Drug Inspector, GPAT, NIPER, Bpharm, Mpharm study material
Drugs Wiki category of Pharmawiki is presented with lots of information regarding Medicines we use in our day to day lives. The information contained herein should NOT be used as a substitute for the advice of a qualified physician. The information provided here is for informational purposes only. We cover about the drugs, their dosages, forms, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In this we provide possible side effects, drug interactions or warnings or alerts. Please consult your doctor and discuss all your queries related to any disease or medicine. We strongly intend to support, not replace, the doctor-patient relationship.
Best cough syrup in India : As we are aware Cough syrups are to be taken based on the type of cough a particular person persist with either dry or wet with sputum. It also depends on the root cause of the cough. Cough could be due to infection, asthma, tuberculosis, bronchitis (swelling of the lining of the lungs) or some medicines like ACE inhibitors. Cough syrups are of following types :
1. Cough suppressants: These are used for dry irritating cough. Usually, these contain a medicine called Dextromethorphan.
2. Expectorants: These are used in cough with mucus or sputum. These generally contain a medicine called guaifenesin.
If cough persists for more than a month, you should not self medicate and should visit your doctor
Cough Syrup for instant relief
ASCORIL COUGH SYRUP Manufactured by Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Ascoril Cough Syrup belongs to the class of drugs called ‘ expectorants ’. This medicine is used to treat sinusitis, cough, common cold , congestion, bronchitis, and breathing problems.
Nature: Expectorant Drug Uses: Wet cough, Chest congestion, Cold, Asthma, Breathing disorders, Sinusitis, and Bronchitis. Composition Ambroxol, Guaifenesin, Levosalbutamol Side Effects Drowsiness, Dizziness, Upset stomach, Blurred Vision, Dry Mouth, Constipation, Dry nose and throat Precautions Pregnancy, Lactation, Liver and kidney-related ailments, Alcohol Consumption
Cough Syrup for Wet Cough
Benadryl Cough Syrup If you are looking forward to a cough syrup that addresses both your dry cough as well as wet cough concerns, then it is definitely Benadryl cough syrup that you should opt for. Benadryl cough syrup relieves both dry cough and wet cough problems. You might ask how a single cough syrup can relieve both wet and dry cough?
Benadryl contains mucolytic agent and suppressing agents such as codeine, diphenhydramine which help in getting rid of wet and dry cough respectively. As a bonus, the syrup also helps in soothing your throat and releases the irritation.
Key Benefits of Benadryl Cough Syrup: – Multi symptoms cough relief. Soothes a sore throat and cleans it. The fastest relief provided by a cough syrup for cough & cold problems. Quick action – Starts acting within 15 minutes of consumption.
Cough Syrup for Dry Cough
Corex Cough Syrup:
It is a combination of Chlorpheniramine that helps in actively reducing inflammation, itchiness and tickling sensation that is known to be caused by cough. Its ingredient, codeine phosphate helps to reduce pain, along with menthol that fights to provide a cooling sensation in your throat. A dosage of 5ml is recommended for adults and kids 1.25-2.5ml is a good dosage. Being on the sedative side due to the anti-histamine agent, it is best recommended for consumption in the night
The common side effects are Headache, Anemia, Tachycardia, constipation, dry mouth.
Cough Syrup for painful Cough
Asthalin Expectorant Cough Syrup: asthalin syrup for cough
This syrup is combination syrup, one that is made up of Guaiphenesin, an expectorant, and salbutamol, which is a bronchodilator. A dosage of 10-20 ml thrice daily and for children above 6 to 12 years, 10ml thrice daily is the recommended dosage. Make sure to consult your doctor for expert advice before consuming Asthalin.
The syrup is recommended for asthma patients, and for those people who are infected with a cough caused due to Bronchitis, Emphysema and other lung infection. For the pregnant ladies, it is advised to take the advice of the doctor before consuming.
Cough Syrup for Kids Child Cough
Koflet is beneficial in both productive and dry cough. The mucolytic and expectorant properties reduce the viscosity of bronchial secretions and facilitate expectoration. Koflet’s peripheral antitussive (cough suppressant) action reduces bronchial mucosal irritation and related bronchospasms. In addition, the anti-allergic, antimicrobial and immune-modifying properties provide relief from cough. The demulcent action of Koflet syrup soothes respiratory passages.
Cough Syrup for Infant & Toddler Cough
Chlorpheniramine, dextromethorphan, and phenylephrine is a combination medicine used to treat a cough, runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, itching, and watery eyes caused by allergies, the common cold, or the flu.Chlorpheniramine is an antihistamine that reduces the effects of natural chemical histamine in the body. Histamine can produce symptoms of sneezing, itching, watery eyes, and runny nose.
Try these herbal cough syrups to get rid of your irritating cough and cold, the most natural and safe way. These natural ingredients cure the disease without causing any side effects. Please don’t forget to share your experience and feedback in the comments section below.
Safe Cold Flu Medications during Pregnancy & Breast Feeding
Breastfeeding mothers wonder whether some quick relief from over-the-counter medications could negatively impact their breastfeeding baby. When it comes to your baby no loss can be afforded if it poses even a negligible risk and therefore while taking medications for common cold flu, pregnant women are to follow special instructions. Research shows that some cold and flu medications are better than others when it comes to breastfeeding. Here are some cold flu medications that are safe while breastfeeding. The common active ingredients in cold and flu syrups are Dextromethorphan, acetaminophen, and doxylamine succinate along with their generic ingredients.
Dextromethorphan is a cough suppressant commonly used for treating colds in children and adults. It is generally considered safe while breastfeeding. Acetaminophen, a drug used to treat pain and reduce fever in adults and children, works for pregnant women as well. A common active ingredient in the nighttime formulations is doxylamine succinate, an antihistamine that causes sedation in its users and can be used for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. This drug is considered safe while breastfeeding yet extensive study is going on.
Another fever reducer and pain medication naming Ibuprofen often used during a cold, also safe for infants of breastfeeding mothers. Even high maternal consumption of ibuprofen leads to very little excretion in breast milk. Phenylephrine is most commonly used as a nasal decongestant in adults and children. It is generally considered safe while breastfeeding unless there has been high maternal consumption of the drug, and can cause tachycardia and hypertension in sensitive individuals as phenylephrine has poor oral bioavailability. Pseudoephedrine, a nasal decongestant commonly used to treat colds, has shown to be secreted in breast milk in extremely low levels and is considered safe while breastfeeding. During the cold and flu season, nasal sprays are additionally used. These include fluticasone and oxymetazoline (Afrin). Fluticasone is a steroid that is of intranasal use for congested noses and additionally for asthma. When using the medication as indicated, maternal plasma levels are undetectable. Thus, it is unlikely that a significant amount of this drug would pass into breastmilk to affect a breastfeeding infant. Oxymetazoline is another intranasal decongestant used quite frequently for runny noses. Due to the local effect of this drug, it is unlikely that significant levels of this drug would be transferred to a breastfeeding infant and is preferred over oral decongestants during breastfeeding. Oxymetazoline use should be limited to 3 days to avoid rebound congestion. Vitamin C intake is effective for cold-fighting. Although its efficacy is still in research, it is likely not harmful to supplement while breastfeeding. Even high levels of maternal consumption resulted in only slightly increased levels in breastmilk.
Here is a table to classify the safety level of the medications as per data collected:-
Medication Breastfeeding Class Description Acetaminophen L1 Extensive data. Compatible. Dextromethorphan L1 Extensive data. Compatible. Ibuprofen L1 Extensive data. Compatible. Vitamin C L1 Limited data. Probably compatible. Diphenhydramine L2 Limited data. Probably compatible. Zinc Oxide L2 Limited data. Probably compatible.* Zinc Salts L2 Limited data. Probably compatible.* Doxylamine L3 No data. Probably compatible. Fluticasone L3 No data. Probably compatible. Guaifenesin L3 No data. Probably compatible. Ozymetazoline L3 No Data. Probably compatible. Phenylephrine L3 No data. Probably compatible. Pseudoephedrine L3 Limited data. Probably compatible *Avoid early postnatal use when milk levels of zinc are high.
Painkiller/Pain reliever Medications for Dogs are in this article. There is a saying that if you want to experience unconditional love you must own a dog. Naturally, when your dog hurts, it painful to watch and you want to help him feel better. Our society’ structure is such that many stray animals are left out on road without any shelter or treatment they need. This causes an imbalance in the environment and the disease spreads here and there. Your vet will recommend medication based on what’s going or you might already know what the problem is, and you could be searching for a medicine you can use. In the meantime, you can figure out a safe pain reliever for your dog which is equally a tough job. Also, in this article, there are dos and don’ts for treating your dog.
Here are a few ways to help ease the pain of dogs.
Putting up NSAIDs
NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) help reduce swelling, stiffness, and joint pain in humans and they can be put to the dogs in need. These are a group of medications, including ibuprofen and aspirin which reduces inflammation, pain and fever. There are special NSAIDs designed just for dogs but in some sort of situations, you can give your dog a human medication. Some of the NSAIDs for dogs are Meloxicam (Metacam), Carprofen (Novox or Rimadyl), Firocoxib (Previcox) & Deracoxib (Deramaxx). These medications can all be prescribed by your vet. These painkillers can bring relief to a dog with arthritis, or one who’s just had surgery. The vet can also diagnose what’s causing the pain and help to treat that. Likely, your vet might recommend that you give your dog aspirin under their supervision.
Other Medications Usually, NSAIDs are good at relieving pain there is no need for veterinarians to prescribe other kinds of painkillers often. But at times the dogs may require more options. Your vet might prone to suggest you about gabapentin or tramadol. There are some factors to keep in mind while giving the dogs’ painkillers such as an incorrect dose, problems with mixing medications and sensitivity to human medications can all cause problems. It is to be taken care of that in varied cases human medications given to dogs could cause severe complications including: • Gastrointestinal bleeding • Ulcers • Holes in the stomach lining • Liver and kidney damage Normally, just like humans dogs and other animals are also liable to get some side effects on having painkillers. You are to watch out for: • Changes in behavior • Loss of appetite • Skin redness • Digestive issues, including diarrhea and vomiting Moreover, the vet is much more knowledgeable about the dog’s health, so they can give you more insight about what to look for.
Oxytocin is a hormone, predominately belonging to mammalian family; it is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. After its release in the blood stream it cannot re-enter the brain due to the presence of blood brain barrier .Oxytocin is a hormone that has both peripheral and central actions. y are synthesized in the magnocellular neurons present in the supra–optic and Para –ventricular nucleus present in the hypothalamus. The universally known functions would include its role at the time of labour and ejection of milk. The functions which remain partially unknown are in erectile responses, ejaculation, bonding, and feeling of love and maintenance of eye contact during a conversation.
Functions and roles of Oxytocin:
Oxytocin plays a key role in establishing trust , falling in love , parturition , milk ejection, mother – child bond , erection and ejaculatory response in males. Oxytocin insuffiency is leads to increased stress and sleep disturbances. The solution to the above mentioned problem lies in creating a drug which can mimic the functional properties of Oxytocin, which was achieved. Oxytocin has been widely used in the field of gynaecology to induce labour. It is also administered to patients i.e. mothers who are unable to produce milk after parturition. The invention of Oxytocin nasal sprays is not unknown. Recommended doses when administered to autism patients are proven to increase the sense of trust at the time of communication.
Mechanism of OXYTOCIN
Oxytocin is a naturally occurring nonapeptide hormone which acts through a G-protein coupled cell surface receptor to stimulate contractions of the uterus. A synthetic version of this hormone is used to induce contractions of the uterus which are indistinguishable from spontaneous labour.
Oxytocin is administered as a slow intravenous infusion (to induce or augment labour), or as a single intramuscular or intravenous injection to help prevent and treat uterine atony and postpartum haemorrhage. In pregnant women, oxytocin is metabolised very quickly in the maternal circulation by an aminopeptidase enzyme which cleaves the protein leaving it without biological function. This oxytocinase activity is also seen within the placenta and uterine tissue, and activity increases throughout pregnancy where at term the half -life of oxytocin is between 2 and 20 minutes.
The main side effects are related to overstimulation of the uterus which can compromise the placental blood supply and fetal well-being, and can also contribute to rupture of the uterus especially in women who have had a previous caesarean delivery. Oxytocin is similar in structure to Vasopressin which is also produced by the posterior pituitary, and prolonged administration with intravenous fluids may lead to fluid overload, pulmonary oedema and water intoxication.
Oxytocin Molecular Formula
It has a molecular formula of C43H66N12O12S 2.
Oxytocin is also known as Pitocin, Syntocinon, Ocytocin, Endopituitrina, Oxitocina, Oxytocine, Oxytocinum, Oxytocic hormone and Orasthin.
It has a molecular formula of C43H66N12O12S 2. They are commercially available as intravenous and intramuscular injections , nasal sprays and sublingual tablets .The commonly used Anirudha kabilan /J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol. 6(4), 2014, 220-223 221 drug types are pitocin and syntocinon, the chemical resemblance to Oxytocin makes them an ideal drug of choice for various cases for example at time if parturition . Pitocin is composed of oxtocic acid/ml along with chlorobutanol , a chloroform derivative. However medical supervision is mandatory to rule out the onset of complications (20,31). The general uses of these Oxytocin drugs would include induction of labour .Under appropriate level , at the time delivery, Oxytocin binds to the receptors present in the myometrium , activates the pathway of hydrolysis of phoshotidyl inositol and diacyl glycerol, there by activating the same. This activation causes the release of intracellular Ca+ which causes contraction of the uterus .In conditions associated with low level of Oxytocin production this process is carried out by Oxytocin drugs (29, 27) Incase of people suffering from autism, administration of pitocin is said to reduce repetitive behaviour and also enhances speech. Few researches have proved the improvement of trust in people affected by autism when they were given pitocin nasal sprays. It also enhances eye to eye contact in these individuals. Pitcoin helps in social interaction in people who suffer from schizophrenia . So pitocin may not only combat hallucinogens and psychosis, but also make human interaction easier . Being a new field if research there is not enough evidence to prove the role pitocin in both autism and schizophrenia. Further, they are also used to cure problems in erectile responses, ejaculation, depression, anxiety, and stress management
Dosage of Oxytocin:
10 units by intravenous route or 20-40 mUnit/min by Intramuscular route are injected for post partum haemorrhage. 0.5-1 mUnit/min by intravenous route for the induction of labour.10-20 mUnit/min is administered along with other drugs for termination of pregnancy.
Uterine contractions are seen after 3-5 minutes and approx 1 minute of aministration through intramuscular and intravenous routes respectively. A steady state of the drug is reached after 40 mins of parenteral route of administration. It is distributed throughout extracellular fluid compartment of the mother; small amounts may cross the placental barrier and reach foetus. Metabolism takes place rapidly via the liver and plasma by the enzyme oxytocinase a few steps of metabolism also takes place via mammary gland. It has a half-life of 1-5 minute. Kidney and liver help in the elimination of Oxytocin drugs( 9) unchanged form of this drug is rarely excreted in urine (30). Overdose can cause titanic uterine contractions, impaired blood flow to the uterus, uterine ruptures, seizures and amniotic fluid embolism contractions, impaired blood flow to the uterus, uterine ruptures, seizures and amniotic fluid embolism.
Significant cephalopelvic disproportion Unfavourable foetal positions Obstetric emergencies which favours surgery Hyperactive or hypertonic uterus When vaginal delivery is contraindicated, Anaphylactic patients, Foetal distress Polyhydramnios Partial placenta pervia Elective labour induction
Nausea or vomiting Memory problems or confusion Runny nose, sore throat, or coughing severe headaches hallucinations vomiting confusion Seizures and severe hypertension
Clinical Scenario 1
Which of the following abnormalities of labor is associated with a significantly increased incidence of neonatal morbidity? a. Prolonged latent phase b. Protracted descent c. Secondary arrest of dilation d. Protracted active-phase dilation Answer: c (Secondary arrest of dilation) Explanation: Three significant advances in the treatment of uterine dysfunction have reduced the risk of perinatal morbidity (PNM) and mortality: (1) the avoidance of undue prolongation of labor, (2) the use of intravenous oxytocin in the treatment of some patterns of uterine dysfunction, and (3) the liberal use of cesarean section (rather than midforceps) to affect delivery when oxytocin fails.
Clinical Scenario 2
Management of obstructed labor includes all, except: [AIIMS May 2004] a. IV fluids b. Oxytocin use c. Antibiotics d. Cesarean section Answer: b (Oxytocin use) Explanation: Two main principles in management of obstructed labor are: 1. Never wait and watch. 2. Never use oxytocin. In patients of obstructed labor, the uterine contractions (power) are always adequate. There is a problem with the passage or the passenger. By increasing the power (by giving oxytocin) we are increasing the risk of rupture uterus. It is like flogging a dead horse. Uterus is already contracting, and there is no point in increasing the contractions further in a case of obstructed labor. The patient should be given IV fluids to correct the dehydration and ketoacidosis, which usually develops due to prolonged labor. Patient should be given antibiotics to prevent infection, and then steps should be taken to immediately relieve the obstruction either by instrumental deliver or by LSCS. LSCS may have to be done even if the baby is dead and if vaginal delivery is not possible, or else rupture uterus will occur. NOTE: In cases of prolonged labor where there are hypotonic uterine contractions, oxytocin is justified.
Cough is a protective reflex, its purpose being expulsion of respiratory secretions or foreign particles from air passages. It occurs due to stimulation of mechano- or chemoreceptors in throat, respiratory passages or stretch receptors in the lungs. Cough may be useful or useless. Useless (nonproductive) cough should be suppressed. Useful (productive) cough serves to drain the airway, its suppression is not desirable, may even be harmful, except if the amount of expectoration achieved is small compared to the effort of continuous coughing. Apart from specific remedies (antibiotics, etc. see box), cough may be treated as a symptom (nonspecific therapy) with:
1. Pharyngeal demulcents
linctuses containing syrup,
2. Expectorants (Mucokinetics)
Expectorants thin mucus so it’s cleared more easily out of the airways. They also soothe mucous membranes in the respiratory tract. The result is a more productive cough.
(a) Bronchial secretion enhancers:
Sodium or Potassium citrate, Potassium iodide, Guaiphenesin (Glyceryl guaiacolate), balsum of Tolu, Vasaka, Ammonium chloride.
Mucolytics act directly on mucus, breaking down sticky, thick secretions so that they’re more easily eliminated
The opioid antitussives (typically codeine and hydrocodone) are reserved for treating an intractable cough.
Antitussive drugs suppress or inhibit coughing. Types of antitussives Antitussives are typically used to treat dry, nonproductive coughs. The major antitussives include: • benzonatate • codeine • dextromethorphan • hydrocodone bitartrate.
The correct dose of paracetamol for a child depends on their weight. The usual dose is 15 mg per kilogram of weight. In other words, if a baby weighs 10 kg it should have 10 x 15mg, which is 150 mg. This dose can be taken once every 4 to 6 hours, up to 4 times in 24 hours if needed.
Maximum Dose Of Paracetamol For Child
For children without underlying medical conditions, or with underlying medical conditions that are not inflammatory in nature, beginning treatment with oral paracetamol is preferred because of its long track record of safety. The correct dose of paracetamol for a child depends on their weight. The usual dose is 15 mg per kilogram of weight. You should not exceed the recommended dose except on the advice of your doctor. No child should take a total of more than 60 mg per kilogram of their body weight in a day.
Paracetamol tablet dosage for 10 year old:
Example of calculating a paracetamol dose:
A boy, aged 10 years, weighing 67 kg presents with myalgia of a suspected viral cause. You prescribe paracetamol for management at home. The calculation for paracetamol dosing is 15 mg × 67 kg = 1005 mg , however, you round this down to the maximum adult dose of 1 g, which is prescribed as 20 mL of a 250 mg/5 mL formulation, every four to six hours with no more than four doses every 24 hours.
Paracetamol Dosage Weight Calculator
Paracetamol is a medicine that is commonly used in children and adults which is available without a prescription. The main uses of paracetamol are for relief of pain and for reducing a fever. Paracetamol Dosage By Weight Adults
Paracetamol Side Effects:
Paracetamol is one of the most commonly used ‘over-the-counter’ medicines, especially for the minor illnesses suffered by many children. But it is not always used in the correct dosage, which may make it less effective or dangerous.
Reasons Side Effects with paracetamol included:
Exceeding recommended doses
Too frequent dosing
Prolonged dosing (up to 24 days in one case)
Paracetamol rarely causes side-effects when it is taken as recommended, but if you experience any symptoms which you think may be due to it, discuss them with your pharmacist or doctor.
Paracetamol overdose can result in liver damage and, at very high dosages, can be fatal.
Some people need to take extra care with paracetamol. Like :
If you have had an allergic reaction to paracetemol or any other medicines in the past If you have liver or kidney problems If you regularly drink more than the maximum recommended amount of alcohol (14 units a week) If you take medicine for epilepsy If you take medicine for tuberculosis (TB) If you take the blood-thinner warfarin and you may need to take paracetamol on a regular basis
Too much paracetamol is very harmful to the liver.
If you realise you have had too much (including other products with paracetamol in it), call your doctor, nurse or the Poisons Centre 0800 POISON (0800 764 766) immediately. Older people are most at risk so take extra care. Do NOT wait for signs of an overdose as these appear late when the damage to the liver is already done.
Late signs may include:
nausea or vomiting
yellow skin or eyes,
confusion or extreme sleepiness.
paracetamol dosage weight calculator:
Maximum dose of paracetamol for Adults:
Do not take more than 4 grams in 24 hours. This equates to 8 x 500 mg tablets, or 6 X 665 mg tablets per day. Keep track of the timing of the doses and check when it was last taken before taking it again.
Paracetamol tablet dosage for children:
The oral dose of paracetamol for children aged 1 month to 18 years is:
15 mg/kg per dose, to a maximum of 1 g per dose, every four to six hours, with a maximum of 60 mg/kg daily, without exceeding 4 g daily
paracetamol dosage by weight adults
Paracetamol Dosage for Infants:
For children aged 6 months-1 year: 120 mg every 4-6 hours up to a maximum of four doses daily. For children aged 3-5 months: 60 mg every 4-6 hours up to a maximum of four doses daily. For children aged 2 months following immunization: 60 mg, repeated once after 4-6 hours if needed.
Paracetamol Dosage for Toddlers:
For children aged 2-3 years: 180 mg every 4-6 hours up to a maximum of four doses daily. For children aged 6 months-1 year: 120 mg every 4-6 hours up to a maximum of four doses daily.
Paracetamol is Used for Pain and fever (high temperature) in adults and children. Available as Tablet, capsule, soluble tablet, ‘melt-in-the-mouth’ tablet, oral liquid, oral liquid sachets, suppository and injection
Paracetamol 500mg Dosage
Generally 3 times a day or 500 mg 6hrs
Paracetamol Dosage For 12 Year Old
Paracetamol Dosage Calculator Adults:
The usual dose in adults is 500 mg to 1 gram (1 or 2 tablets) every 4 to 6 hours when required for pain.
Paracetamol can be safely used by adults including pregnant women but there is a limit to the amount of paracetamol that can be safely taken in a 24-hour period. Taking more than the daily limit is very harmful to the liver. For adults the usual maximum dose is 4 grams per day. This may be less if you are frail or elderly.
Paracetamol tablets are available in two strengths — 500 mg tablets or 665 mg tablets. The 665 mg tablets are used for osteoarthritis
Paracetamol is used for relief of pain and Fever. Analgesic and Anti Pyretic. Paracetamol has analgesic (pain relief) and antipyretic(reduces fever) but no anti-inflammatory activity; it is less irritant to the stomach than Ibuprofen. It will not cause drowsiness or cause your child to sleep. It can be used for children and babies over 3 months old. Younger babies must see the doctor. Paracetamol is highly lipid-soluble and has a relatively short half life of 2–2.5 hours.2 Following oral administration, paracetamol is rapidly absorbed across the mucosa of the duodenum and into the bloodstream where it is mainly metabolised by the liver.
Recommended doses of paracetamol are:
For adults and children aged 16 years and older: 500 mg-1 g every 4-6 hours up to a maximum of 4 g daily.
For children aged 12-15 years: 480-750 mg every 4-6 hours up to a maximum of four doses daily.
For children aged 10-11 years: 480-500 mg every 4-6 hours up to a maximum of four doses daily.
For children aged 8-9 years: 360-375 mg every 4-6 hours up to a maximum of four doses daily.
For children aged 6-7 years: 240-250 mg every 4-6 hours up to a maximum of four doses daily.
For children aged 4-5 years: 240 mg every 4-6 hours up to a maximum of four doses daily.
For children aged 2-3 years: 180 mg every 4-6 hours up to a maximum of four doses daily.
For children aged 6 months-1 year: 120 mg every 4-6 hours up to a maximum of four doses daily.
For children aged 3-5 months: 60 mg every 4-6 hours up to a maximum of four doses daily.
For children aged 2 months following immunization: 60 mg, repeated once after 4-6 hours if needed.
Food Interactions to Paracetamol: 🙄
Avoid alcohol (may increase risk of hepatotoxicity). Take without regard to meals.
Pharmacodynamics of Paracetamol: 😆
Acetaminophen (USAN) or Paracetamol (INN) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. It is a major ingredient in numerous cold and flu medications and many prescription analgesics. It is extremely safe in standard doses, but because of its wide availability, deliberate or accidental overdoses are not uncommon. Acetaminophen, unlike other common analgesics such as aspirin and ibuprofen, has no anti-inflammatory properties or effects on platelet function, and it is not a member of the class of drugs known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs. At therapeutic doses acetaminophen does not irritate the lining of the stomach nor affect blood coagulation, kidney function, or the fetal ductus arteriosus (as NSAIDs can). Like NSAIDs and unlike opioid analgesics, acetaminophen does not cause euphoria or alter mood in any way. Acetaminophen and NSAIDs have the benefit of being completely free of problems with addiction, dependence, tolerance and withdrawal. Acetaminophen is used on its own or in combination with pseudoephedrine, dextromethorphan, chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, codeine, hydrocodone, or oxycodone.
Pharmacology and Mechanism of action of Paracetamol:
Acetaminophen is thought to act primarily in the CNS, increasing the pain threshold by inhibiting both isoforms of cyclooxygenase, COX-1, COX-2, and COX-3 enzymes involved in prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. Unlike NSAIDs, acetaminophen does not inhibit cyclooxygenase in peripheral tissues and, thus, has no peripheral anti-inflammatory affects. While aspirin acts as an irreversible inhibitor of COX and directly blocks the enzyme’s active site, studies have found that acetaminophen indirectly blocks COX, and that this blockade is ineffective in the presence of peroxides. This might explain why acetaminophen is effective in the central nervous system and in endothelial cells but not in platelets and immune cells which have high levels of peroxides. Studies also report data suggesting that acetaminophen selectively blocks a variant of the COX enzyme that is different from the known variants COX-1 and COX-2. This enzyme is now referred to as COX-3. Its exact mechanism of action is still poorly understood, but future research may provide further insight into how it works. The antipyretic properties of acetaminophen are likely due to direct effects on the heat-regulating centres of the hypothalamus resulting in peripheral vasodilation, sweating and hence heat dissipation.
paracetamol 125 mg dosage
Paracetamol dosage for 12 year old
Paracetamol dose for children aged 12-15 years: 480-750 mg every 4-6 hours up to a maximum of four doses daily.