Scientific and technological developments in the prevention and treatment of disease depend upon the successful implementation of laboratory-, clinical-, and community-based research initiatives. Ethically sound research design and voluntary informed consent are universally accepted preconditions for scientific investigations involving human participants. National and international guidelines for ethical conduct in scientific research outline specific requirements for independent review of protocols, research design, standards of care, and informed consent……………….
Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) (1991) International guidelines for ethical review of epidemiological studies
- CIOMS (2002 ) International ethical guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects
- Council of Europe (1997) Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine: Convention On Human Rights and Biomedicine
- European Forum for Good Clinical Practice (1995, 1997) Guidelines and recommendations for European ethics committees
- International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) (1996) Guideline for good clinical practice
- Nuffield Council on Bioethics (2002) The ethics of research related to healthcare in developing countries
- Nuremberg Code (1949) From trials of war criminals before the Nuremberg military tribunals under control council law No. 10.
- UNAIDS (2000) Ethical considerations in HIV preventive vaccine research
- WHO (2000) Operational guidelines for ethics committees that review biomedical researc
World Medical Association (2000 ) Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects
Source: Ethical challenges in study design and informed consent for health research in resource-poor settings