Diabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes—is a condition in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia glycosuria, hyperlipemia, negative nitrogen balance and sometimes ketonemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.
This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).
There are three main types of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes: results from the body’s failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy.
There is an increase in the prevalence of type 1diabetes also, but main cause of diabetic epidemic is type2 diabetes mellitus, which accounts for more than 90 percent of all diabetes cases. According to World Health Organization (WHO) reports, India had 32 million diabetic people in the year 2001. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimates the total number of diabetic subjects to be around 40.9 million in India and this is further set to rise to 69.9 million by the year 2025. The majority of cases of diabetes fall into two broad etiopathogenetic categories now called type 1 and T2 DM. The etiologic classification of diabetes mellitus currently recommended by WHO and the ADA in 1997.
C) Other agents Anti insulin antibodies Somatostatins Catecholamines
1. Models For Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus [IDDM] Alloxan induced diabetes Alloxan: is a cyclic urea compound, which induces permanent diabetes. It is a highly reactive molecule, which produces free radical damage to beta islet cells & causes cell death. Dose: – In rats Alloxan at dose of 100 mg/kg produces diabetes. In rabbits dose of 150 mg/kg infused through marginal ear vein produces diabetes in 70% of the animals.
Albino rats of either sex [150-200g] are injected with a single dose of alloxan monohydrate [100 mg/kg body weight] dissolved in normal saline by i.p. route.
Blood glucose levels show triphasic response with hyperglycemia for one hour followed by hypoglycemia that lasts for six hours & stable hyperglycemia after 48 hours.
Animals showing fasting blood glucose level above 140 mg/dl after 48 hour of alloxan administration are considered diabetic For a period of six weeks, drug samples to be screened are administered orally After six weeks of treatment, blood samples are collected from 8 hour fasting animals through a caudal vein Serum is separated by centrifuge (3000 rpm) under cooling (2-4 °C) for ten minutes The serum glucose level is estimated by glucose oxidase-peroxidase method [GOD-POD kit] using autoanalyser.
1.2 Streptozotocin induced diabetes
Streptozotocin: is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which causes beta islet cell damage by free radical generation. It induces diabetes in almost all species of animals excluding rabbits and guinea pigs. Dose: – Diabetogenic dose: In Mice: 200mg/kg i.p Beagle dogs: 15 mg/ kg i.v for three days.
Procedure: – Streptozotocin [60 mg/kg body weight] is prepared in citrated buffer [ph 4.5] Albino rats of either sex weighing 150-200 g are injected i.p with above solution Animals showing fasting blood glucose levels > 140mg/dl after 48 hours of streptozotocin administration are considered diabetic. · After six weeks of treatment blood samples are collected from 6 hr fasted animals through caudal vein ·Serum is separated by centrifuge (3000 rpm) under cooling (2-4 °C) for ten minutes · Serum glucose level is estimated by glucose- peroxidase method [GOD-POD kit] using autoanalyser.
1.3 Virus induced diabetes
Principle: – Viruses are one of the etiological agents for IDDM. They produce diabetes mellitus by infecting and destroying beta cells of pancreas. Various human viruses used for inducing diabetes include RNA picornovirus, encephalomyocarditis [EMC-D], coxsackie B4 [CB-4].
Procedure: – 6-8 week old mice are inoculated by 0.1 ml of 1:50 dilutions of D-variant encephalomyocarditis [EMC] through i.p.
0.1ml of above dilution contains 50 PFU [ plaque forming units] of EMC virus.(mortality due to this concentration of virus is approximately 10-20%) Less infecting variant produces a comparable damage by eliciting autoimmune reactivity to the beta cells.
· Infected animals are considered hyperglycemic if there non fasting levels exceed by 250mg/dl the levels of uninfected animals of the same strain. · Drug samples to be screened are administered orally for a period of 6 weeks · After 6 weeks of drug treatment, blood glucose estimation is done to determine the anti diabetic activity.
Here is the template format for M Pharmacy Project B Pharmacy PHD projects. Every one needs to design the first page I mean title of the thesis when we need to submit the project finally. So we pharmawiki team thought it would really HELPFUL FOR ALL THE M Pharmacy Project B Pharmacy PHD projects students to submit their thesis with ease.
—-M Pharmacy Project B Pharmacy PHD project Thesis:
All you need in this TITLE PAGE of this Thesis is a list of the below:
Title of the Project you have done
thesis Submitted for the AWARD
Your Stream of Study
Title of the Project:
The Matrix-Binding Domain of Microfibril-Associated Glycoprotein-1 Targets
ACTIVE CONNECTIVE TISSUE GROWTH FACTOR TO A FIBROBLAST-PRODUCED EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX TISSUE RECOMBINANTS TO STUDY EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX TARGETING TO BASEMENT MEMBRANES.
A STUDY OF DESIGNING NOVEL A2A ADENOSINE RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST-A COMPUTATIONAL APPROACH.
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pH Partition Hypothesis is one of the PHYSICOCHEMICAL, PHARMACEUTICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN GIT ABSORPTION OF DRUGS. This can be understood clearly as a sub topic of pH Partition Hypothesis Factors Affecting GastroIntestinal Absorption of Drugs.
As we all know Drugs that are weakly acidic or weakly basic generally undergo ionization and their absorption can be explained by the drug’s pKa, lipophilicity, and GI pH. In contrast to the capillary walls, cell membranes were able to act as effective barriers during the absorption of drugs. MH Jacobs in 1940 reported the cellular permeation characteristics of weakly electrolytic solutions designated the permeability of nonionic species quantitatively. After his studies, many studies followed and led to the hypothesis of pHpartition theory (Maza´k and Nosza´l, 2014). This theory compared the dissociation constant, lipophilicity, and pH with absorption. Knowledge of the exact ionization of the drug is important as the unionized form has greater lipophilicity than its ionized counterpart. pH partition hypothesis can be explained by the HendersonHasselbach equations. Check the image for the HendersonHasselbach equations for acids and HendersonHasselbach equations for bases.
For acids, pH5pKa1log ionized unionized
pH partition hypothesis can be explained by the HendersonHasselbach equations as follows:
And for bases, pH5pKa1log unionized ionized
Most of the absorption studies confirmed the accuracy of this hypothesis. However, there are certain limitations to it. These are related to the unstirred water layer, the microclimate pH, and the mucous coat adjacent to the epithelial cells.
For drugs to cross the lipid membrane they need to have some solubility in the lipid membrane and to get dissolved in GIT they have to have aqueous solubility. Unionized forms can undergo passive diffusion to get transported as they has lipid solubility, but the ionized form is required for the solubility of the drug in the GIT. Drugs that are weakly acidic and weakly basic, generally undergo ionization (Yang et al., 2012).
Mostly drugs are developed as salts of weak bases or weak acids to have good solubility and absorption. These salt forms are ionizable and therefore their solubility is pH dependent. The following equations can be derived to understand the pH-dependent solubility of the drugs from the dissociation of monoprotonated conjugate acid from a base.
WES CANADA Online Procedure JNTU University Transcripts Kakatiya University Transcripts OU Osmania University Transcripts ANU Acharya Nagarjuna University Transcripts are here for you to get maximum information regarding the same. Comment us below to know more about this process. Contact us to get the transcripts for you.
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad Transcripts WES Online Process
JNTU-Hyderabad kukatpally has incorporated a straight forward online procedure to get transcripts and also to send transcripts to WES world education services CANADA.
You can browse thisalink where ever you are even from other countries. I mean service can be used through out all countries without any doubt.
Next step is a simple registration. Register by using your Hall Ticket No which will be printed on all your mark sheets and even on your convocation certificate.
Then you need to Select No. of copies of the documents as per your requirement. Each transcript costs 40 INR excluding postal charges. If you need 10 transcripts . I mean mark sheets or any other certificates then it will be 400 rupees.
After paying the amount you need to enter your details of address where you want to receive your transcripts( Local or International) where in the charge of amount for post varies as per your country. Within India it is somewhere around 110–150 INR. The hard copies will be sent to the address mentioned.
When you are doing this process for wes you need to pay another 100 rupees challan as extra fee and need to mention for WES along with WES reference number and form.
You will be receiving an envelope with JNTU seal along with the transcripts in a cover. Check out for the details like Name , Hall ticket no. etc. The JNTU envelope is self adhesive so cross check all details before sealing the envelope. Later, on the envelope include all your details mailing address WES reference No. , Mobile No.
Important note: As per now they are not sending the WES forms directly but you have to go to the university to finish the process.
Place the complete transcript sealed envelope in a bigger envelope which should also have sealed JNTU mark and send the same by noting mailing address WES reference No., Mobile No to WES office in Toronto Canada. You need to attach CD I mean customs declaration form to the parcel. This will be available online or even at the Xerox center in the main campus.
We can send it across Indian Post because its way cheaper than private postal services and also tracking option is available. There are options like standard and Express, depending on the option the delivery will be done with 20 working days or 7 working days respectively. The costs for speed post air will be around 1150 INR.
Hope all the below questions are answered:
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Deadly Diseases Causing Deaths Worldwide Daily As the world population is increasing in multifold the diseases affecting lives is even grosser. The foremost organization that keeps records of all the statistics regarding health, WHO, has given some estimation about the scenario as a whole. WHO says across worldwide, most people in wealthy countries would reasonably expect to die in older age. In low-income countries though, children aged under 5 years are the most at risk of dying. Let us see how the mortality rate of people has been affected in the recent past.
During the past decade, the deadly causes of death have been Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive lung disease and lower respiratory infections including cancers. Heart disease is caused by a build-up of fatty deposits on the wall of the arteries, for other conditions such as high blood pressure or diabetes (Diabetes caused 1.6 million (2.8%) deaths in the last 5 years) responsible for nearly 9 million deaths every year. This disease is deadly that narrow down the patient’s arteries restricting blood and oxygen flow to the heart, potentially leading to a fatal heart attack. Non-deadly attacks cause chest pain known as angina, which can proceed with a heart attack. Lung disease, particularly lung cancer stands at top 5 of the 10 diseases being responsible for over 1.6 million deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is very common in smokers and is an aggressive and serious form of cancer accounting for 85% of cases. In China, it is the most common type of cancer along with Countries such as Spain and Hungary and India is also highly affected by the disease.
Chronic diseases have remained the top killers causing increasing numbers of deaths worldwide. TB remains a significant threat as one of the topmost in the world in which 1/3rd of the world’s population is infected. TB bacteria every year, causes over 9 million cases resulting in around 1.4 million deaths. Deaths due to Alzheimer and Dementias more than doubled in the last 20 years, making it the 7th leading cause of global deaths in recent times.
Seasonal flu kills 291,000 to 646,000 people worldwide each year, Healthy people can be infected by the influenza virus and transmit it to others. But young children, elderly people, pregnant women, and people with certain medical conditions are at greater risk of suffering serious complications from the flu. Various kind of Injuries continues to kill 5 million people each year including road traffic injuries. About 3700 lives each day are lost, among which three-quarters being males.
Another life-threatening disease is HIV+ causing AIDS is mostly spread worldwide. As a public health threat by 2030, countries need to live up to their commitment to end AIDS. In September 2015, it is a target included in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted by the United Nations General Assembly. This is an estimation to prevent almost 300 000 deaths per year. The HIV-related deaths are still unacceptably high and it poses an immediate challenge to reach the Fast-Track targets for 2020 that include reducing the number of people dying from HIV-related causes fewer than 500 000.
The outbreak of Covid-19, a coronavirus-caused illness that originated in Wuhan, China, and has since spread to most of the world, is one of the most serious public health crises in decades. The virus has spread far wider than Ebola did in 2014 and is in pandemic stage according to WHO. So far it has it the regions of the UK, USA, Korea, Japan, Iran, Italy and now India causing several deaths. If soon the measures not taken this would become the maximum cause of death rate throughout the world creating an epidemic.
Top 10 Causes of Death globally
Top 20 Causes 4 Death || Deadly Diseases Causing Deaths Worldwide
Hello readers. Welcome to pharmawiki.in Today we have an article listing out items first aid kits, first aid kit band ,first aid kit checklist ,first aid kit contents ,first aid kit supplies, best first aid kit ,first aid kit list ,good first aid kit ,first aid kit music group , first aid kit requirements. In addition to these we provide detailed First aid manual with every minute detailed information regarding first aid.
Types of First Aid Kits
Home First Aid Kits
Auto & Car First Aid Kits Burn Care Kits Kitchen First Aid Kits Plastic First Aid Kits Small First Aid Kits First Aid Kit Refills
Recreation First Aid Kits
Medical Sea Pak & Marine Kits Sports First Aid Kits Empty Bags & Boxes Sports Medicine Supplies Professional First Aid Kits CPR Kits Metal First Aid Kits First Responder Kits Personal Protection Kits ANSI First Aid Kits Specialty Kits
First Aid Supplies
Airway Management Bandages Burn Care CPR Masks & Shields Hazmat & Bio Hazard Medical Instruments Gauze & Dressings Hot & Cold Therapy Medical Gloves Medical Tape Pain Relief Ointments & Antiseptics Unitized Medical Supplies Defibrillators/AEDs Emergency Survival Supplies Home Healthcare Supplies Over the Counter Medicine EMS Supplies Personal Care Tourniquets Vitamins & Minerals Clearance Tattoo Supplies First Aid Kits & Bags Clearance
Portable Hospital First Aid Kit (bag with supplies)
Portable Hospital First aid Kit has bag with supplies which contains everything from butterfly bandages to large trauma dressings, allowing you to treat a wide variety of first aid emergencies. Includes CPR Microshield.
Example for Supply Assortment Portable Hospital First aid Kit
50 Bandages 1″x3″ 5 Bandages 2″x4″ 5 Fingertip Bandages 5 Knuckle Bandages 5 Butterfly Bandages 2 Triangular Bandage 40″ x 40″ 1 Elastic Bandage 3″ 10 Gauze Pads 2″ x 2″ 10 Gauze Pads 4″ x 4″ 1 Roll Gauze 2″ x 4yds. 2 Roll Gauze 4″ x 4yds. 2 Combine Pads 5″ x 9″ 1 Multi-Trauma Dressings 25 BZK Towelettes 4 Iodine Swab Sticks
1 tube silver sulfadiazine ointment 15 g 10 band aid strips 1 roller bandage 5×5 cm 1 package absorbent sterilized cotton 15 g 1 scissor 7cm (sharp/blunt edge) 10 tablets paracetamol 1 plastic mouth-to-mouth resuscitator 1 triangular bandage (90 cm) 10 safety pins 1 adhesive plaster/tape 3-4 ice cream spoons to be used as splints of finger 2 ORS sachets
MEDIUM FIRST AID BOX – Items
10 sterilized finger dressings 10 sterilized foot and hand dressings 10 sterilized large dressings 1 sterilized extra-large dressings 2 sterilized first aid field dressings 2 sterilized shell dressings 4 sterilized small burn dressings 2 sterilized large burn dressings 50 adhesive dressing strips 4 roller bandages 5 cm (5 m) 2 roller bandages 7.5 cm (5 m) 6 triangular bandages (90 cm) 1 package gauze 7.5 cm 4 package sterilized absorbent cotton 25 g 6 sterilized eye pads (st John pattern) 1 spool adhesive plaster 2.5 cm (5 m) 1 tube sliver sulfadiazine skin ointment 15 g 1 bottle savlon, detol or catavelon 112 ml 2 surgical scissors 12.5 cm (sharp/blunt edge) 1 mouth-to-mouth resuscitator 3 inflatable arm splints 3 inflatable leg splints 1 torch (2 battery cells) 10 safety pins 3-4 ice cream spoons to be used as splints of finger 2 ORS sachets 1 writing pad and pen 1 record card in plastic cover 1 first aid leaflet form
LARGE FIRST AID BOX – Contents
18 sterilized finger dressings 24 sterilized foot and hand dressings 20 sterilized large dressings 2 sterilized extra-large dressing 4 sterilized first aid field dressings 6 sterilized shell dressings 6 sterilized small burn dressings 4 sterilized large burn dressings 100 adhesive dressing strips 6 roller bandages 5 cm (5 m) 6 roller bandages 7.5 cm (5 m) 12 triangular bandages (90 cm) 1 package gauze 7.5 cm 8 package sterilized absorbent cotton 25 g 6 sterilized eye pads (st John pattern) 2 spool adhesive plaster 2.5 cm (5 m) 1 tube sliver sulfadiazine skin ointment 15 g 1 bottle savlon, detol or catavelon 112 ml 2 surgical scissors 12.5 cm (sharp/blunt edge) 1 mouth-to-mouth resuscitator 3 inflatable arm splints 3 inflatable leg splints 3-4 ice cream spoons to be used as splints of finger 2 ORS sachets 2 torch (2 battery cells) 10 safety pins 1 writing pad and pen 1 record card in plastic cover 1 first aid leaflet form
FIRST MEDICAL RESPONDER FIRST AID KIT Supplies
1 torch powered by charging dynamo (inbuilt) with battery backup (preferred) 2 pair (latex) surgical gloves non-sterile size 6.5 2 pair (latex) surgical gloves non-sterile size 7.0 2 pair (latex) surgical gloves non-sterile size 7.5 1 bottle savlon 50 ml 2 4’ crepe bandage 2 6’ crepe bandage 5 triangular bandage (cotton) 4 compressed roller bandage non-sterile 5 cm by 5 m 4 compressed roller bandage non-sterile 10 cm by 5 m 4 compressed roller bandage non-sterile 15 cm by 5 m 2 rolls surgical cotton 100 g 25 adhesive bandaged (band aid) 2.5 by 5 cm 1 roll leucoplast tape or Micropore adhesive plaster 4” 6 sterile gauze 10 by 10 cm 6 sterile eye pads 5 sterile small finger dressing pads 5 sterile large finger dressing pads 4 pieces sterile paraffin gauze 1 tube silver sulfadiazine ointment 1 mouth to mouth resuscitator 1 set inflatable splints for arms and legs 2 small scissors (s/s) 1 package glucose powder 100 g 1 small forceps 1 medium forceps 1 large forceps 12 safety pins 1 small permanent marker pen (black) 1 pencil 1 first aid kit checklist 1 first aid pamphlet 1 small pocket diary.
#FilmCoated Tablets – Film-Coating Defects Flaw Cause Remedy
Wrinkling or blistering
Flaw: Film detaches from tablet surface, causing blister that can burst to form wrinkles. Cause: Gases forming on tablet surface during coating; exacerbated by poor adhesion of film to tablet surface. Remedy: Reduce drying air temperature.
Flaw: Areas of tablet surface are not covered by film coat. Cause: Overwet tablets stick together and pull film off surface as they move apart. Remedy: Decrease spraying rate. Increase drying temperature.
Flaw: Holes appear on tablet surface. Melting of lubricant on tablet surface. Most common with stearic acid. Remedy: Decrease coating temperature to below melting point of lubricant. Substitute lubricant
Flaw: Dulling of surface, normally after prolonged storage. Migration of low-molecularweight components of film to tablet surface. Remedy: Decrease temperature and length of drying process. Increase molecular weight of plasticizer.
Flaw: Uneven color distribution in film. Inadequate pigment dispersion. Color migration, a problem with dyes and lakes rather than pigments. Remedy: Alter suspension preparation to ensure pigment aggregates are dispersed. Replace dyes with pigments.
Flaw: Film surface has a rough finish resembling orange peel. Film-coat droplets are too dry or too viscous to spread on tablet surface. Remedy: Reduce solids content of coating suspension. Reduce drying temperature. Reduce viscosity of polymer.
Flaw: Film forms a bridge over intagliations, leaving them indistinct. High internal stresses in film relieved by pulling the film off the Surface of the intagliation. Remedy: Increase adhesion of coat to tablet by changing core formulation. Add plasticizer or increase plasticizer concentration. Alter geometry of intagliations.
Cracking, splitting, peeling
Flaw: The film cracks on the crown of the surface or splits on the tablet edge. Can be differentiated from picking by presence of loose film around the flaw. High stresses in the film that cannot be relieved due to the strong Adhesion of the film to the tablet surface. Remedy: Increase plasticizer concentration. Use stronger polymer.
Heat distribution of an empty chamber: Thermocouples should be situated according to a specific predetermined pattern. Repeatability of temperature attainment and identification of the cold spot can be achieved if the temperature range is ±15°C at all monitored locations. Heat-distribution studies can also be conducted as a function of variable airflow rates
Constraining the temperature range across the loaded chamber has the goal of assuring sterilization is attained across the load, without over-processing of the filled containers.
Performance Qualification Protocol (PQP) – Steam/Air Cycle- Heat distribution
Performance Qualification Protocol (PQP) for Steam/Air Cycle in the Production Steam Steriliser (Autoclave)
The Production Steam Steriliser (autoclave), shall be used for sterilising aseptically-filled vials of selected products. To qualify the performance of the Fedegari Steam Steriliser (Autoclave) as part of a change control qualification study (refer to CR-14- xxxx “Recommence Manufacture of xxxx Acid Injection 15 mg in 1 mL ) This Performance Qualification shall be limited to demonstrating consistency and efficacy of the steam/air sterilisation cycle, using 1mL water filled into 2 mL vials. Equivalence for xxx Injection 15 mg in 1 mL product, which has been aseptically filled into 2 mL vials, shall be demonstrated in the subsequent Process Validation Study (see PQ protocol kkk). This protocol has been prepared with reference to the following regulatory guidelines: The Performance Qualification study (PQP kkk ) for the autoclave equipment, included heat distribution studies for a porous load cycle only. This document shall include heat distribution studies for the steam/air sterilisation cycle, as part of the process development for the terminal sterilisation of filled vials. The objective of this Performance Qualification, is to verify that the sterilising autoclave consistently provides the required sterility assurance, when operated under normal conditions, using standard minimum and maximum loading patterns and the specified settings: The production cycle registered for Folic Acid product is 121.1 o C for fifteen (15) minutes, to provide a minimum Fo = 8 min. The standard loading patterns shall be as follows: Minimum load Six (6) trays 2 mL vials, 340 vials per tray, across two autoclave shelves Maximum Load Nine (9) trays 2 mL vials, 340 vials per tray, across three autoclave shelves A reduced cycle shall also be run, for the standard production load patterns, to demonstrate that sub-optimal conditions also yield an acceptable level of sterility assurance. This shall be achieved by changing the timetemperature combination for the standard production load patterns to 121.1 o C, for ten (10) minutes, which is 66% of the registered sterilising condition of 121.1o C for 15 minutes.
Sterilisation shall be by the moist heat process, using saturated steam, where F0 > 8 DT (see below). A steam-air mixture is used to control chamber pressure and assist in pressure equalisation between chamber and vials, particularly during the cool-down phase. In-process controls for the sterilisation phase of the cycle shall be temperature TE1 in the liquid product and sterilisation phase hold time. Temperature (TE 8 on the auxilliary heating device) and chamber pressure (TP01) are also required to control heating and forced cooling phases of the cycle. For the purposes of the PQ, sterilisation phase temperature and hold time data shall be processed to demonstrate that the physical characteristics of the cycle in terms of accumulated lethality (Fphys) exceed the minimum cycle design criteria (Fo), where: Fo > 8 DT for DTref = D121.1oC = 1.0 minutes and Fphys = Δt ∑10(T-Tref)/z Reference: BP Appendix XVIII “Methods of Sterilisation” and registered particulars, where Fo > 8 min is required. Biological Indicators shall be selected, to demonstrate the survival probability of a non-sterile unit (PNSU) ≤ 10–6 for both the normal production cycle (F0 ≥ 15) and a reduced cycle (F0 ≥10).
Performance Qualification Tests
Tests to be conducted and acceptance criteria are defined in the attached Performance Qualification Test Sheets. Tests to be performed: 1 Test Instrument Calibration 2 Vacuum Leak Rate Test 3 Heat Distribution Test (empty chamber temperature mapping) 4 Heat Distribution Test (loaded chamber temperature mapping) 5 Heat Penetration studies for: Production cycle standard loads (121.1 o C for 15 minutes, two consecutive cycles) and for “Reduced” cycle standard loads (121.1 o C for 10 minutes, one cycle) 6 Biological challenge testing for standard and reduced cycle loads