[PPT] Equipment for autoclaving


Contents of the powerpoint on Equipment for autoclaving include:
INTRODUCTION
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
WHAT CAN BE AUTOCLAVED
EQUIPMENT
TYPES AND OPERATION
VERIFICATION
VALIDATION
CONCLUSION
REFERENCE

What can be autoclaved

Surgical Instruments

Glassware

Plastic tubes and pipette tips

Solutions and water

Animal food and bedding

Waste

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[PPT] Efflux transporters


Contents of the powerpoint on Efflux transporters include:
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
P-glycoprotein
Distribution & Structure
Substrates&inhibitors
Mechanism of drug transport
Pharmacokinetic implications of p-gp
Multidrug resistance associated proteins
Structure
Members of MRP family
Substrates&inhibitors
Transport cycle of MRPs
Clinical relavance of efflux transporters
Conclusion
References

Efflux transporters are positioned so as to encounter potentially harmful substances face-to-face — in important places like the intestine, the placenta, and the blood-brain and blood-testes barriers, making them an excellent first line of defense.

Embedded within a cell’s membrane, this protein protects a cell by ejecting a variety of molecules — in many cases, toxins —on contact. The cell might be a bacterium, in which case the “toxins” are antibiotics.

With cancer cells, the “poisons” are chemotherapy drugs.

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[PPT] Dry syrups

Dry mixtures contains the drug and suitable suspending and dispersing agents to be diluted and agitated with a specific quantity of vehicle, most often purified water. Drugs that are instable if maintained for extended periods in the presence of aqueous vehicle (eg., many antibiotic drugs) are frequently supplied as dry powder mixtures for reconstitution at the time of dispensing. This type of preparation is designated in the USP by a title “for Oral Suspension”. The reconstituted system is the formulation of choice when the drug stability is a major concern. After reconstitution, these systems have a short but acceptable life if stored at refrigerator temperatures. Reconstitutable oral systems show the adequate chemical stability of the drug during shelf life, avoids the physical stability problems related to solubility, pH and incompatibilities with other ingredients and also reduce the weight of the final product because the aqueous vehicle is absent and consequently the transportation expenses may be reduced.

Advantage of Dry Syrup

Dry syrup form of the drug is also useful in case of bioavailability as it has high bioavailability rather than tablets and capsules as it disintegrates in water outside of the oral cavity and directly the suspension is gone through the gastrointestinal tract. So the suspension easily absorbs in the GIT.A number of commercial and official preparations are available as dry powder mixtures.

 

 


Contents of the powerpoint on Dry syrups include:
DEFINITION
CHARACTERISTICS OF SUSPENSIONS FOR RECONSTITUTION
COMMONLY USED INGREDIENTS
PREPARATION OF DRY MIXTURE
STABILITY CONSIDERATIONS
GUIDELINES FOR STABILITY TESTING
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

Definition
Dry powders for oral suspension are powder mixtures that require the addition of water (reconstitution) at the time of dispensing and are mostly for paediatric use. These are called dry syrups or reconstitutable oral suspensions.

Rationale

Inadequate chemical stability of the drug in the aqueous vehicle.
Avoid the physical stability problems like viscosity changes, conversion of polymorphic form, incompatibility, crystal growth, caking.
Reduces the weight of final product.
Shipped without regard to seasonal temperatures.

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[PPT] Drug delivery approaches with special emphasis on chemical drug delivery


Contents of the powerpoint on Drug delivery approaches with special emphasis on chemical drug delivery include:
Introduction
Targeted delivery of drugs
Physical (or) Mechanical approach
Biological approach
Chemical approach
Prodrug approaches
Retro metabolic approach
Chemical drug delivery system (CDS)
Soft drug approaches
Chemical drug delivery approaches to Brain, Lung, Eye
Conclusion
References

Drug targeting:
Drug targeting is the delivery of drugs to receptors (or) organs (or) any other specific part of the body.
In the past work was done mainly altering the pharmacokinetics of the drugs, but later with the advancement in “carrier technology”, approaches based on specific site targeting came into focus.

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[PPT] Design and applications of extruder spheronizer


Contents of the powerpoint on Design and applications of extruder spheronizer include:
INTRODUCTION
EQUIPMENTS OF EXTRUDER AND SPHERONIZER
EXTRUSION- SPHERONIZATION PROCESS
APPLICATION
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

Extrusion-spheronization a pelletization technique was developed in the early 1960s, and this process is commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry to make uniformly sized spheroids.
It is especially useful for making dense granules for controlled-release solid oral dosage forms with a minimum amount of excipients.

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[PPT] Dendrimers


Contents of the powerpoint on Dendrimers include:
Historical background
Introduction
Structure&components of a dendrimer
Types of dendrimers
Synthesis of dendrimers
Properties of dendrimers
Methods for characterization of dendrimers
Applications
Conclusion
References

Dendrimers are a novel class of spheroid/globular nanoscaled macromolecules

Characterized by highly branched tree like structers that provides a high degree of surface functionality &versatility

Dendrimers are also referred to as the polymers of 21st century

Due to their multivalent & monodisperse character,dendrimers have stimulated wide interest in the field of chemistry & biology, especially in applications like drug delivery, gene therapy & chemotherapy

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[PPT] Cytochrome p450 metabolism


Contents of the powerpoint on Cytochrome p450 metabolism include:
INTRODUCTION
CYTOCHROME P450 NOMENCLATURE
COMPONENTS OF CYP450
MECHANISM – CATALYTIC CYCLE
FAMILY OF CYTOCHROME P450 IN VARIOUS SPECIES
GENETIC POLYMORPHISM
SPECTRUM OF CONSEQUENCES OF DRUG METABOLISM
PHASES OF DRUG METABOLISM
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

The cytochrome p450 enzymes (cyps) are a diverse super family of enzymes which taken together,are capable of metabolising wide variety of endogenous and xenobiotic substances including drug molecules.

Cytochrome P450 enzymes (hemoproteins) play an important role in the intra-cellular metabolism.

Cyps have been extensively studied in animals (rats,mice dogs and to less extent in zebra fish), in bacteria ,in fungi,in insects, in plants and in humans, (prokaryotic and Eucaryotic).

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[PPT] Clinical pharmacokinetics in pregnancy and lactation


Contents of the powerpoint on Clinical pharmacokinetics in pregnancy and lactation include:
CONTENTS
Introduction
Alterations in pharmacokinetic parameters
Index of fetal drug exposure
Compartment characterisation
Teratogens
Drug transfer
Pharmacokinetics of
Antiepileptics
Antidepressants
Antiinfectives
References

Pharmacokinetics deals with the description of concentration changes of drugs in the body as a function of time.
In pregnancy and labour the body becomes a complex physiological unit which consists of mother, placenta and fetus.

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[PPT] Bone marrow targeting and targeting to lysosomal diseases


Contents of the powerpoint on Bone marrow targeting and targeting to lysosomal diseases include:
CONTENTS

Introduction
Physiology of bone marrow
Bone marrow targets for drug delivery
Colloidal carriers for bone marrow targeting
Nanospheres/nanoparticles
Liposomes
Lysosomal storage diseases
Targeting exogenous enzymes
Conclusion
References

Even biodistribution of pharmaceuticals throughout the body;

The lack of drug specific affinity toward a pathological site;

The necessity of a large total dose of a drug;

Non-specific toxicity and other adverse side-effects.

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[PPT] Aptamers and anti sense agents


Contents of the powerpoint on Aptamers and anti sense agents include:
INTRODUCTION

ANTISENSE AGENTS

DEFINITION
MECHANISM
ADVANTAGES
CELLULAR ACTIVITY
CELLULAR UPTAKE
CLINICAL TRIAL SUBSTANCES

APTAMERS

DEVELOPMENT
PROPERTIES
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
APPLICATIONS

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

The term ‘Antisense Therapeutics’ or ‘Antisense Technology’ encompasses several types of nucleic acids that have the ability to modulate gene expression. The most common types of nucleic acids included in this term are antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs), ribozymes (RNA enzymes) and more recently, DNAzymes (DNA enzymes).

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