[PPT] Tablets aqeuos film coating


Contents of the powerpoint on Tablets aqeuos film coating include:
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
AQUEOUS FILM COATING OF DOSAGE FORM
Film formation mechanism
Film formers
Plasticizers and colours
PROCESS PARAMETERS
HOW THE COATING PROCESS WORKS
COATING EQUIPMENTS
COATING DEFECTS
SOLVENT FILM COATING

COATING:
IT is the application of coating composition on to the moving bed of tablets with concurrent use of heated air to facilitate evaporation of the solvent.

Formation of films from aqueous polymeric dispersions
This requires the coalescence of polymer particles into a continuous film.

This process involves:
Rapid evaporation of water, causing the particles of dispersed polymer to be brought into close contact with one polymer.
Development of pressures (associated with capillary forces within the structure) that overcome repulsive forces between particles and cause deformation of the polymer particles.
Gradual coalescence of the polymer particles as a result of viscous flow and movement of polymer molecules across the interfaces between particles.

Aqueous polymeric dispersions must be processed at temperatures in excess of the
glass-transition temperature of the polymer.

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[PPT] Plasma membrane – physiology structure and role in drug absorption


Contents of the powerpoint on Plasma membrane – physiology structure and role in drug absorption include:
Content
Introduction
Physiology of Plasma membrane.
Structure,
composition,
functions.
Transport across cell membrane.

Conclusion
References

Plasma membrane structure
Definition:
The Plasma membrane is a thin bi- layered structure which surrounds each cell, consists of lipids (phospholipids 75%, cholesterol 20%,glycolipids 5%), proteins (partially or completely embedded), carbohydrates etc.,

~6-10 nm thick.

Plasma membrane is asymmetrical

The fluid mosaic model describes the plasma membrane as a flexible boundary of a cell. The phospholipids move within the membrane.

FLUID- because individual phospholipids and proteins can move around freely within the layer, like it’s a liquid.

MOSAIC- because of the pattern produced by the scattered protein molecules when the membrane is viewed from above.

Plasma Membrane
Phospholipids
Phospholipids are lipids with a phosphate attached to them.

The phospholipids are very flexible and behave similar to a fluid.

The lipids in the plasma membrane can be saturated or unsaturated, the more saturated lipids in a membrane the more rigid the plasma membrane is. The more unsaturated lipids, the more flexible the membrane is.

The phospholipids have a water soluble head, and water insoluble lipid tails.

Other lipids in plasma membrane
GLYCOLIPIDS: Phospholipid molecule attached with a carbohydrate chain straight or branched to its hydrophilic head.
CHOLESTEROL: lipid found in animal plasma membranes which reduces the permeability to most biological molecules.
it regulates membrane fluidity over the range of physiological temperatures.
cholesterol also functions in intracellular transport, cell signaling and nerve conduction.
cholesterol has also been implicated in cell signaling processes, assisting in the formation of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane.
In many neurons a myelin sheath, rich in cholesterol since it is derived from compacted layers of Schwann cell membrane, provides insulation for more efficient conduction of impulses.
Cholesterol present between the fatty acids chains, binds with OH side to the phosphate of lipid by H-bonding.

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[PPT] Pharmacokinetics pharmacodynamics of controlled release systems


Contents of the powerpoint on Pharmacokinetics pharmacodynamics of controlled release systems include:

Introduction

Pharmacokinetic models

Pharmacodynamic models

Conclusion

References

Controlled release:
The term controlled release is associated with therapeutic agents that may be automatically delivered at predetermined rates over long period of time.

The main Goals are :
To reduce the frequency of dosing
To increase the effectiveness of the drug by localizing it
To reduce the dose required
To provide uniform drug delivery

PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS FOR CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY
Several models have been proposed to explain the pharmacokinetic behavior of controlled drug delivery systems.

Models of time course profile of absorption and elimination

Loo-Riegelman and Wagner-Nelson model
Model independent pharmacokinetic analysis

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[PPT] Lymphatic transport of drugs


Contents of the powerpoint on Lymphatic transport of drugs include:
CONTENTS
Introduction
Physiology of lymphatic system
Intestinal lymphatic drug transport
Promotion of intestinal lymphatic drug transport
Prodrug approaches for enhanced lymphatic delivery
Formulation approaches for enhanced intestinal lymphatic transport
Conclusion
References

Lymphatic system

Lymphatic system is closed system of lymph channels through which lymph flows.
Lymphatic system is one way system and allows the lymph tissue spaces to the blood
The lymphatic system can be broadly divided into the conducting system and the lymphoid tissue.

The conducting system carries the lymph and consists of tubular vessels that include the lymph capillaries, the lymph vessels, and the right and thoracic ducts.

Lymphatic conducting system

Tubular vessels transport back lymph to the blood ultimately replacing the volume lost from the blood during the formation of the interstitial fluid. These channels are the lymphatic channels or simply called lymphatics.

lymphatic conducting system broadly consists of two types of channels—the initial lymphatics or lymph capillaries that specialize in collection of the lymph from the ISF, and the larger lymph vessels that propel the lymph forward
Lymphoid tissue

Lymphoid tissue is concerned with immune functions in defending the body against the infections and spread of tumors. It consists of connective tissue with various types of white blood cells lymphocytes
The lymphoid tissue may be primary, secondary, or tertiary depending upon the stage of lymphocyte development and maturation.

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[PPT] Ion exchangers used in controlled drug delivery


Contents of the powerpoint on Ion exchangers used in controlled drug delivery include:
INTRODUCTION
DEFINITION
CLASSIFICATION
POLYMER MATRIX
MECHANISM OF ION EXCHANGE
FACTORS AFFECTING ION EXCHANGE
PREPARATION OF DRUG RESINATES
EVALUATION OF DRUG RESINATES
APPLICATIONS
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

Ion-exchange resins have been studied in pharmaceutical applications since the early 1950s,leading to patenting and commercialisation of some resin based formulations.
Resins have found use as pharmacologically-active ingredients and as pharmaceutical excipients that improve drug stability ,mask the taste of a drug, enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs, or achieve sustained or controlled drug delivery.
Advantageous properties, such as a high capacity for drug loading ,an easily executed loading procedure, good drug-retaining properties, and more uniform drug release makes the ion exchangers, as such, attractive for drug delivery systems.

Ion-exchange materials, such as macroreticular resins, gels, membranes and fibers, contain two components: a water insoluble structural component consisting of a polymer framework, and a functional component consisting of fixed acidic or basic ion-exchange groups.

ADVANTAGE:
Ion exchange systems are advantageous for drugs that are highly susceptible to degradation by enzymatic processes, since they offer a protective mechanism by temporarily altering the substrate.

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[PPT] International organization for standardization


Contents of the powerpoint on International organization for standardization include:
Introduction
Definition
purpose
What standards matter
ISO brand
Examples
Elements of the standards
The ISO 9000 series
Conclusion
References

ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the largest developer and publisher of international standards.
It is founded on 23 February 1947 and has its head quarters in Geneva, Switzerland .
The organization promulgates world wide proprietary industrial and commercial standards.
The organization adopted ISO based on the Greek word `isos` meaning “equal”. It means it reflects the aim of the organization to equalize and standardize across cultures.
ISO has more than 17500 International Standards and other types of normative documents in the current portfolio.

ISO is a non-governmental organization that forms a bridge between the public and private sectors.
ISO defines itself as a non-governmental organization, its ability to set standards that often become law, either through treaties or national standards, makes it powerful than most non-governmental organizations.

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[PPT] Good laboratory practice (glp)


Contents of the powerpoint on Good laboratory practice (glp) include:
Good Laboratory Practice(GLP) is a quality system concerned with the organisational process and the conditions under which non-clinical health and environmental safety studies are planned , performed, monitored, recorded, archived and reported.

The Good Laboratory Practice Guidelines (GLP) have been in existence for non-clinical safety studies since 1976.
It is a quality system which intends to ensure through careful and accurate documentation , covering all aspects of study and of its environment, the quality , integrity and reliability of safety data.

WHO has published standards for Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)
covering the manufacture of drug
product.
Good Clinical Practice (GCP)
covering clinical trials in humans to establish efficacy and safety
OECD members manage quality standards for non-clinical testing for the safety of potential products . (GLP)

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[PPT] Formulation and evaluation of microspheres


Contents of the powerpoint on Formulation and evaluation of microspheres include:
INTRODUCTION
CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMERS.
METHODS OF PREPARATION.
CHARACTERIZATION.
APPLICATIONS.
CONCLUSION.
REFERENCES

POWDERS AND GRANULATES
Free-flowing powders and granulates are needed for a variety of industrial processes. These, however, do not always meet the exacting standards which modern manufacturing demands of them, due to their varying grain size distribution and odd shapes.
These properties are detrimental to efficient processing and lead to agglomeration, inexact dosage, abrading with loss of material, or low reproducibility of castings.
Pharmaceutical applications require highly reproducible dosage and the controlled release of active agents, which can not be achieved with conventional powders and Granulates.

Microparticles or microspheres are defined as small, insoluble, free flowing spherical particles consisting of a polymer matrix and drug. and sized from about 50 nm to about 2 mm.

The term nanospheres is often applied to the smaller spheres (sized 10 to 500 nm) to distinguish them from larger microspheres

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[PPT] Evaluation of semisolid dosage forms


Contents of the powerpoint on Evaluation of semisolid dosage forms include:
Introduction
Ideal properties of semisolids
Categories of semisolids
Evaluation of ointments
Evaluation of creams
Evaluation of suppositories
conclusion
references

Draize skin irritation test:
A known amount of test substance is introduced under a one square inch gauge patch,
The patch is applied to skin of 12 albino rabbits, (6 with intact skin) and (6 with abraded skin),
The patch is secured in place with adhesive tape and the entire trunk of the animal is wrapped with an impervious material for a 24 hour period,
After 24 hours the patches are removed and resulting reaction is evaluated for erythema and edema formation.
The reaction is again scored at the end of 72 hours and the two readings are averaged.

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[PPT] Equipment for filtration of air


Contents of the powerpoint on Equipment for filtration of air include:
INTRODUCTION
PRINCIPLES OF AIR FILTRATION
AIR FILTERS
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

The purpose of air filtration is to remove
contaminants from the air.
The removal of airborne particulate from an air stream is called air filtration and is accomplished through mechanical, and electrostatic phenomenon.
The first step in selecting an air filtration system is to understand the contamination – what it is and how it is harmful.

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