enzyme-catalyzed drug metabolism is limited by the quantity of available enzyme, metabolism in these cases is considered a saturable process. This means that the rate of conversion will only continue at the normal pace until the available supply of enzyme is used. At that point, metabolism is slowed until enzyme becomes available again. For the usual doses of most drugs, these reactions never reach saturation. There are a few drugs where doses may reach the saturation point of the enzymes. Once enzymes become saturated, blood levels increase exponentially toward toxicity. Examples include metabolism of alcohol and phenytoin. The second type of metabolism involves conjugation reactions. In this type of reaction the drug undergoing change is joined with another substance, such as glucuronic acid, sulfuric acid, acetic acid, or an amino acid. Glucuronidation is the most common conjugation reaction. The result of conjugation is a more water-soluble compound that is easier for the kidneys to excrete. These metabolites are most often therapeutically inactive. Some agents are initially administered as an inactive compound (prodrug) in order to improve availability or reduce side effects. Metabolism converts the prodrug to the active form. Fosphenytoin, for example, is a prodrug of phenytoin, a drug used for seizure disorders. Fosphenytoin is more completely and quickly absorbed when given by IM injection than phenytoin and can be used in critical situations with greater ease because it dose not require insertion of an intravenous catheter.


When a drug is taken into and distributed throughout the body, it must be subsequently removed, or concentrations of the drug would continue to rise with each successive dose. The complete removal of the drug from the body is referred to as elimination. Elimination of the drug encompasses both the metabolism of the drug, and excretion of the drug through the kidneys, and to a much lesser degree into the bile. Excretion into the urine is one of the most important mechanisms of drug removal. The kidneys act as a filter for the blood and create urine as a vehicle for removal of waste. Blood enters the kidney through renal arteries and then is filtered by the glomerulus.

  • The complete removal of the drug from the body is referred to as elimination.

  • Excretion of the drug through the kidneys into the urine is one of the most important mechanisms of drug removal aside of liver.

  • the amount being taken in by the patient is equal to the amount being removed by the liver and kidneys. This state of equilibrium is called steady state

The glomerular filtrate becomes concentrated and substances are removed as it passes through the renal tubule and eventually becomes urine. Drug molecules in the bloodstream that are not bound to albumin are also filtered out into the glomerular filtrate. When drugs have not been converted to water soluble compounds in the liver, they are likely to be reabsorbed back into the bloodstream at the end of the filtration process, and will cycle through the body again. If they are water soluble, they will end up in the urine and be excreted. When a medication is given repeatedly, as most are in real patients, the total amount of drug in the body will increase up to a point and then stabilize. At this point, the amount being taken in by the patient is equal to the amount being removed by the liver and kidneys (Fig. 3.7). This state of equilibrium is called steady state, and drug levels will remain fairly constant unless there is a dose change, an interruption in treatment, or failure of the organs of elimination. The therapeutic effects of many drugs are closely correlated to a specific range of steady state serum drug levels, and physicians or clinical pharmacists will monitor these levels and adjust doses when necessary so that patients obtain the appropriate drug response.

Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements Course Syllabus Text Books

Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements -(2 Hr/Wk)

Course Objectives
1. To make the learner understand the concept of nutraceuticals and dietary supplements along with the classification with respect to
health benefits, chemical nature and mechanism of action
2. To expose the learner to the health benefits of various classes of phytochemicals along with their salient chemical features,
pharmacokinetics, doses and marketed preparations
3. To introduce to the learner the formulation challenges of nutraceuticals and health supplements and the importance of the safety and
stability of nutraceutical formulations
4. To make the learner aware of the regulatory aspects of nutraceuticals in India and major countries
Course Outcomes
Upon completion of the course student will be able to –
1. Explain concept of nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, classify these based on chemical nature, health benefits and mechanism
of action
2. Discuss the chemistry of phytochemicals, their health benefits, pharmacokinetics, interactions with food and recommended doses
along with the marketed preparations
3. Explain the challenges in formulating nutraceuticals
4. Understand the significance of safety and stability studies of nutraceuticals
5. Describe the labeling and regulatory aspects for manufacture and sale of nutraceutical products.
No. Details Hours
1 Introduction to Nutraceuticals
Definitions of Nutraceuticals, Functional foods, and Dietary supplements, Nutrigenomics. Link between Food and
Medicine. Food and No- food sources of nutraceutical factors, Nutraceutical factors in specific foods. Classification
of Nutraceutical. Factors based on chemical nature and mechanism of action. Safety, Scientific evidence and
market trends: Local and Global.
Self-study: Public health nutrition, maternal and child nutrition, nutrition and ageing, nutrition education in
community, Limitations of Nutraceuticals
2 Phytochemicals as Nutraceuticals:
Occurrence, Structure, Properties, Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Therapeutic uses, Recommended Doses and
Marketed Preparations of following
a) Carotenoids- Lycopene, Lutein, Zeaxanthene, Astaxanthene
b) Phenolics and Polyphenolics as Antioxidants – – Reservetrol , Grapeseed
extract, Tea, Pycnogenol, Avenanthramides from Oats, Rutin, Soy Isoflavones,
c) Sulphur Compounds- Glucosinates
d) Prebiotics / Probiotics-Fructo-oligosaccharides, Lactobacillum.
e) Dietary fibres – Soluble and insoluble any two examples each.
f) Lignans – Flax Lignans
g) Essential Fatty acids- Fish oils, α- Linolenic acid from Flax.
h) Quinones- Tocopherol.
i) Proteins and Minerals- Melatonin, Glutathione, Shilajit, Carnitine.
j) Marine nutraceuticals – Collagen from fish skin
3 Formulations and Challenges
Challenges involved in processing, extraction and concentration of nutraceutical constituents, formulations and
delivery systems, safety, storage and stability evaluation of formulations.
Labeling of Nutraceuticals
4 Safety and Toxicity of Nutraceuticals
Adverse Effects, Interactions, Adulteration- Intentional, counterfeiting, undeclared labeling, toxic contaminants
5 Regulatory issues of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements
a) EU, US and Indian guidelines.
b) Regulatory Aspects; FSSAI, FDA, FPO, MPO, AGMARK. HACCP and
GMPs on Food Safety. Adulteration of foods.
c) Pharmacopoeial Specifications for dietary supplements and nutraceuticals


1. Handbook of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, Second Edition, Eds Robert E.C. Wildman, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis
2. Nutraceuticals: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals, Brian Lockwood
3. Nutraceuticals in Health and Disease Prevention edited by Klaus Kramer, Peter-Paul Hoppe, Lester Packer, Marcel Decker New
4. Nutraceuticals: Efficacy, Safety and Toxicity edited by Ramesh C. Gupta Academic Press, Elsevier Publication
5. Handbook of Nutraceuticals Volume I: Ingredients, Formulations, and Applications edited by Yashwant Vishnupant Pathak, CRC
Press, Taylor and Francis
6. Nutraceuticals edited by Alexandru Grumezescu, Academic Press Elsevier
7. Nutraceuticals, Glycemic Health and Type 2 Diabetes, Eds Vijai K. Pasupuleti, James W. Anderson, Wiley Blackwell Publications
8. Regulation of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals: A Global Perspective, Ed Clare M. Hasler, Blackwell Publishing
9. Developing New Functional Food and Nutraceutical Products edited by Debasis Bagchi, Sreejayan Nair, Academic Press, Elsevier
10. Phytosterols as Functional Food Components and Nutraceuticals, Ed Paresh C. Dutta, Marcel Decker Publishing
11. Phenolics in Food and Nutraceuticals, Fereidoon Shahidi, Marian Naczk, CRC press
12. Bioactive Proteins and Peptides as Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, Eds Yoshinori Mine, Eunice Li-Chan, Bo Jiang, Wiley
13. Marine Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, Ed Colin Barrow, Fereidoon Shahidi, CRC press
14. Role of dietary fibres and nutraceuticals in preventing diseases, K. T Agusti and P.Faizal, B S Publication
15. Goldberg, I. Functional Foods. Chapman and Hall, New York.
16. Labuza, T.P. Functional Foods and Dietary Supplements: Safety, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMPs) and Shelf Life Testing in
Essentials of Functional Foods, Eds M.K. Sachmidl and T.P. Labuza, Aspen Press.

Phytopharmaceuticals – Meaning Examples – UPDATE

Phytopharmaceuticals are the newer class of drug including enrich fraction containing at least four specific chemical markers with one biomarker.

Let us see what is a phytopharmaceutical drug by definition. “Phytopharmaceutical drug” includes purified and standard fraction with defined minimum four bio-active or phyto-chemical compound (qualitatively and quantitatively assessed) of an extract of a medicinal plant or its part, for internal or external use of human beings or animals for diagnosis, treatment, mitigation or prevention of any disease or disorder but does not include administration by parenteral route as specified in Rule 2 (eb) of the Drugs & Cosmetics (D&C) Rules, 1945.

Minimum four compounds shall be identified as bio-active / phyto chemical compounds. It is ideally if all of them are bio active, hence the condition of identification of minimum four compounds from fraction is given.

Phytopharmaceutical drug differ from ayurvedic, siddha or unani (ASU) under Section 3 (a) & (h) of Drugs & Cosmetic Act 1940. Phytopharmaceutical drug are an updated path for the plant based enrich fraction to be used as a drug, which is specifically not a part of Ayurvedic literature till the present time. Ayurvedic, Siddha or Unani drugs include all medicines intended for internal or external use for or in the diagnosis, treatment, mitigation or prevention of (disease or disorder in human beings or animals, and manufactured) exclusively in accordance with the formulae described in, the authoritative books of ayurvedic, siddha and unani tibb systems of medicine specified in the first Schedule. However, phytopharmaceutical drugs are fraction of crude extract and are distinctly differentiated by being purified and standardized.

Phytopharmaceutical drug for which marketing authorization is issued need to be sold only against prescription of a R.M.P. / specialist / or it can be sold without prescription.


Plants become a great source of interest in modern system of therapeutics as drugs, nutraceuticals, pharmaceutical intermediates, folk medicines, and chemical entities for synthetic drugs Phytopharmaceuticals is a new class of drug may encourage the interest and demand of plant-based therapeutics for unmet medical needs professionally as unlike conventional pharmaceuticals

phytopharmaceutical is a balanced approach which trust everything but underlines the revalidation of the specification of the plant material. Some of the examples of these are


  • Carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin have been reported to be in reverse to the risk of cardiovascular diseases, some kinds of cancers and eye disorders.
  • Lutein has various kinds of therapeutic effects and protects against uterine, prostate, breast, colorectal and lung cancers gastro intestinal cancer.
  • Lycopene lowering in the chance of chronic disorders like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Increase in serum and tissue lycopene levels decreases the risk of various chronic diseases
  • Phytosterols lower total and blood cholesterol level by preventing cholesterol absorption from the intestine.
  • Resveratrol has been reported to exert neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects.


  • Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds which are usually obtained in fruits and vegetables like berries, legumes, tea, grapes, These are reported to be active against various bacterial disease, oxidation, viral diseases and algesia. Flavonoids are reported to be active against free radicals; free radical cellular signalling, inflammation, allergies, platelet aggregation, microbes, ulcers, viruses, tumours and hepatotoxins
  • d-limonene is the commonest monocyclic monoterpene, found in orange peel oil and inhibits pancreatic cancer.


What are Non Patentable Inventions? Types & Examples

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 is an Act to amend and consolidate the law relating to patents.


What are not inventions.
The following are not inventions within the meaning of this
(a) an invention which is frivolous or which claims anything obviously contrary to well established natural laws;
(b) an invention the primary or intended use or commercial exploitation of which could be contrary public order or morality or which causes serious prejudice to human, animal or
plant life or health or to the environment;
(c) the mere discovery of a scientific principle or the formulation of an abstract theory or discovery of any living thing or non-living substance occurring in nature;
(d) the mere discovery of a new form of a known substance which does not result in the enhancement of the known efficacy of that substance or the mere discovery of any new property or new use for a known substance or of the mere use of a known process, machine or apparatus unless such known process results in a new product or employs at least one new reactant.
Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause, salts, esters, ethers, polymorphs,metabolites, pure form, particle size, isomers, mixtures of isomers, complexes, combinations and other derivatives of known substance shall be considered to be the same substance, unless they differ significantly in properties with regard to efficacy;
(e) a substance obtained by a mere admixture resulting only in the aggregation of the properties of the components thereof or a process for producing such substance;
(f) the mere arrangement or re-arrangement or duplication of known devices each functioning independently of one another in a known way;
(g) Omitted by the Patents (Amendment) Act, 2002
(h) a method of agriculture or horticulture;
(i) any process for the medicinal, surgical, curative, prophylactic diagnostic, therapeutic or other treatment of human beings or any process for a similar treatment of animals to render them free of disease or to increase their economic value or that of their products.
(j) plants and animals in whole or any part thereof other than micro organisms but including seeds, varieties and species and essentially biological processes for production or propagation of plants and animals;
(k) a mathematical or business method or a computer programme per se or algorithms;
(l) a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work or any other aesthetic creation whatsoever including cinematographic works and television productions;
(m) a mere scheme or rule or method of performing mental act or method of playing game;
(n) a presentation of information;
(o) topography of integrated circuits;
(p) an invention which in effect, is traditional knowledge or which is an aggregation or duplication of known properties of traditionally known component or components.
4. Inventions relating to atomic energy not patentable.—No patent shall be granted in respect of an invention relating to atomic energy falling within sub section (1) of section 20 of the
Atomic Energy Act, 1962 (33 of 1962).
5. Inventions where only methods or processes of manufacture patentable: [Omitted by the Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005]

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Lab syllabus SYLLABUS FOR 3rd Year B. Pharm. SEMESTER-V

3rd Year B. Pharm Organic Chemistry Lab II

Course Objectives
1. To introduce the learner to the basic techniques of separation of compound mixtures.
2. To introduce the learner to the procedure for identification of organic compounds
3. To introduce the learner to the methods for recrystallization of compounds
Course Outcomes
The learner will be able to:
1. To carry out the separation of simple compound mixtures.
2. To identify organic compounds based on simple tests
3. To recrystallize compounds use single solvent and binary solvent mixtures
List of Experiments:
1) Separation and quantification of binary mixtures by physical and chemical methods.
Identification of one component and confirmation by preparation of a suitable derivative.
Minimum eight binary mixtures, covering a wide variety of types to be studied
2) Theoretical aspects of recrystallization
3) Recrystallization of organic compounds: at least two with the use of different solvents.

3rd Year B. Pharm Pharmaceutics Lab syllabus

To teach the learner the practical aspects of preparation and evaluation of biphasic suspensions and emulsions, semisolid ointments
and creams, suppositories and aerosols formulations for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications.
Course Outcomes
Upon completion of the course, the learner shall be able to:
1. Understand the formulation aspects of biphasic and semisolid dosage forms
2. Explain calculations involved in formulations
3. Describe the importance of quality evaluation of biphasics, semisolids, suppositories, aerosols
No. Details
Formulation and Preparation of the following:
1 Biphasics: Suspensions and Emulsions
1. Paracetamol Paediatric Oral Suspension IP
2. Dry suspension for reconstitution (any one)
3. Antacid Suspension
5. Liquid Paraffin Emulsion IP
6. White Liniment BPC/ Turpentine Liniment IP
7. Evaluation of any one suspension & one emulsion
Evaluation Parameters: Organoleptic Properties, Particle/droplet size, Sedimentation/Creaming volume ,
pH, stability studies, rheology of any one preparation
2 Semisolids
1. Compound Benzoic acid Ointment IP
2. Aqueous Calamine Cream IP
3. Cetrimide Cream IP
4. Diclofenac Gel BP
Evaluation of any one Ointment / Cream
3 Suppositories
1. Glycerin Suppositories USP
2. Paracetamol Suppositories BP/Indomethacin Suppositories IP /
Bisacodyl suppositories IP/ Aspirin Suppositories USP
Evaluation of any one suppository
4 Pharmaceutical Aerosols
Introduction to different devices for inhalation and demonstration of evaluation of a suitable commercial
product for simple tests related to spray and weight / drug content per discharge
5 Cosmetics: Preparation & Evaluation
1. Toothpaste
2. Clear liquid Shampoo
3. Lipstick/ Nail lacquer
4. Vanishing Cream/Cold cream

3rd Year B. Pharm Experimental Techniques in Microbiology and Biotechnology Lab

Course Objectives
To introduce the learner to some of the common techniques used in microbiological work and biotechnology experiments.
Course Outcomes
1. Characterization and identification of bacteria using various staining techniques (morphological study), colony characterization,
serological and biochemical characteristics
2. Analyze quality of raw material, food and water and assessment of extent of microbial contamination using counting technique
and Evaluate sterility of products.
3. To impart the knowledge of bioassay of antibiotic and test antibiotic sensitivity of few antibiotics.
1. Study of microscope and common laboratory equipment e.g., B.O.D. incubator, laminar air flow unit, aseptic hood, autoclave,
hot-air sterilizer, deep freezer, refrigerator.
2. Sterilization of glassware and preparation and sterilization of nutrient broth, agar slants, plates and inoculation techniques.
3. Isolation of pure culture by T plate, pour plate and streak plate methods. Colony characterization and growth patterns in broth,
4. Study various staining techniques such as Gram Staining, Spore, Negative staining, Cell wall staining, Capsule,
Motility by hanging drop technique.
5. Bacteriological analysis of water (IMVIC and MPN)
6. Test for sterility as per IP (Injection water/ nonabsorbent cotton/soluble powder/ear drops).
7. Antimicrobial assay of antibiotic using cup plate method, introduction to zone of inhibition and calculation.
8. Study drug resistance using antibiotic sensitivity testing
9. Biochemical tests (Catalase, Oxidase, Urease, Nitratase, Protease, Gelatinase, Phosphatase, Amylase).
10. Demonstration experiments
a. Thermal death time and thermal death point.
b. Effect of Ultra-Violet exposure on growth of E. coli.
c. Selection and isolation of bacteria by replica plating.
d. Widal test
e. Counting of bacteria by total count, viable count, and biomass determination method