Best cough syrup names in India for Adults & Kids – List

Best brand cough syrup names in India

Best cough syrup in India : As we are aware Cough syrups are to be taken based on the type of cough a particular person persist with either dry or wet with sputum. It also depends on the root cause of the cough. Cough could be due to infection, asthma, tuberculosis, bronchitis (swelling of the lining of the lungs) or some medicines like ACE inhibitors. Cough syrups are of following types :

1. Cough suppressants: These are used for dry irritating cough. Usually, these contain a medicine called Dextromethorphan.

2. Expectorants: These are used in cough with mucus or sputum. These generally contain a medicine called guaifenesin.

If cough persists for more than a month, you should not self medicate and should visit your doctor

Best cough syrup names in India for Adults Kids - List

 

Cough Syrup for instant relief

ASCORIL COUGH SYRUP
Manufactured by Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Ascoril Cough Syrup belongs to the class of drugs called ‘ expectorants ’. This medicine is used to treat sinusitis, cough, common cold , congestion, bronchitis, and breathing problems.

Nature: Expectorant Drug
Uses: Wet cough, Chest congestion, Cold, Asthma, Breathing disorders, Sinusitis, and Bronchitis.
Composition Ambroxol, Guaifenesin, Levosalbutamol
Side Effects Drowsiness, Dizziness, Upset stomach, Blurred Vision, Dry Mouth, Constipation, Dry nose and throat
Precautions Pregnancy, Lactation, Liver and kidney-related ailments, Alcohol Consumption

Cough Syrup for Wet Cough

Benadryl Cough Syrup
If you are looking forward to a cough syrup that addresses both your dry cough as well as wet cough concerns, then it is definitely Benadryl cough syrup that you should opt for. Benadryl cough syrup relieves both dry cough and wet cough problems. You might ask how a single cough syrup can relieve both wet and dry cough?

Benadryl contains mucolytic agent and suppressing agents such as codeine, diphenhydramine which help in getting rid of wet and dry cough respectively. As a bonus, the syrup also helps in soothing your throat and releases the irritation.

Key Benefits of Benadryl Cough Syrup: –
Multi symptoms cough relief.
Soothes a sore throat and cleans it.
The fastest relief provided by a cough syrup for cough & cold problems.
Quick action – Starts acting within 15 minutes of consumption.

Cough Syrup for Dry Cough

Corex Cough Syrup:

It is a combination of Chlorpheniramine that helps in actively reducing inflammation, itchiness and tickling sensation that is known to be caused by cough. Its ingredient, codeine phosphate helps to reduce pain, along with menthol that fights to provide a cooling sensation in your throat. A dosage of 5ml is recommended for adults and kids 1.25-2.5ml is a good dosage. Being on the sedative side due to the anti-histamine agent, it is best recommended for consumption in the night

The common side effects are Headache, Anemia, Tachycardia, constipation, dry mouth.

Cough Syrup for painful Cough

Asthalin Expectorant Cough Syrup:
asthalin syrup for cough

This syrup is combination syrup, one that is made up of Guaiphenesin, an expectorant, and salbutamol, which is a bronchodilator. A dosage of 10-20 ml thrice daily and for children above 6 to 12 years, 10ml thrice daily is the recommended dosage. Make sure to consult your doctor for expert advice before consuming Asthalin.

The syrup is recommended for asthma patients, and for those people who are infected with a cough caused due to Bronchitis, Emphysema and other lung infection. For the pregnant ladies, it is advised to take the advice of the doctor before consuming.

Cough Syrup for Kids Child Cough

HIMALAYA KOFLET

Koflet is beneficial in both productive and dry cough. The mucolytic and expectorant properties reduce the viscosity of bronchial secretions and facilitate expectoration. Koflet’s peripheral antitussive (cough suppressant) action reduces bronchial mucosal irritation and related bronchospasms. In addition, the anti-allergic, antimicrobial and immune-modifying properties provide relief from cough. The demulcent action of Koflet syrup soothes respiratory passages.

Cough Syrup for Infant & Toddler Cough

Timinic Syrup

Ascoril Kid

Kofarest

Chlorpheniramine, dextromethorphan, and phenylephrine is a combination medicine used to treat a cough, runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, itching, and watery eyes caused by allergies, the common cold, or the flu.Chlorpheniramine is an antihistamine that reduces the effects of natural chemical histamine in the body. Histamine can produce symptoms of sneezing, itching, watery eyes, and runny nose.

Best brand cough syrup names in India

Try these herbal cough syrups to get rid of your irritating cough and cold, the most natural and safe way. These natural ingredients cure the disease without causing any side effects. Please don’t forget to share your experience and feedback in the comments section below.

Painkiller / Pain reliever Medications for Dogs – Vetty Suggest Pain Pills

medication for my per dog painkiller

Painkiller/Pain reliever Medications for Dogs are in this article. There is a saying that if you want to experience unconditional love you must own a dog. Naturally, when your dog hurts, it painful to watch and you want to help him feel better. Our society’ structure is such that many stray animals are left out on road without any shelter or treatment they need. This causes an imbalance in the environment and the disease spreads here and there. Your vet will recommend medication based on what’s going or you might already know what the problem is, and you could be searching for a medicine you can use. In the meantime, you can figure out a safe pain reliever for your dog which is equally a tough job. Also, in this article, there are dos and don’ts for treating your dog.

Here are a few ways to help ease the pain of dogs.

medication for my per dog painkiller

Putting up NSAIDs

NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) help reduce swelling, stiffness, and joint pain in humans and they can be put to the dogs in need. These are a group of medications, including ibuprofen and aspirin which reduces inflammation, pain and fever. There are special NSAIDs designed just for dogs but in some sort of situations, you can give your dog a human medication.
Some of the NSAIDs for dogs are Meloxicam (Metacam), Carprofen (Novox or Rimadyl), Firocoxib (Previcox) & Deracoxib (Deramaxx). These medications can all be prescribed by your vet. These painkillers can bring relief to a dog with arthritis, or one who’s just had surgery. The vet can also diagnose what’s causing the pain and help to treat that. Likely, your vet might recommend that you give your dog aspirin under their supervision.

 

Painkiller / Pain reliever Medications for Dogs – Vetty Suggest Pain Pills

Other Medications
Usually, NSAIDs are good at relieving pain there is no need for veterinarians to prescribe other kinds of painkillers often. But at times the dogs may require more options. Your vet might prone to suggest you about gabapentin or tramadol.
There are some factors to keep in mind while giving the dogs’ painkillers such as an incorrect dose, problems with mixing medications and sensitivity to human medications can all cause problems. It is to be taken care of that in varied cases human medications given to dogs could cause severe complications including:
• Gastrointestinal bleeding
• Ulcers
• Holes in the stomach lining
• Liver and kidney damage
Normally, just like humans dogs and other animals are also liable to get some side effects on having painkillers.
You are to watch out for:
• Changes in behavior
• Loss of appetite
• Skin redness
• Digestive issues, including diarrhea and vomiting
Moreover, the vet is much more knowledgeable about the dog’s health, so they can give you more insight about what to look for.

Achlorhydria Treatment Causes Symptoms PPT PDF – www.pharmawiki.in

Achlorhydria Treatment Causes Symptoms PPT PDF - www.Pharmawiki.in

Achlorhydria indicates the inability to produce gastric acid (i.e., hydrochloric acid [HCl]), even after stimulation with secretagogues (e.g., pentagastrin [gastrin analogue], histamine, betazole [histamine analogue], or a meal). Serum gastrin is a marker for gastric acid output. A decrease in gastric acid interrupts a negative feedback pathway controlling gastrin secretion, and leads to elevated serum gastrin levels (hypergastrinaemia

Achlorhydria Causes:

The cause of achlorhydria in first case may be subtotal gastrectomy, atrophic gastritis, carcinoma, gastric polyp etc while in later case it may be chronic nephritis, tuberculosis, hyperthyroidism, chronic alcoholism, sprue, pellagra etc. The symptoms vary with associated disease but they generally include mild diarrhoea or frequent bowl movement, epigastric pain and sensitivity to spicy food. Achlorhydria can be treated by various acidifying agents like ammonium chloride, dilute HCl, Calcium chloride etc.

Types of achlorhydria:

The pH of stomach is 1.5 -2 when empty and rises to pH 5-6 when food is ingested. The pH of stomach is so low because of the secretion of HCl. Gastric HCl act by destroying the bacteria in the ingested food and drinks. It softens the fibrous food and promotes the formation of the proteolytic enzyme pepsin. This enzyme is formed from pepsinogen at acidic pH (>6). Pepsin helps in the metabolism of proteins in the ingested food. Therefore lack of HCl in the stomach can cause Achlorhydria.

Two types of achlorhydria are known:

1) where the gastric secretion is devoid of HCl, even after stimulation with histamine phosphate
2) where gastric secretion is devoid of HCl, but secreted upon stimulation with histamine phosphate.

Treatment of Achlorhydria:

Dilute Hydrochloric Acid HCl M.W 36.5 I.P. Limit: It contains not less than 9.5% and not more than 10.5% w/w of HCl. The acid should be diluted with 25-50 volumes with water or juice and sipped through a glass tube to prevent reaction upon dental enamel.

The cause of your achlorhydria will determine your treatment path. For instance, if chronic use of PPIs were how you developed this condition, the first step your doctor may take is to stop having you take these medications, and possibly H2 blockers as well. If an autoimmune disorder is to blame, steps could be taken to get that condition in line. Basically, there is not one set treatment option, but your doctor will know what treatments fit with your version of achlorhydria.

Proton-pump inhibitor 

amoxicillin 

clarithromycin 

metronidazole
levofloxacin 

bismuth

Symptoms of achlorhydria:

Achlorhydria can increase your risk of developing iron deficiency anemia. Without stomach acids, the body will have issues absorbing iron.

Other vitamins and minerals such a calcium, folic acid, vitamin C, and vitamin D also rely on adequate stomach acid for their absorption into the digestive tract.

Achlorhydria Treatment Causes Symptoms PPT PDF - www.Pharmawiki.in

If diagnosed with achlorhydria, doctors often check for anemia. Other achlorhydria symptoms can include:

abdominal bloating
indigestion
nausea
acid reflux
digestive issues
diarrhea
weak, brittle nails
hair loss
undigested food in stools

Achlorhydria Treatment Causes Symptoms PPT PDF -achlorhydria treatment in ayurveda achlorhydria mayo clinic achlorhydria pdf histamine test for achlorhydria hypochlorhydria test achlorhydria meaning in hindi what is the physiological effect of achlorhydria in the body hyperchlorhydria

Anemia Causes| Types | Symptoms | Diet | Diagnosis || Treatment

Anemia Causes Types Symptoms Diet Diagnosis Treatment

Today we discuss Anemia Causes Types Symptoms Diet Diagnosis Treatment here in this article. Anemia is the condition in which the oxygen carrying capacity of blood is reduced. In the anemia the total number of RBCs decreases so indirectly decreases the oxygen level so decrease the production of ATP and energy.

Causes of Anemia:

The main causes of anemia are:

1. Blood loss
2. Lack of red blood cell production
3. High rates of red blood cell destruction

Blood Loss

Blood loss is the most common cause of anemia, especially iron-deficiency anemia.
Blood loss can be short term or persist over time.
Heavy menstrual periods or bleeding in the digestive or urinary tract can cause blood loss. Surgery, trauma, or cancer also can cause blood loss.
If a lot of blood is lost, the body may lose enough red blood cells to cause anemia.

Lack of Red Blood Cell Production

Both acquired and inherited conditions and factors can prevent your body from making enough red blood cells. “Acquired” means you aren’t born with the condition, but you develop it. “Inherited” means your parents passed the gene for the condition on to you.
Acquired conditions and factors that can lead to anemia include poor diet, abnormal hormone levels, some chronic (ongoing) diseases, and pregnancy.
Aplastic anemia also can prevent your body from making enough red blood cells. This condition can be acquired or inherited.

Diet

A diet that lacks iron, folic acid (folate), or vitamin B12 can prevent your body from making enough red blood cells. Your body also needs small amounts of vitamin C, riboflavin, and copper to make red blood cells.
Conditions that make it hard for your body to absorb nutrients also can prevent your body from making enough red blood cells.

Hormones

Our body needs the hormone erythropoietin (eh-rith-ro-POY-eh-tin) to make red blood cells. This hormone stimulates the bone marrow to make these cells. A low level of this
hormone can lead to anemia.

  • SIGNS & SYMPTOMS of ANEMIA:

    Common symptoms of anemia:

    • fatigue

    • light

    headedness

    • decreased energy

    • palpitations (feeling of the heart wearing or beating irregularly and

    • shortness of breath

    • looking

    Symptoms of severe anemia may include:

    • chest pain angina or

    • fainting

    • dizziness

    • rapid heart rate.

  •  

    Anemia Causes| Types | Symptoms | Diet | Diagnosis || Treatment

  • Some of the signs that may indicate anemia in an individual may include:

    • Change   in stool color including black and tarry stools (sticky and foul smelling), maroon-colored, or visibly bloody stools if the anemia is due to blood loss through the gastrointestinal tract;

    • rapid heart rate;

    • low blood pressure

    • rapid breathing;

    • pale or skin;

    • yellow skin called jaundice is due to red blood cell breakdown;

    • heart murmur;

    • enlargement of the spleen with certain causes of anemia.

  • Anemia Causes Types Symptoms Diet Diagnosis Treatment

TYPES OF ANEMIA:

CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE SIZE OF THE RED BLOOD CELLS:

a) Microcytic anemia:

If the red blood cells are smaller than normal, this is called microcytic anemia. The major causes of this type are iron deficiency (low level iron) anemia and thalassemia (inherited disorders of hemoglobin).

b) Normocytic anemia

If the red blood cells size are normal in size (but low in number), this is called normocytic anemia, such as anemia that accompanies chronic disease or anemia related to kidney disease.

c) Macrocytic anemia

If red blood cells are larger than normal, then it is called macrocytic anemia. Major causes of this type are pernicious anemia and anemia related to alcoholism.

Sickle cell Anemia – Treatment Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Genetics

Sickle cell Anemia – Treatment Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Genetics

Sickle cell disease is an important genetic cause of hemolytic anemia, a form of anemia due to increased erythrocyte destruction, instead of the reduced mature erythrocyte production seen with iron, folic acid, and vitamin B 12 deficiency. Patients with sickle cell disease are homozygous for the aberrant β-hemoglobin S (HbS) allele or heterozygous for HbS and a second mutated β-hemoglobin gene such as hemoglobin C ( HbC ) or β-thalassemia. Sickle cell disease has an increased prevalence in individuals of African descent because the heterozygous trait confers resistance to malaria. In the majority of patients with sickle cell disease, anemia is not the major problem; the anemia is generally well compensated even though such individuals have a chronically low hematocrit (20–30%), a low serum hemoglobin level (7–10 g/dL), and an elevated reticulocyte count. Instead, the primary problem is that deoxygenated HbS chains form polymeric structures that dramatically change erythrocyte shape, reduce deformability, and elicit membrane permeability changes that further promote hemoglobin polymerization. Abnormal erythrocytes aggregate in the microvasculature—where oxygen tension is low and hemoglobin is deoxygenated—and cause veno-occlusive damage. The clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease reflect organ damage by veno-occlusive events. In the musculoskeletal system, this results in characteristic, extremely painful bone and joint pain. In the cerebral vascular system, it causes ischemic stroke. Damage to the spleen increases the risk of infection, particularly by encapsulated bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae . In the pulmonary system, there is an increased risk of infection and, in adults, an increase in embolism and pulmonary hypertension. Supportive treatment includes analgesics, antibiotics, pneumococcal vaccination, and blood transfusions. In addition, the cancer chemotherapeutic drug hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide) reduces veno-occlusive events. It is approved in the United States for treatment of adults with recurrent sickle cell crises and approved in Europe in adults and children with recurrent vaso-occlusive events. As an anticancer drug used in the treatment of chronic and acute myelogenous leukemia, hydroxyurea inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and thereby depletes deoxynucleoside triphosphate and arrests cells in the S phase of the cell cycle (see Chapter 54 ). In the treatment of sickle cell disease, hydroxyurea acts through poorly defined pathways to increase the production of fetal hemoglobin γ (HbF), which interferes with the polymerization of HbS. Clinical trials have shown that hydroxyurea decreases painful crises in adults and children with severe sickle cell disease. Its adverse effects include hematopoietic depression, gastrointestinal effects, and teratogenicity in pregnant women.

World SICKLE CELL Day – DATE JUNE 19TH

SICKLE CELL ANEMIA:

The term sickle cell disease encompasses a variety of hemoglobinopathies, including sickle cell anemia, sickle Hb C (SC) disease, & sickle cell thalassemia. Although the clinical presentations of all are often similar, the manifestations of sickle cell are more severe & so mainly considered.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY:

Hb is distinguished as Hb A1, HbA2, Hb C, Hb F & Hb S of which Hb A1, Hb A2 & Hb F are normal. Hb A1 – a tetramer consist 2 pairs of globin chains α & β. Substitution of valine for glutamic acid in both the β chains. Each parent contributes a single β chain gene, the heterozygous genotype AS is also possible & is expressed as the sickle cell trait phenotype.

Deoxygenation in capillaries induces rapid polymerization of the sickling Hb, Hb S & results in formation of helical strands of parallel fibres.

The elongated, crescent shaped cells characteristic of sickle cell anemia are so produced. The affected erythrocytes are rigid & unable to pass through the microvasculature. Vasooclusion with subsequent painful ischemia & chronic organ damage.

Sickling is reversible upon reexposure to oxygen, however repeated sickling episodes eventually damage the cell membrane.

The rate of Hb polymerization depends on its concentration in the erythrocyte. The co polymerization of Hb S with Hb F inhibits further polymer growth ; intracellular Hb F concentrations are inversely correlated with severity of disease.

Sicke cell anemia symptoms & clinical presentations:

– Impaired growth & development – Increased risk of infection viz meningitis, pneumonia, septicemia Hematologic – Hemolytic anemia – Aplastic crises – Splenic sequestration crises Vasoocclusive : 1. Cardiovascular: – Cardiac enlargement – Priapism – Renal insufficiency  Painful crises – Systolic murmur 7. Pulmonary: 4. Neurologic : – Acute chest syndrome 2. GI: – Autosplenecetomy – Gallstones / cholecystitis – Cerebral thrombosis – Intracerebral hemorrhage – Seizures – Chronic obstructive disease – Infarction – Hepatic insufficiency – Intrahepatic cholelithiais – Subarachnoid haemorrhage 8. Skin & skeletal : – Arthropathy 5. Ocular: – Aseptic necrosis 3. Genitourinary: – Hematuria – Impotence – Retinopathy – Secondary glaucoma- Leg ulcers

Diagnosis of Sickle cell anemia:

Hb electrophoresis  types & proportion of Hb present.

Is rapid & inexpensive screening test

It establishes the patients genotype.

If both parents have the AS genotype there is a 1 in 4 chance that their child will have homozygous SS disease.

Prenatal diagnosis also possible

TREATMENT:

1. Management of major complications:

a. Anemia

Blood transfusions

Folate supplementations

b. Infection

Cefuroxime for Pneumonia & erythromycin & azithromycin for Mycoplasma pneumonia treatment. Prophylactic penicillin for pneumococcal septicemias.

Ampicillin & cephalosporins for salmonella infections.
 Sickle cell Anemia – Treatment Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Genetics

c. Painful crisis

Vigorous hydration is initiated & oxygen administered if hypoxia is present.

Ketorolac is given if codeine or oxycodones singly or in combination with acetaminophen are not effective.

2. Management of the sickle cell disease:

a. Transfusion therapy

b. Pharmacologic management : clotrimazole. Pentoxiphylline, antineoplastics, hydroxyurea.

c. Bone marrow transplantation

Drugs for Cough – Medicine for Cough Expectorants + Suppressant

Drugs for Cough - Medicine for Cough Expectorants + Suppressant

Cough is a protective reflex, its purpose being expulsion of respiratory secretions or foreign particles from air passages. It occurs due to stimulation of mechano- or chemoreceptors in throat, respiratory passages or stretch receptors in the lungs. Cough may be useful or useless. Useless (nonproductive) cough should be suppressed.
Useful (productive) cough serves to drain the airway, its suppression is not desirable, may even be harmful, except if the amount of expectoration achieved is small compared to the effort of continuous coughing. Apart from specific remedies (antibiotics, etc. see box), cough may be treated as a symptom (nonspecific therapy) with:

1. Pharyngeal demulcents

  1. Lozenges,
  2. cough drops,
  3. linctuses containing syrup,
  4. glycerine,
  5. liquorice.

2. Expectorants (Mucokinetics)

Expectorants thin mucus so it’s cleared more easily out of the airways. They also soothe mucous membranes in the respiratory tract. The result is a more productive cough.

(a) Bronchial secretion enhancers:

Sodium or Potassium citrate, Potassium iodide, Guaiphenesin (Glyceryl guaiacolate), balsum of Tolu, Vasaka, Ammonium chloride.

(b) Mucolytics:

Mucolytics act directly on mucus, breaking down sticky, thick secretions so that they’re more easily eliminated

Bromhexine, Ambroxol, Acetyl cysteine, Carbocisteine

3. Antitussives (Cough centre suppressants)

(a) Opioids:

Codeine, Ethylmorphine, Pholcodeine.

The opioid antitussives (typically codeine and hydrocodone) are reserved for treating an intractable cough.

(b) Nonopioids:

Antitussive drugs suppress or inhibit coughing.
Types of antitussives
Antitussives are typically used to treat dry, nonproductive coughs. The major antitussives include:
• benzonatate
• codeine
• dextromethorphan
• hydrocodone bitartrate.

Noscapine, Dextromethorphan, Chlophedianol.

(c) Antihistamines:

Chlorpheniramine, Diphenhydramine, Promethazine.

Drugs for Cough - Medicine for Cough Expectorants + Suppressant

(d) Peripherally acting:

Prenoxdiazine.

4. Adjuvant antitussives

Bronchodilators: Salbutamol, Terbutalin.

Understanding Flu- Influenza Causes Definition Treatment Symptoms

Understanding Flue- Influenza Causes Definition Treatment Symptoms

Understanding Flue and its Prevention:

What do we call as Flu?

We usually think the common cold and the flu are the same as they share mutual features. This is because both caused by viral infections, have similar symptoms, and usually can be treated at home. They additionally develop bit by bit, with certain symptoms emerging as the infection progresses. But if we notice sharply the differences in the onset, severity, and duration of the typical cold or bout of influenza we can become more cautious. A low-grade fever isn’t out of the question. Most flu symptoms gradually improve over two to five days still one may feel run down for a week or more. A common complication of the flu is the respiratory disorder, particularly in the young, elderly, or people with lung or heart problems. Another common sign of pneumonia is the fever that comes back after having been gone for a day or two.

Do you know the Stages of Cold & Flu?

The common cold starts off with its signs developing slowly. The contagious period for the common cold life-span can be a couple of days before cold symptoms kick in and continue for some days afterwards. The most usual cold symptoms are fatigue, sore or scratchy throat, nasal congestion, stuffiness or a runny nose, followed by sneezing and coughing. Cold symptoms generally appear about one to three days after exposure to a cold-causing virus but it can differ from person to person. Generally, the cold symptoms will peak around day four and taper off in the seventh day. Over the course of the illness, the mucus discharged by a runny nose may change colour starting out clear and becoming thicker, yellow, or green. The full life cycle of a cold is usually between 7-10 days. If your symptoms persist over the time period or keep returning, then something else may be going on, such as allergies, sinusitis, or a secondary infection.

Flu symptoms typically begin at intervals one to four days when infection. Unlike a standard cold, the effects of an influenza virus infection can appear drastically. The first signs of the flu are often a fever or chills, accompanied by a headache, sore throat, dry cough, runny nose, muscle aches, and fatigue. As the sickness progresses, a person may have warm, flushed skin, watery or bloodshot eyes, a severe cough that produces phlegm, and nasal congestion. Among children, nausea and vomiting may also occur. The flu usually lasts 1 to 2 weeks, with severe symptoms subsiding in two to three days. However, weakness, fatigue, dry cough, and a reduced ability to exercise will linger for 3 to 7 days.

Is the Flu Contagious?

A survey stated that 41% of people think the flu is only contagious after symptoms start. That’s not true. Adults with a fever of 102F or higher and children with a fever of 103F or higher should see a doctor. If you notice shortness of breath, let your doctor recognize.

An adult infected with influenza may be contagious from one day before symptoms start until 5-7 days after becoming sick. Children could still be contagious extending than seven days.

For individuals who’ve had a grippe shot, the symptoms last a shorter amount of time or are less severe. Even if the symptoms disappear, you may continue to feel fatigued. Staying home until your contagious period ends help you avoid passing germs on to other people.

When complications develop, a person will likely be sick for longer than 15 days, depending on the severity of the complication, how quickly they are aided, and how well they respond to treatment. Even in healthy people who don’t develop complications, the flu can cause symptoms that persist for weeks, including fatigue, low appetite and dry cough associated with loss of sense of smell.

Symptoms of FLU:

Signs of severe complications that ought to prompt you to hunt medical attention include the following:

  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • Purple or blue discolouration of the lips
  • Pain or heavy chest and abdomen
  • High fever
  • Sudden dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Severe or persistent vomiting
  • Seizures
  • Worse cough

Some people are at magnified risk for complications from contagion such as

  • the very young
  • people 65 or older
  • obese people crossing body mass index (BMI) of 40
  • chronic illness patients of asthma, heart disease, HIV, or diabetes
  • pregnant women

People in these groups are prone to have weak defense systems and are vulnerable to the complication of pneumonia, which can be deadly.

 How Long Does Immunity Last?

A study printed in March 2017 within the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases confirmed that immunity declines over the months following vaccination or infection. Unlike other viral diseases, with the flu, however, you are not immune for life and the immunity doesn’t last that long. Getting injected regularly is vital to lower your chance of getting affected. It takes some time to develop immunity to the flu, and experts recommend getting vaccinated before flu season is in full swing to ensure adequate protection. The flu—or contagion—is an extremely contagious metastasis virus caused by one in all 3 completely different virus types: influenza A, B, or C. It spreads instantly through the spit droplets that become mobile once somebody sneezes or coughs, by exposure to saliva passed by routine contacts, such as kissing or sharing eating utensils.

Prevention &Treating Flu

Fever is an important sign for any kind of flu. Catherine Troisi, PhD, an associate professor in the community health and epidemiology at the University Of Texas School Of Public Health in Houston says, “It’s really basic public health practices.” Moreover, we ought to keep home if we are sick, get enough sleep, and eat well.

Pain relievers lower your fever and relieve the aches, but if you are at high risk of complications, and if it is early in the infection, your doctor may recommend an antiviral drug like oseltamivir or zanamivir. Postnasal drip, in which mucus accumulates or drips in the back of the throat, can further aggravate a sore throat or a cough.

Basic Practices

 Understanding Flue- Influenza Causes Definition Treatment Symptoms

  • Get an annual flu vaccine course.
  • Before eating or touching your face wash your hands with soap and water.
  • Regular smokers are more likely to get the flu than non-smokers. Quit smoking.

Causes of High Blood Pressure & Hypertension BP

Causes of High Blood Pressure & Hypertension BP

What is high blood pressure or hypertension? Causes? Reasons?

The blood pressure is measured in the account of how much blood is passing through your blood vessels and the amount of resistance the blood meets while the heart is pumping. The time when your blood pressure increases to unhealthy levels there is an occurrence of high blood pressure or hypertension. Narrow arteries increase the resistance of the blood flow throughout the body. The thickness of the arteries and the density of your blood determine the blood pressure. Over the long term, high blood pressure can cause several health issues, including major brain and heart dysfunction.

High blood pressure or Hypertension is quite common nowadays and it typically develops in course of several years. In fact, it’s expected that in America nearly 50% of adults get affected with this condition. It is a silent killer and can cause damage to your blood vessels and organs, especially the brain, heart, eyes, and kidneys.

What causes high blood pressure?

Research has not been able to show what mechanisms cause blood pressure to slowly increase. There are two types of hypertension. Each type has a different cause.

Primary hypertension

It is also called as essential hypertension and is found in most people. It builds up over time with no identifiable cause. A combination of factors may play a role. These factors include:

  • Genes: Some people are predisposed to hypertension by family inheritance. This may be from genetic orientation carried from parents or any mutations.
  • Physical changes: If something in your body changes, you may begin experiencing issues throughout your body elevating the blood pressure.
  • Environment: Being obese can increase your risk of hypertension. Unhealthy lifestyle choices where there is lack of physical activity and poor diet can take a toll on your body.

Secondary hypertension

This often occurs quickly and can become more severe than primary hypertension. Several conditions that may cause secondary hypertension include:

  • kidney disease
  • obstructive sleep apnea
  • congenital heart defects
  • problems with your thyroid
  • side effects of medications
  • use of illegal drugs
  • alcohol abuse or chronic use
  • adrenal gland problems
  • certain endocrine tumours

Diagnosing high blood pressure

Diagnosis is simple and done by checking the blood pressure reading. Generally, doctors check blood pressure as part of a routine visit. Regular blood pressure readings can help you and your doctor notices any changes. If your result is a high blood pressure then your doctor calls for the routine check-up of the blood pressure over a few weeks. This is to see if the number stays elevated or falls back to normal levels. In case if you don’t get to know your reading then request one blood pressure reading at your next appointment. There has to be evidence of a sustained problem. Sometimes the anxiety you feel by being at the doctor’s chamber can contribute to increased blood pressure. Also, blood pressure levels change throughout the day.

If your reports are still unclear, more tests are to be done to detect underlying conditions. These tests are the urine test, cholesterol screening and other blood tests, electrocardiogram (EKG, sometimes referred to as an ECG) and ultrasound of your heart or kidneys. These tests enable them to identify any secondary issues aggravating the blood pressure. If there is any effect on your organs because of which high blood pressure has increased. For example, the changes in your kidney function due to ageing may upset the body’s natural balance of salts and fluid causing your body’s blood pressure to increase.

Treatment of BP

According to the type of hypertension you have and what causes have been identified help your doctor determine the best treatment option for you. Obviously, early detection and treatment are important for reducing your risk of lasting damage with constant aid. It includes both prescription medication and healthy lifestyle changes. It could lead to massive health issues of heart attack and stroke if not treated. 

 If your doctor diagnoses you with primary hypertension, lifestyle changes may reduce your high blood pressure along with medication. For secondary hypertension, if your doctor discovers an underlying issue causing your hypertension, treatment will focus on that condition. Despite treatment for the underlying cause hypertension persist in few cases. Treatment plans for hypertension often evolve. What worked at first might change later. Your doctor will continue to refine your treatment.

Medication for BP

  • Beta-blockers reduce the amount of blood pumped through your arteries with each beat, also blocks certain hormones that can raise your blood pressure.
  • Diuretics also called water pills enables kidneys to remove excess sodium from your body through urine helping to lower your blood pressure.
  • ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors prevent theCauses of High Blood Pressure & Hypertension BP body from producing as much of this chemical responsible for tightening of vessels and arteries and reduces blood pressure.
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) block angiotensin from binding with receptors. That helps relax vessels and lower blood pressure.
  • Calcium channel blockers block some of the calcium from entering the cardiac muscles of your heart. This leads to less forceful heartbeats and a lower blood pressure causing them to relax and further lowering blood pressure.
  • Alpha-2 agonists change the nerve impulses that cause blood vessels to tighten helping blood vessels to relax and reduce blood pressure.

Home remedies for reducing high blood pressure BP

Healthy diet

Lowering high blood pressure requires a heart-healthy diet. At the same time managing hypertension under control reduces the risk of complications. If you are obese, employing this heart-healthy diet and increased physical activity is utmost necessary. A heart-healthy diet emphasizes foods inclusive of fruits & vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins like fish.

Increased physical activity

Being more physically active decreases blood pressure and strengthens the cardiovascular system. Working out for 150 minutes each week is ideal.

Managing stress

Exercise is a great way to manage stress. These are all proven stress-reducing techniques combined with adequate sleep.

  • meditation
  • deep breathing
  • massage
  • muscle relaxation
  • yoga or tai chi

Addiction free lifestyle

If you’re a smoker, try to quit. Tobacco smoke damages the body’s tissues and hardens blood vessel walls. If you have an alcohol dependency, seek help to reduce the amount you drink or stop altogether. Alcohol raises blood pressure.

Lupus: Is it a Threat to Women? – Lupus Symptoms Treatment Causes

Lupus: Is it a Threat to Women? - Lupus Symptoms Treatment Causes

Lupus: Is it a Threat to Women?

 

What is Lupus?

Lupus is a serious disease often diagnosed in young women, between the ages of 15 and 44. But it is undeniable that it can affect anyone. A chronic autoimmune disease that can destroy any part of the body (skin, joints, and/or organs) is lupus. Any “Chronic” disease refers to the stages pertaining to symptoms that tend to last longer than six weeks or for many years. In lupus, there is a breakdown in the immune system, which is the part of the body that fights off viruses, bacteria, and germs (“foreign invaders,”). Our immune system is programmed to produce proteins called “antibodies” which protect the body from these invaders. When lupus controls the body, your immune system cannot recognize the distinction between these foreign invaders and your body’s healthy tissues.

Lupus: Is it a Threat to Women? - Lupus Symptoms Treatment CausesSo an autoimmunity forms creating auto-antibodies that damage and destroy healthy tissue (autoantibody means against self). As a result, these auto-antibodies cause inflammation, pain, and damage in various parts of the body.

Lupus Symptoms Treatment Causes

Around 16,000 numbers of new cases of lupus are reported annually across the country of US. The most common form of lupus is termed as Systemic lupus erythematosus which the most people mean when they say “lupus”. There are four different types of lupus that arises in confusing form. Let us learn more about each type below:

  1. Lupus nephritis is the inflammation of the kidneys affecting the body’s ability to filter waste from the blood. It can be so threatening that dialysis or kidney transplant may be needed.
  2. Inflammation of the nervous system and brain causes memory problems, confusion, headaches, and strokes.
  3. Inflammation in the brain’s blood vessels can cause high fevers, seizures, and behavioural changes.
  4. When there is the build-up of deposits on coronary artery walls hardening the arteries or coronary artery disease leads to a heart attack.

Symptoms Lupus

Fatigue– Lupus is identified with fatigue as one of their primary symptoms in 50-90% cases. The severe fatigue of lupus seems is caused by many factors including disease activity, anxiety disorders, sleep disturbances, vitamin D deficiency, and low levels of exercise. It’s clear from studies that fatigue can significantly impact patients’ quality of life, including lessening the ability to function at home and at work.

Malar Rash50% of people with lupus characterise with red “malar” rash or colour change that appear across the cheeks and bridge of the nose in the shape of a butterfly. They normally last from days to weeks with pain and itchiness. The area of face and ears, upper arms, shoulders, chest, & hands are vulnerable to rash while exposed to the sun. Sometimes, skin rashes often first develop or worsen after being out in the sun as lupus is sensitive to sunlight (called photosensitivity). The Appearance of the butterfly rash is also a sign of an oncoming disease flare.

Joint Pain and Swelling90% of people with lupus have arthritis which is defined as inflammation or swelling of the joint lining. The most common symptoms of arthritis are stiffness and aching occurring in the hands and wrists.  Symptoms of arthritis fluctuate from one joint to another. In the morning pain and stiffness tend to be worse. Patients also experience pain in the joints without swelling or tenderness, which is referred to as arthralgia.

FeverMost patients of SLE go through unexplained fevers of temperature over 100°F (37.8°C). Physicians often recommend non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Diagnosis and Treatment

The cause of Lupus is unknown in which your immune system attacks healthy cells by mistake that can potentially damage many parts of the body. The disease symptoms mimic many other illnesses which are why it is known as “the great imitator”. Detecting the symptoms of lupus can be challenging as it may be unclear, or change over the course of the disease. Though effective treatments are available yet there is no known cure for lupus.

A doctor who is considering the possibility of lupus will look for signs of inflammation which include, pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function at a particular place in the body. He will review the following while evaluating a lupus diagnosis:

  1. Current symptoms.
  2. Laboratory test results.
  3. Your Medical history along with the history of your close family members (grandparents, parents, brothers and sisters, aunts, uncles, cousins).

Laboratory tests alone are not enough to say definite “yes” or “no” diagnosis because:

  • Test results diagnosing lupus can coincide because of some other illness or can even be seen in healthy people.
  • A test result may fluctuate time to time (be positive one time and negative another time.)
  • Different laboratories may produce different test results.

There is no specific test or a single diagnostic test for systemic lupus. The test commonly widespread is called the antinuclear antibody (ANA) test.  In fact, several laboratory tests are done to detect physical changes or conditions in your body that can occur with lupus. However, each test result adds more information to the picture your doctor is forming of your illness. Your physician may reach a lupus diagnosis if multiple diagnostic criteria are present simultaneously. If the symptoms are present gradually over time, the diagnosis will not be as obvious; however, further consultation with a rheumatologist may be needed.

Some key facts about lupus:

  • Lupus is non-contagious, not even through sexual contact.
  • Lupus is not malignant or related to cancer. As it is an autoimmune disease, some treatments for lupus may include immunosuppressant drugs that are also used in chemotherapy.
  • Lupus is not similar or related to HIV (Human Immune Deficiency Virus) or AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Both of these make the immune system underactive whereas, in lupus, the immune system is overactive.
  • Lupus can range from mild to life-threatening and doesn’t recover on its own without any treatment. With proper medical attention, lupus patients can lead disease-free life.
  • It is believed that 5 million people throughout the world have a form of lupus with at least 1.5 million Americans.
  • Lupus strikes mostly women of childbearing age. However, men, children, and young people develop lupus, too.
  • Women of colour are 2-3 times more likely to develop lupus than Caucasians. People belonging to all races and ethnic groups can develop lupus.