Function of hospital – PPT PDF – General Primary Basic Role

function of hospital

Before studying function of hospital first let us know what is hospital.

“The’hospital is an integral part of a social and medical organization, the function of which is to provide the population complete health care, both curative and preventive, and whose out-patient services reach out to the family in its home environment; the hospital is also a centre for the training of health workers and for bio-social research.”

what is primary function of a hospital

What are the basic role and functions of a hospital?

  • Patient care
  • Public health care
  • Education services
  • Research

General functions of hospitals:

  • Medical services
  • Administrative services
  • Patient care & education
  • diagnosis, treatment of illness
  • rehabilitation
  • convalescent care

Major functions of hospitals:

  • Treatment and management of patients
  • Patient care with nursing, dietary diagnostic, therapy, pharmacy and laboratory services.
  • Management & Administrative services

Function of hospital pharmacy:

The prime objectives and functions of hospital pharmacy are cost containment, patient satisfaction, effective staff utilization and effective and efficient services

  • Managing the use of medications in hospitals and other medical centers
  • Advising both patients and other health professionals about the safe and effective use of medicines
  • Choosing, preparing, storing, compounding and dispensing medications for patients in a medical environment
  • Prescription, procuration, delivery, administration and review of medications to optimize patient outcomes
  • Ensure correctness patient, dose, route of administration, time, drug, information and documentation

Role and function of hospital PPT

Function of clinic:

  • Clinics are particular blocks of time set aside for a team of healthcare professionals to see patients together
  • Hospital clinics are primarily concerned with acute diseases, and the physicians in the clinics are usually the same physicians who treat inpatients in the hospital.
  • Individual practitioner plus the benefit of group consultation, have encouraged the establishment of clinics
  • Promote prompt and reliable medical attention.

FUNCTIONS OF A HOSPITAL PHARMACIST

  1. To provide and evaluate pharmaceutical services
  2. To draw a plan for hospital pharmacy administration
  3. To establish liaison between administrative authorities and medical Doctors.
  4. To estimate the requirements for the department and enforce the policies and procedures for the recruitment of adequate and competent staff
  5. To develop and maintain an effective system of clinical and administrative records and reports
  6. To participate in and adhere to the financial plan of the operation for the hospital

UGC Indexed Journals Approved Care List PDF

Here we present UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION approved and indexed Journals which are called UGC Care list. Pharmacy UGC Journals New Updated journals with high impact factor. The cost for these journals might be different some might be low cost and some can be at a higher end. 2020 2021. Pharmacy UGC approved journals need to be first verified before you contact them in the official website of University Grants Commission.  

UGC indexed journals – Approved List

  • Pharma Science UNIV Science Pharma Science Monitor
  • journal of Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy UNIV Science Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd 22296921 India
  • Int J Ayu Pharm Chem (IJAPC) UNIV Science Green Tree Group
  • American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences UNIV Science Science and Education Publishing Co. Ltd 23276711 2327672 United States
  • Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University UNIV Science Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University 1110093 Egypt
  • Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences UNIV Science Rajeev K Singla, Ed.& Pub. 22491023 India
  • Pharmacophore An International Research Journal UNIV Science Jadoun Science Publishing Group 22295402 India
  • International journal of Medicinal Chemistry UNIV Science Hindawi 20902069 20902077 India
  • Tuberculosis Research and Treatment UNIV Science Hindawi, US 2090150x Egypt 44575
  • Open Pharmaceutical Sciences Journal UNIV Science Bentham Open 18748449 U.A.E
  • Journal of Pharmacognosy &Phytochemistry UNIV Science Society of Pharmacognosy and
  • Phytochemistry 23498234 22784136 India
  • Functional Foods in Health and Disease UNIV Science Functional Food Center, Inc. 21603855 United States
  • UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION approved and indexed Journals pdf
  • Current Pharma Research UNIV Science Unicorn Publications, India 22307842 India Inventi Rapid Molecular Pharmacology
  • Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics UNIV Multidisciplinary Society of Pharmaceutical Technocrats 22501177 IndiaUNIV Science Inventi Journals Pvt. Ltd 22294171 09763856 India
  • Journal of New Results in Science UNIV Science Gaziosmanpasa University 13047981 Turkey
  • Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology UNIV Science Bentham Science Publishers Ltd 22117393 U.A.E
  • The Pharma Innovation Journal UNIV Science AkiNik Publications,AkiNik Publications India
  • International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences UNIV Science Jayapal Reddy Gangadi, Ed. & Pub. 22307605 India
  • journal of Pharmasceutical and scientific innovation UNIV Science Moksha Publication 22774572 India
  • Research Journal of Life Sciences, Bioinformatics, Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences (RJLBPCS)UNIV Science Jaysingpur India
  • International Research Journal of Humanities, Engineering & Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNIV Social Science Gayatri Publications India
  • Journal of Pharmaceutical ,Chemical and Biological Sciences UNIV Science : www.jpcbs.info India
  • Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Biochemical Research UNIV Science Dr Bharat Parashar 22312560 India
  • International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological UNIV Science Mandsaur Institute of Pharmacy 09763333 India
  • Pharmaceutical Methods UNIV Science Phcog.Net India
  • International Journal of Pharmaceutical investigation UNIV Science Medknow Publication and media pvt. Ltd 2230973 India
  • Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology UNIV Science Pharmaceutical research information group 24552674 India
  • International journal of Pharmaceutical Research UNIV Science Association of Indian Pharmacist 09752366 India
  • Medicines, Ethics and Practice UGC Science Royal Pharmaceutical Society United Kingdom
  • International Journal of Bio Pharma Research UNIV Science International journal of biopharma and research 22876898 India
  • Future journal of pharmaceutical sciences UNIV Science Elsevier 23147245 United Kingdom
  • Journal Biosciences and Technology UNIV Science Pharma Info Publications 09760172 India
  • International Journal Pharmacology, phytochemistry and ethnomedicine UNIV Science Scipress 22976922 22976922 Switzerla
  • Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences UNIV Science Uptodate Research Publications, India 23497106 India

UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION approved and indexed Journals pdf

UGC care list of journals pdf will be provided here soon. Updated journals list 2020 to publish Pharmaceutics, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy, Pharmaceutical analysis, Pharmaceutical chemistry.

Good Clinical Practice (GCP) Inspection Preparation & Guidance for Clinical Trials Units #PPT PDF

Good Clinical Practice (GCP) Inspection Preparation & Guidance for Clinical Trials Units #PPT PDF

Good Clinical Practice (GCP) Inspection Preparation and Guidance for Clinical Trials Units is a GCP INSPECTION CHECKLIST is here to help registered clinical trial units. This article is for guidance only and is not intended to replace information or advice from the Government. It is always recommended  check official site  Central Drugs Standard Control Organization for advice and guidance in order to be aware of current guidance.

I. General

Good Clinical Practice (GCP) Inspection General Checklist

  1. Name and address of the clinical trial site
  2. Date of Inspection
  3. Inspection Team Members:
  4. Personnel present during Inspection (with name and role/designation.)
  5. Address & Contact details of Investigator:
  6. Name & address of the Sponsor
  7. Name & address of clinical trial NOC holder
  8. Name & address of EC
  9. Protocol Title
  10. Protocol Number
    Version/date
    Protocol amendments, if any.
  11. Investigational Product
  12. Stage of study:
    (Mark the relevant)
    (A) Before Trial Commencement
    (B) During Conduct of the trial
    (C) After Completion of Trial
  13. Type of Inspection:
    Surveillance
    For CauseGood Clinical Practice (GCP) Inspection Preparation & Guidance for Clinical Trials Units #PPT PDF

II.LEGAL & ADMINISTRATIVE ASPECTS: GCP checklist

  1. Clinical trial NOC from O/o DCGI
    (Note: mention along with Protocol no., Ver., date)
  2. NOC for subsequent protocol amendments, if any from O/o DCGI
  3. Ethics Committee approval date
    (Note: mention along with Protocol no., Ver., date)
    Appendix VII as per Sch.-Y
    (mention revision(s) and notification to O/o DCGI, if any)
  4. Whether valid financial agreement between the Sponsor, Investigator & Institution available.
  5. Whether liability of involved parties (Investigator, Sponsor and Institution) clearly agreed.
  6. Is the valid clinical trial Insurance available?
  7. Site Initiation date
  8. Date of screening of first subject,
  9. Date of signing ICF by the first subject
  10. Date of Last Patient-Last Follow-Up (if applicable)
  11. Whether SOP for various activities are established and documented.
  12. Verify, whether the hospital/institute/site has adequate emergency care facilities to handle emergency situation.
  13. Good Clinical Practice (GCP) Inspection Preparation & Guidance for Clinical Trials Units #PPT PDF

III Organisation & Personnel

GCP Inspection Checklist for Organisation & Personnel

  1. Assure that signed & dated, Curriculum Vitae is available for the Investigator, Sub Investigator /Co-Investigator
  2. Confirm the educational qualification of the Investigator with registration by Medical Council of State/India.
  3. Confirm the GCP, Schedule Y and protocol specific training of Investigator, Sub-Investigator/Co-Investigator and its team.
  4. Determine whether authority for conducting various clinical trial activities were delegated properly by
  5. Investigator to competent personnel (obtain the list of personnel and duty delegation log).
    Check whether the person whom the authority is delegated is adequately qualified and trained for the activity/activities assigned.
  6. Obtain the list of all clinical trials performed by Investigator (Preferably for last three years)
  7. Ensure that the Investigator is involved in conduct of not more than three clinical trials at a time.

IV Conduct of Trial

GCP Inspection Checklist for Conduct of Trial

A.Screening of subjects:

  1. Check and review the informed consent for the screening of the subjects.
  2. Check site screening log & enrolment log and obtain authenticated copy.
  3. Check whether the subjects are meeting the inclusion/exclusion criteria as per the approved protocol w.r.t review of source documents &/or CRF.

3.1 Clinical Examination by Investigator ( Check patient file/Source documents)

3.2 Verify ,Clinical Laboratory Evaluation( Check Blood Cell Counts, Biochemical test, Urine analysis etc.as required by protocol)

3.3 Verify X-Ray, MRI, ECG, USG or any other technique required to ascertain the inclusion/exclusion criteria.

3.4 Verify, Whether all conditions of Clinical trial NOC are followed or not?

B. Subject record and Informed consent:

  1. Whether ICF have all the elements enlisted in Appendix V of Schedule Y.
    Whether ICF is approved by Ethics Committee prior to consent process.
  2. Whether IC has been obtained from each subject prior to participation of the subject in the study.
  3. Whether signature/thumb impression of the subjects/legal representative have been affixed with date.
  4. Whether in case of illiterate subjects or illiterate representative of a subject, there are signature and details of an impartial witness.
  5. Have witness/ signature being personally dated.( If applicable).
  6. Have patient/witness signature been personally dated?
  7. Has the dated signature of the designated person for administering informed consent (IC) been affixed?
  8. Is the designated person for administering IC medically qualified?
  9. If IC has been administered by a designated person who is not medically qualified, is there evidence that subject’s queries of a medical nature were answered by a medically qualified person or the investigator?
  10. Is the completed ICF signed and dated by the investigator?
  11. Check weather re-consenting is done for changes in ICF, if any.

B.1 Audio-Visual recording of Informed Consent Process( For ‘vulnerable population’ in ‘New Chemical Entities (NCEs) clinical trial’ only & Anti HIV & Anti-Leprosy patients only Audio recording) ( Verify as per GSR 611(E) dated 31.07.2015 )

  1. Whether audio-visual recording is performed for all subjects, independently.
  2. Is audio-visual recording conducted in a room conducive to recording of disturbance free audio and video of the consent process?
  3. Check whether the video recording is free from disturbance to ensure that the image is recognizable and the audio is clearly audible.
  4. Check whether the recording of informed consent process is preserved safely.

C. Source Documents and Case Record Form

  1. Verify condition, completeness, legibility, accessibility of the investigators source data file. ( source data includes study subject’s files, recording from automated instruments, tracings, X-ray and other films, laboratory notes, photograph negatives, magnetic media, hospital records, clinical and office charts, subject’s diaries, evaluation checklists and pharmacy dispensing records)
  2. Whether subject received the test drug with respect to dose and frequency according to the protocol;
  3. Determine whether safety/ efficacy end point data( Clinical, laboratory examination results) were collected and reported in accordance with the protocol
  4. Does medical record mentions subject ID/ name /hospital registration number / and indication that subjects are participating in a clinical trial
  5. Compare the source document with CRF and determine whether source data have been correctly transcribed in CRF;
  6. Verify the drop-outs and reason for drop-out of subject is appropriately recorded.
  7. Whether the withdrawal of subject from the study is recorded and appropriately justified in accordance with approved protocol.
  8. Verify whether Standard Operating Procedure of handling of Serious Adverse Event occurred in clinical trial is available.
  9. Verify whether all SAE’s have been reported to the sponsor, EC and Licensing authority as per the timelines in accordance with Schedule Y.
    (Verify as per GSR 53(E) dated 30.01.2013 & GSR 889 (E) dated 12.12.14 effective from 12.06.2015 )
  10. Verify Whether SOP for medical care during serious adverse event is available or not.
  11. Verify whether adequate medical care have been given to the subject especially in the event of inter current illness, adverse events including abnormal lab parameters;
  12. Verify whether all study related activities are performed at site approved by O/o DCGI.

VI. Sponsor

  1. all report submitted to the sponsor;
  2. Whether all CRF were submitted to sponsor after completion of study;
  3. Determine whether all dropout and reason thereof were reported to sponsor;
  4. Determine the method and frequency of monitoring the progress of the study by the sponsor and corrective action by site.
  5. Whether sponsor appointed a monitor with appropriate qualification and experience to monitor trial at the site.
  6. Whether a log of onsite monitoring visit is maintained at the site.
  7. Is monitor submits visit report with deviations if any to the sponsor.
  8. Whether sponsor performed an audit as a part of QA in order to independent and separate from routine monitoring of quality control function.
  9. In case the investigator and sponsor agrees to prematurely terminate or suspend the study for any reason, whether it was promptly informed to study subjects, Ethics Committee and Licensing Authority.

VII. Investigational Product

GCP Checklist for Investigational Product

  1. Whether investigator maintain copies of Review individual subject record to verify the correct dose administration with respect to dose, frequency, route of administration
  2. Determine whether unqualified /unauthorised persons administered/dispensed the test drug
  3. Determine whether adequate record of quantity of test drug received , dispensed is maintained.( Check the test drug reconciliation and verify the leftover drug or balance on the day of inspection).
  4. Determine whether storage condition/monitoring method are as per protocol/recommendation;
  5. Whether trial medication are maintained in secured manner with controlled access
  6. Have un-used trial medications been returned to the sponsor or disposed of according to protocol?
  7. Are the drugs dispensing records being maintained properly?
  8. Whether the records for reconciliation of all IP’s are maintained?
  9. Are electronic or hand-written temperature logs available for the storage area of the investigational products?
  10. Verify that investigation product is appropriately labelled. (For clinical trial use only).

VIII. Ethics Committee

GCP INSPECTION CHECKLIST on Ethics Committee

  1. Identify the name, address of the EC/ IEC in the approval letter and compare it with one stated in Investigator Undertaking.
  2. Verify the Status of EC-whether Institutional or Independent, Check Registration certificate ( Verify as per GSR 72(E) dated 08.12.2013)
  3. Verify if EC approval letter mention study code , title and version number of the protocol, list of other documents reviewed, list of members present at the meeting, quorum of five members as specified in Schedule Y satisfied, date, time , venue of the meeting, signature and date of member secretary / Chairman.
    Verify whether the EC recorded minutes of meeting.
  4. Verify whether EC is performed on site monitoring of the clinical trial approved.
    (Frequency and SOP)
  5. Verify whether EC members have conflict of interest in the approved trial, if yes then the member should abstain from such approval meeting.
  6. Verify whether the communications between Investigator and EC are available for changes, Serious Adverse Event and deviations occurred in clinical trial.
  7. Verify whether EC is function in accordance with conditions of registration by LA.

IX Pathology Laboratory ( for Screening/ Assessment)

  1. Name and address of the clinical laboratory used in the study. (Local and Outside).
  2. Whether financial & Confidentiality agreement with Investigator and concerned laboratory (ies) in place.
  3. Is investigator/Sponsor verified the accreditation status and adequacy of the facilities to perform the specified tests as per protocol.
  4. Verify whether the SOP for sample preparation, handling and transportation is available. Verify the appropriateness of the SOP.

X Quality Assurance

  1. Verify whether SOP for all procedures conducted at site are available i.e. have a copy of Site Specific and Trial specific SOPs
  2. Verify the essential components of SOP like who prepared, checked, authorized and when, frequency of SOP revision
  3. Whether SOPs for all operation like screening and Informed consent Process, AV recording of ICP of vulnerable population in NCE-CTs, SAEs & its Management, Communication with EC/Sponsor/CDSCO, GCP/Sch.Y, training to trial team, training assessment
  4. Whether SOPs for all operation like IP handling and distribution to study subjects, blood samples collection, processing preservation and transportation to local laboratory.
  5. Whether SOPs for all operation of storage cabinets, refrigerators/deep freezers used to store samples and IP are available.
  6. Verify, whether records for job description/responsibilities, qualification and training for all personnel involved in the clinical trial is maintained and stored.
  7. Verify whether the activities performed are in compliance with duty delegated by Investigator.
  8. Verify whether concern staff is adequately trained and records maintained there of
  9. In case of vaccines, are a spillage SOP available and the study team trained to handle such an incidence?

XI Record keeping and data handling

  1. Is adequate space available for document retention?
  2. Determine whether documents are maintained properly and for the period as specified.
  3. Whether necessary measures have been taken to prevent accidental or premature destruction.
  4. Whether the archival access controlled or restricted to authorized personnel.
  5. Weather SOP available to document all steps in data management in order to allow step by step retrospective assessment of data quality and study performance.
  6. Whether corrections in documents carry the date and initials of Investigators and authorized person.

XI-a Electronic data processing

  1. Is electronic data processing is done by authorized person?
  2. Verify whether list of authorized persons to make changes is maintained
  3. Verify if provision for recording of trail of changes and deletions made is available.
  4. Whether the hardware and software use for data recording and processing is validated

Important NOTE Collect authenticated copies as exhibit wherever any Critical &/or Major non-compliance has been observed.

Drugs Technical Advisory Board – DTAB – Functions Members Tenure Works

What is Drugs Technical Advisory Board?

The Drugs Technical Advisory Board advises the Central Government and the State Governments on technical matters arising out of the administration of Drugs & Cosmetics Act and carry out functions assigned to it by this Act. 

Who are the members of DTAB Drugs Technical Advisory Board? 

(i) the Director General of Health Services, ex officio, who shall be Chairman;

(ii) the Drugs Controller, India, ex officio;

(iii) theDirector of the Central Drugs Laboratory, Calcutta, ex officio;

(iv) the Director of the Central Research Institute, Kasauli, ex officio; 

(v) the Director of Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, ex officio;

(vi) the President of Medical Council of India, ex officio;

(vii) the President of the Pharmacy Council of India, ex officio;

(viii) the Director of Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, ex officio;

(ix) two persons to be nominated by the Central Government from among persons who are in charge of drugs control in the States; one person, to be elected by the Executive Committee of the Pharmacy Council of India, from among teachers in pharmacy or pharmaceutical chemistry or pharmacognosy on the staff of an Indian university or a college affiliated thereto;

(xi) one person, to be elected by the Executive Committee of the Medical Council of India, from among teachers in medicine or therapeutics on the staff of an Indian university or a college affiliated thereto;

(xii) one person to be nominated by the Central Government from the pharmaceutical industry;

(xiii) one pharmacologist to be elected by the Governing Body of the Indian Council of Medical Research;

(xiv) one person to be elected by the Central Council of the Indian Medical Association;

(xv) one person to be elected by the Council of the Indian Pharmaceutical Association;

(xvi) two persons holding the appointment of Government Analyst under this Act, to be nominated by the Central Government.

Functions of Drugs Technical Advisory Board

1. Co-ordinate the DTAB meetings under the Chairmanship of Director General of Health Services (DGHS) to advise the Central Government and the State Governments on technical matters arising out of the administration of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and to carry out the other functions assigned to it by this Act.

2. Co-ordinate the DCC meetings under the Chairmanship of Drugs Controller General (India) to advise the Central Government, the State Governments and DTAB on any other matter tending to secure uniformity throughout India in the administration of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940.

3. Initiate the amendments in the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 as per the recommendations of DTAB and co-ordinate with Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MOHFW) for draft and final Gazette Notifications.

4. Examination, compilation and consideration of comments/suggestions/objections received with respect to draft Gazette Notifications / Public Notices / Circulars etc.

5. Co-ordinate the constitution of sub-committees recommended in DTAB and DCC meetings and further follow-up for their reports.

6. Co-ordinate the stake holders meetings with respect to amendments of Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, as per recommendations from MOHFW whenever required.

7. Prepare minutes of DTAB and DCC meetings and upload on CDSCO website for stakeholders/public reference.

8. Processing of representations/RTIs/Public Grievances with respect to Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules thereunder

Tenure of Drugs Technical Advisory Board Members? 

The nominated and elected members of the Board shall hold office for three years, but shall be  eligible for renomination and re-election:

1 [Provided that the person nominated or elected, as the case may be, under clause (ix) or clause (x) or clause (xi) or clause (xvi) of sub-section

(2) shall hold office for so long as he holds the appointment of the office by virtue of which he was nominated or  elected to the Board.]

(4) The Board may, subject to the previous approval of the Central Government, make bye-laws fixing a quorum and regulating its own procedure and the conduct of all business to be transacted by it.

(5) The Board may constitute sub-committees and may appoint to such sub-committees for such periods, not exceeding three years, as it may decide, or temporarily for the consideration of particular matters, persons who are not members of the Board.

Organogram of DTAB

How DTAB Works ?  Processes

BY-LAWS OF THE DTAB:

1. The Chairman of the Board shall fix the date, time and place of every meeting of the Board, provided that the Board shall meet at least once every calendar year.

2. The Chairman of the Board shall, when present, preside all the meetings of the Board. If the Chairman is not present in any meeting, the members present shall select from amongst themselves a person to preside as Chairman at such meeting.

3. Seven member of the Board present in person shall constitute a quorum.

4. (i) Not less than 35 clear days’ notice of every meeting shall be given to each member of the Board, provided that the Chairman:-
(a) may call, after giving not less than 15 clear days’ notice to the members of the Board, a special meeting at any time to deal with any urgent matter requiring the attention of the Board;
(b) shall call, after giving not less than 15 clear days’ notice to the members of the Board, a special meeting within one month of the receipts of a requisition in writing signed by not less than seven members and stating the purpose, being a purpose within the scope of the Board’s functions for which they desire the meeting to be called.
(ii) The notices shall be dispatched to the latest address given to the Secretary by the members of the Board.

5. Any member desirous of moving any resolution at a meeting of the Board shall give notice, thereof in writing to the Secretary not less than 15 days before the date of such meeting, provided that in the case of a special meeting the notice will not be less than 5 days.

6. Each member of the Board shall have one vote, and if there shall be an equality of votes on any question to be decided, the Chairman shall have a second or casting vote.

7. Any business, which it may be necessary for the Board to discuss and decide except such as the Chairman may direct to be transacted by circulation among all members of the Board shall be placed at a meeting of the Board. If three or more members express, in writing, a desire that any particular subject shall be discussed at a meeting instead of being decided by circulation it shall be placed before a meeting of the Board.

8. Any resolution or report which is circulated on the direction of the Board or by the Chairman under Bye-Laws 7, and approved by a majority of the members signing shall be as binding as a resolution voted in a meeting of the Board, provided that at least nine members of the Board shall have recorded their views on the resolution in support.

9. Proceedings of each meeting, duly approved by the Chairman, shall be forwarded to the members of the Board for their approval or comments within 35 days of the date on which the meeting was held.

10. The quorum for a sub-committee appointed by the Board shall be determined at the time of the appointment of the sub-committee and shall not be less than a majority of the members appointed.

11. The Chairman and the Secretary of the Sub-committee shall be appointed by the Board at the time of the appointment of the sub-committee.
980529/2018/CDSCO-(HQ)

Pharm. D – Course Syllabus Duration-Doctor of Pharmacy Scope- #Exams

Pharm. D - Course Syllabus Duration-Doctor of Pharmacy Scope- #Exams

Doctor of Pharmacy Scope Academic Regulations for Pharm. D and D (Post Baccalaureate) (Regular)

(Effective for the students admitted into I year from the Academic Year onwards)

 

Award of Pharm. D Degree

 

A student will be declared eligible for the award of the Pharm. D. Degree if he fulfils the following academic regulations:

i. Duration of the course Pharm D

 

  1. D: The duration of the course shall be six academic years (five years of study and one year of internship or residency) full time with each academic year spread over a period of not less than two hundred working days. The period of six years duration is divided into two phases –

 

 

Phase  I   –    consisting of First, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth academic year.

 

Phase II – consisting of internship or residency training during sixth year

Involving posting in speciality units. It is a phase of training wherein a student is exposed to actual pharmacy practice or clinical pharmacy services and acquires skill under supervision so that he or she may become capable of functioning independently.

 

  1. Pursue the course of study for not less than 06 academic years and is not more than 12 years.

 

  1. Students, who fail to fulfil all the academic requirements for the award of the degree within 12 academic years from the year of their admission, shall forfeit their seat in Pharm D. course and their admission is cancelled.

 

  1. A student will be declared eligible for the award of the D (Post Baccalaureate). Degree if he fulfils the following academic regulations:

 

  1. D. (Post Baccalaureate): The duration of the course shall be for three academic years (two years of study and one year internship or residency) full time with each academic year spread over a period of not less than two hundred working days. The period of three years duration is divided into two phases –

Pharm. D - Course Syllabus Duration-Doctor of Pharmacy Scope- #Exams

Phase  I   –    consisting of First and Second academic year.

 

Phase II – consisting of Internship or residency training during third year involving posting in speciality units. It is a phase of training wherein a student is exposed to actual pharmacy practice or clinical pharmacy services, and acquires skill under supervision so that he or she may become capable of functioning independently.

 

  1. Pursue the course of study for not less than 03 academic years and is not more than 06 years.

 

  1. Students, who fail to fulfil all the academic requirements for the award of the degree within 06 academic years from the year of their admission, shall forfeit their seat in Pharm D (PB) course and their admission is cancelled.

 

 

  1. Every year there shall be an examination to examine the students.

 

  1. Each examination may be held twice every year. The first examination in a year shall be the annual examination and the second examination shall be supplementary examination.

 

  1. The examinations shall be of written and practical (including oral nature) carrying maximum marks for each part of a subject as indicated in Tables below :

TABLES

First Year examination :

 

S.No.Name of SubjectMaximum marks for TheoryMaximum marks for Practicals
         
   ExaminationSessionalTotalExaminationSessionalTotal
         
1.1HumanAnatomy70301007030100
 and Physiology      
1.2Pharmaceutics70301007030100
1.3Medicinal 70301007030100
 Biochemistry      
1.4Pharmaceutical70301007030100
 Organic Chemistry      
1.5Pharmaceutical70301007030100
 Inorganic Chemistry      
1.6Remedial 703010070*30*100*
 Mathematics/      
 Biology       
     600  600 =
        1200

 

* for Biology.

 

Second Year examination Pharm D :

 

S.No.Name of SubjectMaximum marks for TheoryMaximum marks for Practicals
        
  ExaminationSessionalTotalExaminationSessionalTotal
        
2.1Pathophysiology7030100
2.2Pharmaceutical70301007030100
 Microbiology      
2.3Pharmacognosy &70301007030100
 Phytopharmaceuticals      
2.4Pharmacology-I7030100
2.5Community Pharmacy7030100
2.6Pharmacotherapeutics-70301007030100
 I      
    600  300 =
       900

 

 

 

Third Year examination :

 

S.No.Name of SubjectMaximum marks for TheoryMaximum marks for Practicals
        
  ExaminationSessionalTotalExaminationSessionalTotal
        
3.1Pharmacology-II70301007030100
3.2Pharmaceutical70301007030100
 Analysis      
3.3Pharmacotherapeutics-70301007030100
 II      
3.4Pharmaceutical7030100
 Jurisprudence      
3.5Medicinal Chemistry70301007030100
3.6Pharmaceutical70301007030100
 Formulations      
    600  500 =
       1100

 

 

 

 

Fourth Year examination :

 

S.No.Name of SubjectMaximum marks for TheoryMaximum marks for Practicals
        
  ExaminationSessionalTotalExaminationSessionalTotal
        
4.1Pharmacotherapeutics-70301007030100
 III      
4.2Hospital Pharmacy70301007030100
4.3Clinical Pharmacy70301007030100
4.4Biostatistics &7030100
 Research      
 Methodology      
4.5Biopharmaceutics &70301007030100
 Pharmacokinetics      
4.6Clinical Toxicology7030100
    600  400 =
       1000

 

Fifth Year examination :

 

S.No. Name of SubjectMaximum marks for TheoryMaximum marks for Practicals
         
  ns ExaminationSessionalTotalExaminationSessionalTotal
         
5.1 Clinical Research7030100
5.2 Pharmacoepidemiology7030100
  and      
  Pharmacoeconomics      
5.3 Clinical7030100
  Pharmacokinetics  &      
  Pharmacotherapeutic      
  Drug Monitoring      
5.4 Clerkship *7030100
5.5 Project work (Six100**100
  Months)      
      300  200 =
         500

 

  • Attending ward rounds on daily basis.
  • 30 marks – viva-voce (oral)

70 marks – Thesis work

Attendance requirements

 

Eligibility for appearing Examination.― Only such students who produce certificate from the Head of the Institution in which he or she has undergone the Pharm.D. or as the case may be, the Pharm.D. (Post Baccalaureate) course, in proof of his or her having regularly and satisfactorily undergone the course of study by attending not less than 80% of the classes held both in theory and in practical separately in each subject shall be eligible for appearing at examination.

 

Mode of examinations

 

  • Theory examination shall be of three hours and practical examination shall be of four hours duration.

 

  • A Student who fails in theory or practical examination of a subject shall re-appear both in theory and practical of the same subject.
  • Practical examination shall also consist of a viva –voce (Oral) examination.

 

  • Clerkship examination – Oral examination shall be conducted after the completion of clerkship of students. An external and an internal examiner will evaluate the student. Students may be asked to present the allotted medical cases followed by discussion. Students’ capabilities in delivering clinical pharmacy services, pharmaceutical care planning and knowledge of therapeutics shall be assessed.

 

Award of sessional marks and maintenance of records

 

  • A regular record of both theory and practical class work and examinations conducted in an institution imparting training for Pharm.D. or as the case may be, Pharm.D. (Post Baccalaureate) course, shall be maintained for each student in the institution and 30 marks for each theory and 30 marks for each practical subject shall be allotted as sessional.

 

  • There shall be at least three periodic sessional examinations during each academic year and the highest aggregate of any two performances shall form the basis of calculating sessional marks.

 

  • The sessional marks in practicals shall be allotted on the following basis:-

(i)  Actual performance in the sessional examination               (20 marks);

(ii) Day to day assessment in the practical class work,

 

promptness, viva-voce record maintenance, etc.                 (10 marks).

 

Minimum marks for passing Pharm D examination.―

 

A student shall not be declared to have passed examination unless he or she secures at least 50% marks in each of the subjects separately in the theory examinations, including sessional marks and at least 50% marks in each of the practical examinations including sessional marks. The students securing 60% marks or above in aggregate in all subjects in a single attempt at the Pharm.D. or as the case may be, Pharm. D. (Post Baccalaureate) course examination shall be declared to have passed in first class. Students securing 75% marks or above in any subject or subjects shall be declared to have passed with distinction in the subject or those subjects provided he or she passes in all the subjects in a single attempt.

Eligibility for promotion to next year.―

 

All students who have appeared for all the subjects and passed the first year annual examination are eligible for promotion to the second year and, so on. However, failure in more than two subjects shall debar him or her from promotion to the next year classes.

 

 

 

  • Internship is a phase of training wherein a student is expected to conduct actual practice of pharmacy and health care and acquires skills under the supervision so that he or she may become capable of functioning independently.

 

  • Every student has to undergo one year internship as per PCI norms for Pharm D (Appendix A).

 

  1. 10. Practical training

 

As per PCI norms for Pharm D (Appendix B)

 

  1. Transitory regulations:

 

Candidates who have been detained for want of attendance or not fulfilled academic requirements or who have failed after having undergone the course in earlier regulations or have discontinued and wish to continue the course are eligible for admission into the unfinished semester from the date of commencement of class work with the same or equivalent subjects as and when subjects are offered, subject to Section 2. and continue to be in the academic regulations they were first admitted.

 

  1. With – holding of results:

 

If the candidate has not paid dues to the university or if any case of in-discipline or malpractice is pending against him, the result of the candidate shall be withheld and he will not be allowed / promoted into the next higher semester. The issue of degree is liable to be withheld in such cases.

 

General:

 

  1. The academic regulations should be read as a whole for purpose of any interpretation.

 

  1. Disciplinary action for Malpractice / improper conduct in examinations is appended

 

  • Where the words “he”, “him”, “his”, occur in the regulations, they include “she”, “her”, “hers”.

 

  1. In the case of any doubt or ambiguity in the interpretation of the above rules, the decision of the Vice-Chancellor is final.

 

  1. The University may change or amend the academic regulations or syllabi at any time and the changes or amendments shall be made applicable to all the students on roles with effect from the dates notified by the University.

2045 Pharmaceutical Industry || Future Pharma Technologies

2045 Pharmaceutical Industry || Future Pharma Technologies

Hello readers, Let me ask you a question first before we enter the article. What we can expect to see from our pharmaceutical industry in the coming 20 years? Did you ever imagined what can it adapt or inculcate in the future. Do you ever realize the earning capacity of the pharmaceutical market of the globe is 1.2 trillion dollars? At this high profitable and capital stock the Pharmaceutical industry will definitely undergo a huge technological changes in the coming years. Few expect Artificial Intelligence A.I patient empowerment and 3D printed drugs etc to be trending the future.

Every industry paves an adaptation to the changing times with technological advancement and so our Pharmaceutical industry surely embrace new technologies, therapies and innovations.

Artificial Intelligence for Drug Research & Development

Artificial Intelligence for Drug Research & Development will surely bring up a greater focus on ailments, prevention and digital health through speed and savings.
The market of artificial intelligence in global healthcare will reach 31 billion dollars by the end of 2025 as per few studies.
A.I-aided drug design will be a potential too for the new drug discoveries in the very near future. It is really easy to identify the most suitable drugs for diseases through AI as it creates a remarkable perks on the efficiency time and cost.

Patient design

Patient Design includes patients’ input and involvement in drug designs, trials and even decision-making. It is interesting that the FDA created its own patient engagement advisory board to make sure the patients demands heard..
All the Pharmaceutical companies need to follow the FDA in this regard and recently the FDA approved the first artificial pancreas two years after the DIY artificial pancreas was made publicly available.

Robotic integration

2045 Pharmaceutical Industry || Future Pharma Technologies
The greater technological advancement raises the integration of robots in the drug manufacturing processes where they can automate tasks in different tasks.
Robotics, in the form of exoskeletons can take up heavy loads and long hours assisting the manual labors.

Blockchain Technology

Blockchain could bring a radical security measure to the drug distribution chain via a barcode record system that can be tracked from the manufacturer to the end user. This way, medicines
can be tracked in real-time by authorized parties and patients, making it much more difficult for criminal networks to thrive. By being a simple yet secure measure, we will see pharma companies investing more and more into blockchain.

New drug strategies

Pharma companies will focus on newer approaches in drug manufacturing relying on technology to appeal more to providers and payers.

Example:

The “around the pill” strategy is one such New drug strategies.It’s about developing a drug and attaching a digital health technology to it instead
Roche created mySugr app diabetes management app and paired it with Roche’s Accu-Chek Guide glucose meter.
This helps patients to manage their condition by just logging in their blood glucose levels, completing tasks and challenges, users can “tame their diabetes monster”.

Aptitude Reasoning Previous Question Paper Solved Answers 4 pharmacist

Aptitude Reasoning Previous Question Paper Solved Answers 4 pharmacist

Hello readers, Today we present here Aptitude Reasoning Previous Question Paper Solved Answers for all the pharmacy examination whether it is Drug Inspector or any corporate pharmaceutical interview for recruitment of job vacancies.

Aptitude/Reasoning/Subject specialisation previous years solved questions with answers

1. If the following numbers are rewritten by interchanging the digits in ten’s place and hundred’s
place and then arranging them in the descending order. What will be the second digit of the newly
formed fifth number from your right ?
479, 736, 895, 978, 389, 675
(A) 3
(B) 4 (C) 5
(D) 6
Ans : (C)
2. P is 60 m South-East of Q. R is 60 m North-East of Q. Then R is in which direction of P ?
(A) North
(B) North-East
(C) South
(D) South-East
Ans : (A)
Directions’(Q. 3’5) Read the following information for answering the questions that follow’
On a playing ground A, B, C, D and E are standing as described below facing the North.
(i) B is 50 metres to the right of D.
(ii) A is 60 metres to the South of B
(iii) C is 40 metres to the West of D.
(iv) E is 80 metres to the North of A.
3. If a boy walks from C, meets D followed by B, A and then E, how many metres has he walked if
he has travelled the straight distance all through ?
(A) 120
(B) 150
(C) 170
(D) 230
Ans : (D)

Aptitude Reasoning Previous Question Paper Solved Answers 4 pharmacist
4. What is the minimum distance (in metre approximately) between C and E?
(A) 53
(B) 78
(C) 92
(D) 120
Ans : (C)
5. Who is to the South-East of the person who is to the left of D ?
(A) A
(B) B
(C) C
(D) E
Ans : (A)
6. A man was walking in the evening just before the sun set. His wife said that, his shadow fell on
his right. If the wife was walking in the opposite direction of the man, then which direction the
wife was facing ?
(A) North
(B) West
(C) South
(D) East
Ans : (C)

Directions’(Q. 7’11) In each of the following questions choose the set of numbers from the four
alternative sets that is similar to the given set.
7. Given set : (4, 9, 18)
(A) (8, 14, 22)
(B) (10, 15, 25)
(C) (6, 12, 23)
(D) (12, 17, 26)
Ans : (D)
8. Given set : (10, 14, 17)
(A) (4, 11, 14)
(B) (9, 12,
(C) (8, 13, 18)
(D) (6, 9, 12)
Ans : (A)
9. Given set : (7, 27, 55)
(A) (21, 35 , 52)
(B) (18, 42 , 65)
(C) (16, 40 , 72)
(D) (13, 30 , 58)
Ans : (C)
10. Given set : (39, 28, 19)
(A) (84, 67 , 52)
(B) (52, 25 , 17)
(C) (70, 49 , 36)
(D) (65, 45 , 21)
Ans : (A)
11. Given set : (246, 257, 358)
(A) (233, 343, 345)
(B) (273, 365, 367)
(C) (143, 226, 237)
(D) (145, 235, 325)
Ans : (A)

Directions’(Q. 12’16) Each question contains six or seven statements followed by four sets of
combinations of three. Choose the set in which the statements are logically related.
12.
(1) All books are having pages.
(2) All kings are having pages.
(3) All kings are books.
(B) 4, 2, 6
(C) 1, 5, 3
(D) 2, 4, 5
Ans : (B)
Directions’(Q. 17’21) Each of the questions below consists of a question and two statements
numbered (I) and (II). You have to decide whether the data provided in the statements are
sufficient to answer the question. Give answers’
(A) If the data in statement (I) alone are sufficient to answer the question, while the data in
statement (II) alone are not sufficient to answer the question;
(B) If the data in statement (II) alone are sufficient to answer the question, while the data in
statement (I) alone are not sufficient to answer the questions;
(C) If the data even in both statements (I) and (II) together are not sufficient to answer the
question;
(D) If the data in both statement (I) and (II) together are necessary to answer the question.
17. In which direction is Mahatmaji’s statue facing ?
I. The statue is towards the northern end of the city.
II. The statue’s shadow falls towards East at 5 O’clock in the evening.
Ans : (C)
18. What is the total number of pupils in the final year class ?
I. The number of boys in the final year class is twice as much as the number of girls in that class.
II. The sum of the ages of all the pupils in the class is 399 years and their average age is 19
years.
Ans : (B)
19. Who is the tallest among A, B, C and D ?
I. A is taller than C.
II. B is taller than C and D.
Ans : (C)
20. How many Sundays are there in a particular month of a particular year?
I. The month begins on Monday.
II. The month ends on Wednesday.
Ans : (D)
21. What is the total number of pages in this book ?
I. I counted 132 pages from the beginning of this book.
II. My wife counted 138 pages starting from the end of the same book.
Ans : (C)

Directions’(Q. 22’26) In each of the questions given below, there is a statement followed by  three assumptions numbered I, II and III. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and assumptions and then decide, which of the
assumption(s) is/are implicit in the statement.

22. Statement : During pre-harvest kharif seasons, the government has decided to release vast quantity of foodgrains from FCI.
Assumptions :I. There may be a shortage of foodgrains in the market during this season.
II. The kharif crop may be able to replenish the stock of FCI.
III. There may be a demand from the farmers to procure kharif crop immediately after harvest.
(A) None is implicit
(B) Only I and II are implicit (C) Only II and III are implicit (D) All are implicit
Ans : (D)
23. Statement : To improve the employment situation in India, there is a need to recast the
present educational system towards implementation of scientific discoveries in daily life.
Assumptions :I. The students after completing such education may be able
to earn their livelihood.
II. This may bring meaning of education in the minds of the youth.
III. The state may earn more revenue as more and more people will engage themselves in self
employment.
(A) Only I and II are implicit
(B) Only III is implicit
(C) Only I and III are implicit
(D) None is implicit
Ans : (A)
24. Statement : To increase profit, the oil exporting countries decided to reduce the production of
crude by 5 million barrels per day. Assumptions :I. The price of crude may increase due to less
production. II. The demand of crude may remain same in future.
III. Other countries may continue buying crude from these countries. (A) All are implicit
(B) Only II and III are implicit (C) Only I and II are implicit (D) None is implicit
Ans : (C)
25. Statement : ’We do not want you to see our product on newspaper, visit our shop to get a full
view.’ ’ an advertisement.
Assumptions :I. People generally decide to purchase any product after seeing the name in the
advertisement.
II. Uncommon appeal may attract the customers. III. People may come to see the product.
(A) All are implicit
(B) None is implicit
(C) Only II and III are implicit
(D) Only I and II are implicit
Ans : (A)
26. Statement : The Reserve Bank of India has directed the banks to refuse fresh loans to major
defaulters.
Assumptions :I. The banks may still give loans to the defaulters.
II. The defaulters may repay the earlier loan to get fresh loan.
III. The banks may recover the bad loans through such harsh measures.
(A) All are implicit
(B) None is implicit
(C) Both II and III are implicit
(D) Both I and II are implicit
Ans : (C)
Directions’(Q. 27’31) In questions given below, statements 1 and 2 are followed by conclusions I
and II. Taking the statements to be right although they may seem at variance with commonly
accepted facts, mark your answers as under’
(A) If only conclusion I follows.
(B) If only conclusion II follows.
(C) If both I and II follows.
(D) Neither I nor II follows.
27. Statements :
1. All hands are machines.
2. All machines are wheels.
Conclusions :I. All wheels are hands.
II. All hands are wheels.
Ans : (B)
28. Statements :
1. Some buds are leaves.
2. Some leaves are red. Conclusions :
I. Some buds are red.
II. Some leaves are not buds.
Ans : (B)
29. Statements :
1. Some stones are shells.
2. All shells are pearls.
Conclusions :
I. Some stones are pearls.
II. All pearls are shells.
Ans : (A)
30. Statements :
1. Brown is red and blue is green.
2. Green is pink and yellow is red. Conclusions :
I. Yellow is brown.
II. Pink is blue.
Ans : (C)

Anti Diabetics – Diabetics Symptoms Treatment Drug Dosage

Anti Diabetics Symptoms Epidemiology Treatment Drug Dosage

Diabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes—is a condition in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia glycosuria, hyperlipemia, negative nitrogen balance and sometimes ketonemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.

This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).

There are three main types of diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes: results from the body’s failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin.
Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency.
Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of Diabetics Symptoms Epidemiology Treatment Drug Dosage.png

EPIDIMEOLOGY:

There is an increase in the prevalence of type 1diabetes also, but main cause of diabetic epidemic is type2 diabetes mellitus, which accounts for more than 90 percent of all diabetes cases. According to World Health Organization (WHO) reports, India had 32 million diabetic people in the year 2001. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimates the total number of diabetic subjects to be around 40.9 million in India and this is further set to rise to 69.9 million by the year 2025. The majority of cases of diabetes fall into two broad etiopathogenetic categories now called type 1 and T2 DM. The etiologic classification of diabetes mellitus currently recommended by WHO and the ADA in 1997.

ORAL HYPOGYCEMIC DRUGS

 Biguanide Metformin

 Sulfonylureas Glimepiride,gliclazide,glipizide,glyburide,glibenclamide

 Meglitinides Repaglinide,nateglinide

 Gliptins (DPP-4 inhibitors) Sitagliptin,vildagliptin,saxagliptin,alogliptin,linagliptin

 Thiazolidinediones (PPAR-γ agonists) Pioglitazone,rosiglitazone

Anti Diabetics Symptoms Epidemiology Treatment Drug Dosage

 α-Glucosidase inhibitors Acarbose,miglitol,voglibose

 Dopamine D2-receptor agonists Bromocriptine

SUBCUTANEOUS INJECTION

 Insulin Rapid, short, intermediate, and long-acting formulations.

 Newer insulins Insulin detemir, insulin glulisine, insulin degludec

 GLP-1 agonists Exenatide, liraglutide,albiglutide,lixisenatide,taspoglutide

 Amylin analogue Pramlintide

RECENT DRUGS

Sodium–glucose-cotransporter-2 (SGL2) inhibitors

Dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, ASP1941, LX4211, and BI10773

11β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1 inhibitors

INCB13739 (200 mg) DUAL PPAR (γ +α) AGONIST

Aleglitazar Glucokinase activator Piragliatin, compound 14,

R1511, AZD1656, AZD6370, compound 6 Bile acid sequestrants Colesevelam

Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody Otelixizumab, teplizumab Cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonists

Rimonabant Histamine H3 receptor agonist Proxyfan

Glucagon receptor antagonists Compound 1 (cpd 1)

Atherogenics antioxidant/vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

Succinobucol/AGI 1067

Recombinant human glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (rhgad65) Vaccine, induces immunotolerization IL-1 antagonist

Anakinra Insulin action enhancers

Gip antagonists Sirtuins

Adipose tissue signals

In-vivo Screening Procedures For Anti-Diabetic Drugs

In-vivo Screening Procedures For Anti-Diabetic Drugs

In-vivo Screening Procedures For Anti-Diabetic Drugs

Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.

In-vivo Screening Procedures
1. Models For Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus [IDDM]
2. Models For NIDDM
3 Models For Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Like Activity

Animals Used For The Screening Of Anti-Diabetic Drug

Obese mouse
Diabetic mouse
Sand mouse [Psammomys obesus]
Spiny mouse [Acomys cahirinus]
BB rats
KK mouse
Yellow mouse
NOD mouse
Yellow KK mouse
New Zealand obese mouse
Tuco-tuco [clenomys talarum]- these are burrowing rodents from Argentina.
Chinese hamster [Cricetulus griseus]

Chemical Agents Capable Of Inducing Diabetes

A) Irreversible beta cytotoxic agents:
Alloxan
Streptozocin
Diphenyl thiocarbazine
Oxine-9- hydroxyquinolone
Vacor

B) Reversible beta cytotoxic agents

6- aminonicotinamide
l-asparginase
Cyanide
Cyproheptadine

C) Other agents
Anti insulin antibodies
Somatostatins
Catecholamines

In-vivo Screening Procedures For Anti-Diabetic Drugs

1. Models For Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus [IDDM]
Alloxan induced diabetes
Alloxan: is a cyclic urea compound, which induces permanent diabetes.
It is a highly reactive molecule, which produces free radical damage to beta islet cells & causes cell death.
Dose: – In rats Alloxan at dose of 100 mg/kg produces diabetes.
In rabbits dose of 150 mg/kg infused through marginal ear vein produces diabetes in 70% of the animals.

PPT Anti Diabetic In vivo screening procedure antididabetic drugs
Procedure: –

Albino rats of either sex [150-200g] are injected with a single dose of alloxan monohydrate [100 mg/kg body weight] dissolved in normal saline by i.p. route.

Blood glucose levels show triphasic response with hyperglycemia for one hour followed by hypoglycemia that lasts for six hours & stable hyperglycemia after 48 hours.

Animals showing fasting blood glucose level above 140 mg/dl after 48 hour of alloxan administration are considered diabetic
For a period of six weeks, drug samples to be screened are administered orally
After six weeks of treatment, blood samples are collected from 8 hour fasting animals through a caudal vein
Serum is separated by centrifuge (3000 rpm) under cooling (2-4 °C) for ten minutes
The serum glucose level is estimated by glucose oxidase-peroxidase method [GOD-POD kit] using autoanalyser.

1.2 Streptozotocin induced diabetes

Streptozotocin: is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which causes beta islet cell damage by free radical generation.
It induces diabetes in almost all species of animals excluding rabbits and guinea pigs.
Dose: – Diabetogenic dose: In Mice: 200mg/kg i.p
Beagle dogs: 15 mg/ kg i.v for three days.

Procedure: –
Streptozotocin [60 mg/kg body weight] is prepared in citrated buffer [ph 4.5]
Albino rats of either sex weighing 150-200 g are injected i.p with above solution
Animals showing fasting blood glucose levels > 140mg/dl after 48 hours of streptozotocin administration are considered diabetic.
· After six weeks of treatment blood samples are collected from 6 hr fasted animals through caudal vein
·Serum is separated by centrifuge (3000 rpm) under cooling (2-4 °C) for ten minutes
· Serum glucose level is estimated by glucose- peroxidase method [GOD-POD kit] using autoanalyser.

1.3 Virus induced diabetes

Principle: –
Viruses are one of the etiological agents for IDDM. They produce diabetes mellitus by infecting and destroying beta cells of pancreas.
Various human viruses used for inducing diabetes include RNA picornovirus, encephalomyocarditis [EMC-D], coxsackie B4 [CB-4].

Procedure: –
6-8 week old mice are inoculated by 0.1 ml of 1:50 dilutions of D-variant encephalomyocarditis [EMC] through i.p.

0.1ml of above dilution contains 50 PFU [ plaque forming units] of EMC virus.(mortality due to this concentration of virus is approximately 10-20%)
Less infecting variant produces a comparable damage by eliciting autoimmune reactivity to the beta cells.

· Infected animals are considered hyperglycemic if there non fasting levels exceed by 250mg/dl the levels of uninfected animals of the same strain.
· Drug samples to be screened are administered orally for a period of 6 weeks
· After 6 weeks of drug treatment, blood glucose estimation is done to determine the anti diabetic activity.

Thesis Title Template M Pharm B Pharmacy Projects PHD Format

Thesis Title Template M Pharm B Pharmacy Projects PHD Format

Here is the template format for M Pharmacy Project B Pharmacy PHD projects. Every one needs to design the first page I mean title of the thesis when we need to submit the project finally. So we pharmawiki team thought it would really HELPFUL FOR ALL THE M Pharmacy Project B Pharmacy PHD projects students to submit their thesis with ease.

—-M Pharmacy Project B Pharmacy PHD project Thesis:

All you need in this TITLE PAGE of this Thesis is a list of the below:

  • Title of the Project you have done
  •  thesis Submitted for the AWARD
  • of
  • Your Stream of Study
  • To
  • University Logo
  • University name
  • By
  • Your Name
  • Department Logo 
  • Department Name 
  • College Name 
  • University Name 
  • Address 
  • Pincode

Title of the Project:

Example :

The Matrix-Binding Domain of Microfibril-Associated Glycoprotein-1 Targets 

ACTIVE CONNECTIVE TISSUE GROWTH FACTOR TO A FIBROBLAST-PRODUCED EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX
TISSUE RECOMBINANTS TO STUDY EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX TARGETING TO BASEMENT MEMBRANES.

A STUDY OF DESIGNING NOVEL A2A ADENOSINE RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST-A COMPUTATIONAL APPROACH.

 Thesis Submitted for the AWARD of

Your Stream of Study

Example :

MASTER of PHarmacy

IN PARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY

University Logo

Example

Title page for thesis Submission M Pharmacy Project B Pharmacy PHD projects Title page for thesis Submission M Pharmacy Project B Pharmacy PHD projects

BY

Your Name

Example :

Purnima Robinson

Department Logo

Department Name

Example  Department of Pharmacy

College Name

University Name

Address

Pincode

Thesis Title Template M Pharm B Pharmacy Projects PHD Format

thesis title page latex template, thesis title page examples, thesis title page sample philippines, thesis title page, thesis title page apa, thesis title page latex, thesis title page template, thesis title page format, thesis title page sample, apa thesis title page, thesis title page example, thesis title page template, honors thesis title page, master thesis title page, thesis title page up diliman, thesis title page tagalog, thesis title page pdf,zThesis Title Template M Pharm B Pharmacy Projects PHD Format

thesis title page latex template, thesis title page examples, thesis title page sample philippines, thesis title page, thesis title page apa, thesis title page latex, thesis title page template, thesis title page format, thesis title page sample, apa thesis title page, thesis title page example, thesis title page template, honors thesis title page, master thesis title page, thesis title page up diliman, thesis title page tagalog, thesis title page pdf, This article solves your all problems when designing your Thesis Title Page.

Comment us Below to get a Editable Word format of Thesis Title Page