Bio-processing Upstream Downstream + Bioprocessing Companies PDF

Bio-processing Upstream Downstream + Bioprocessing Companies PDF

Bio-processing Upstream Downstream + Bioprocessing Companies PDFBioprocessing: The fundamentals

The bioprocess is considered to be a very specific process that uses complete living cells or its components to obtain any desired products.  These living cells include bacteria, chloroplasts, enzymes and similar category of living cells.  The process involves transportation of their energy and their mass to many biological and environmental processes which is the basic of this productivity.  Now these therapeutic cell manufacturing processes can be differentiated into two main processes termed as the upstream processes and the downstream processes.  The upstream process is defined as the entire process from early cell isolation along with cultivation converting to cell banking and culture expansion of the cells till the stage of final harvest is reached.  Whereas, the downstream process involves the processing of those cell masses from the upstream to meet quality and purity requirements as per need.  This process involves cell disruption, purification and final polishing of the products.


The Two Processes


The first process involved as stated above in Upstream involves the separation of cells.  Here involvement of growing of cells and microbes take place.  The steps also comprises of inoculum development, media development, improvement of those inoculum development by using genetical procedure (genetical engineering) along with growth kinetics involved into the process as well.  This in return will improve the product development by a greater extend.  This process is completed when the final harvesting of the cells are done.



Once the Upstream process is completed, now the downstream part of the process starts.  Here the separation of the biomass takes place by centrifugation or ultra-centrifugation.  After it is over, the cell disruption is done which enables the product to get released.  The solid-liquid state is separated here by the use of centrifugation or filtration process.  Initial purification of metabolites takes place after concentration of broth takes place.  Finally, de-watering and polishing of the metabolites takes place and finally the product is formulated and sent to the market for the consumers in a seal packed manner.


The bioprocessing engineering involved

Bioprocess engineering or also called as the biochemical engineering is considered to be a specialization field of chemical engineering or Biological engineering which deals in development and designing of equipment and processes for the manufacturing of agriculture products along with involvement of food, pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, polymers and chemicals as well.  This engineering also involves study of different biotechnological processes used in industries used for quality large scale production on a whole.


The process involves use of bioreactors which comprises of a fermentation chamber for growing of organisms like bacteria, yeast and other such microbes but under controlled temperature and condition supporting their growth.  The perfect example of this reactor’s involvement is found in pharmaceuticals, vaccines, antibodies and other such products.


The perfect application

This bioprocessing involves a wide variety of application field especially when we speak about biomedical research.  The study of this field has gained great significance attaining advancements in the field of biomedical research which simply paved the way for manufacturing of innovative pharmaceutical products that has led to a better development and truly opened a new horizon of possibilities in the pharmaceutical field.  This has truly been a significant achievement which involves different critical applications and manufacturing of certain products which have been never possible without the use of bioprocessing advancement.


In the coming days, bioprocessing will gain much more significance as compared to today and today’s achievements will simply mend the pathway for the betterment of this field in the future which in turn will certainly help our science to get more stronger and better like never before.

B Pharmacy Scope in India- What is the scope of B pharm?

B Pharmacy Scope in India

B Pharmacy Scope in India: There has been much hype created in students in India for getting B Pharmacy degree and thus over the years this stream of education has been a first preference of many aspiring students who want to learn and obtain a degree.  Today we will be looking at what this is all about and how one can make a decent living by completing the B pharmacy degree and the scope and the options associated with this field in short.

Basic criteria

The Bachelor of Pharmacy degree which is popularly termed as B-Pharm in short is a four-year course with annual and semester schemes both available for the students to go through.  In order to get selected and eligible for a student to undergo this course one needs to fulfill certain eligibilities.  It includes passing with at least 50% marks in 10 + 2 or exam equivalent to it especially with biology or biotechnology as being one of the primary subjects when passing out.  The curriculum of B Pharmacy includes Human Anatomy and Physiology, Biochemistry, Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Mathematics and Bio statistics.  Now to this end one can find out different aptitude tests which they can clear out before continuing with this course.  The basic criteria in terms of age are that one must be at least 17 years of age and maximum 23 years while establishing their candidature.

 What is the scope of B pharmacy in India?

Career Scope for B-Pharmacy professionals

When we speak about a career in the pharmaceutical sciences then we are speaking about the ample of amount of opportunities that one could avail.  Hereby we provide some of the options that a pharmacy professional can take note of.

R & D:

This industry is basically based on research and development for the betterment.  M.Pharms and Ph.Ds are one of the best options for research of new drugs, process development, Toxicological Studies and many of the other options to opt for.  It can provide the students with new avenues of research.

Analysis and Testing:

In order to maintain a proper Quality control (QC) and Quality Assurance (QA) analysis and testing is a very highly skilled field to look for after completion of B-Pharma.  The student must be capable of handling sophisticated apparatus and equipment’s for this job.

B Pharmacy Scope in India

Production and Manufacturing: Production and manufacturing can be another option for the candidates to look out for.  One can start own production unit or work for some other companies in manufacturing of surgical dressings, biotechnological products, medical devices, equipment, veterinary medicine, Ayurvedic/ homeopathic cosmetics, soaps, and the list is endless.


Marketing of pharmaceutical products along with sales can provide students of B pharmacy with lucrative benefits and obviously a good scope to venture into.


Most of the well-known hospitals have their own pharmacist to take care of the drug department and providing them with right medicine as prescribed by the physicians.  The Pharmacy graduates thus have a very important role to play here and the earning potential is really huge and very much attractive when compared to the other departments available for B pharmacy students.

Regulatory Bodies:

One of the finest options in this business is that of a drug controller, deputy drug controller, drug inspector, and other if the student really has the potential within.  These posts are controlled by FDA, the regulatory body dealing and implementing rules and regulations in related to Drug and Pharmaceutical industry.  These posts can really provide the aspiring student with good opportunity and a handsome earning as a complete outcome.

So the options are there to invade and require proper completion of the B pharmaceutical course.

What is DRX RPH Meaning Definition RX Full Form ?

What is DRX RPH Meaning Definition RX Full Form ?

RX DRX-and-RPH: There are thousand of short abbreviations that are being used on a regular basis when we speak about pharmaceutical applications and in relation to taking drugs.  The medical dictionary has thousands of medical abbreviations that basically denote something in a shorter form which the physicians or those in relation to this trade are aware of but which most of us, the common masses or those who are not related to this field are aware of.  Each one of them has a specific meaning and denotes a specific action when speaking about the pharmaceutical products and is in accordance with treatment.  While the physicians prescribe drugs, generally they provide these short abbreviations in the prescriptions for us to know how and when to take them.  Today we are going to look at the meaning of DRx and RPh, its full form and use in brief here and consider its application and go through what they really means.

What is DRX RPH Meaning Definition RX Full Form ?

The meaning Rx and RPh

Rx and RPh are two of the most common abbreviations that are being used.  Firstly the “Rx” has derived from a Latin word which means “recipe”.  It basically means the action of taking something or receiving something or the fact of it being received.  This symbol basically has originated in the medieval manuscripts and denotes abbreviation of the late Latin verb “recipere”.  Here it denotes that the way how the things (which here is medicine) needs to be taken by the patient.  It basically denotes the direction by which the prescribed medicine needs to be taken by the patient in plain and simple words.  This is a symbol that is commonly found at the head of the prescription provided by the physician to us when means “take, thou”.

Thus accordingly when a pharmacist get the prescription and sees “Rx” written over it they get a clear idea about what the drugs have been prescribed to the patient and thus provides them in accordance to the order they are being prescribed.

What is “RPh”

Now speaking about “RPh” another most common term that is being used in the medical terminology and found common in the prescription, we get to know that it indicates the individual is registered under the State Board of Pharmacy (acknowledged by the Medical Board) and is eligible to prescribe drugs when in need.  He or she has been certified by the Government to prescribe medicines and drugs to patients.  The term “Rph” stands for “Registered Pharmacist”.  Now someone who is willing to complete and get registration must need to complete a tertiary degree in Pharmacy like that of a Bachelor or Master of Pharmacy.  Once the individual is graduated, he or she needs to go through a registration procedure with affiliated board of that particular country and complete internship which takes approximately a year or two (according to the rules laid by the medical bord of that particular country) and finally obtain a registered pharmacist degree.

Now in order to avoid any discrepancies the physicians use these types of short form which not only indicates how to take it but also denotes when to take.  It often helps them to write in short and to fully express what they intend to mean in the way of taking each and every drug as per the requirement.  Though these types of short abbreviations are quite impossible to understand for the common mass who have less knowledge about them, the druggist or the pharmacist who regularly handle medical cases are very much aware of the terms and understands the meaning perfectly.  This helps them to provide drugs to the patient in accordance.

Proud To Be Pharmacist Quotes – Motivational Best pharmacist Quotes

Proud To Be Pharmacist Quotes 3

Being a Pharmacist is not easy as it looks. This challenging and demanding job needs loads and loads of experience and toiling hard everyday to achieve success. Thus being a pharmacist people took immense pride and as a result there are thousands and thousands of quotes that depicts how proud they are of their profession. Most of the quotes available do sketch the importance of how a Pharmacist works under immense pressure day and night and what a challenging role he has to face in dealing with its profession. It really gives a glimpse of the professional does and don’ts in many ways. Few of them comes in a funny backdrop with a real expression insight whereas some are pretty much straight forward and serious.

Proud To Be Pharmacist Quotes 1 Proud To Be Pharmacist Quotes 2

Proud To Be Pharmacist Quotes – Motivational Best pharmacist Quotes Proud To Be Pharmacist Quotes 3 Proud To Be Pharmacist Quotes 4 Proud To Be Pharmacist Quotes 5 Proud To Be Pharmacist Quotes 6

Few of the quotes truly gives a vibes of what are the reasons for which this professionals should be getting love and respect from us due to the huge effort they put in to help us fight with diseases and issues while other offers thanks and gratitude for the services that a pharmacist provides to the generally masses. All in all these quotes basically portray the nature of the trade and issues related to it.

Proud To Be Pharmacist Quotes

Proud To Be Pharmacist Quote 7

From the point of view of a common man, we must truly remain indebted to a pharmacist for the services he renders to us as one mistake of him can simply cost our life or prove to be immensely fatal. Proud to be a pharmacist quotes truly brings the best of the pharmacy professions. Most of them are truly hilarious and often make us burst into laughter, others are of serious mood and does contain an inner meaning that remains on the base. “Proud to be a pharmacist quotes” are something worth reading and enjoying.

Is It Easy To Get Pass Marks In B. Pharmacy? D Pharmacy ? M Pharmacy

Is It Easy To Get Pass Marks In B. Pharmacy?

Is It Easy To Get Pass Marks In B. Pharmacy?

Well, this question is to be answered in terms of relativity. This is because there is no benchmark of inference to conclude. To some, it may appear easy to some it may appear hard. Actually, in a broader sense, we can say that no course is easy or tough if you are willing to study it. Therefore to get pass marks would not be a matter of concern for you. In your formative years, if you have had good teachers, then you can develop interest. If you harbour an interest in a particular subject then it becomes easy for you. Mainly students having an inclination towards B group of science join the pharmacy stream. On this note, subjects such as remedial mathematics; biostatistics can be hard for some. Since it covers almost every field in science we can say it is one of the toughest courses. The ultimatum depends on someone’s hard work, dedication. The one who studies with passion can earn good marks and earning pass marks won’t be tough job for them. In fact, the teachers opine that it is somewhat difficult to fail in B. Pharmacy course. But if you are thinking that can you get pass marks by studying subjects of B. Pharmacy just prior exams, then the answer would undoubtedly be “No”. If you assume ‘easy’ means lesser portion, then also the answer would be no. It is a vast course with lengthy subjects.

Is It Easy To Get Pass Marks In B. Pharmacy? D Pharmacy 

Now according to the norms of the B. Pharmacy education in India, the criteria of a passing candidate are as follows:-

  • To pass the examination in any subject, minimum passing for any component (head) is 40%, subject to the condition of 50% aggregate requirement for semester passing.
  • Grade in each subject will be calculated based on the summation of marks obtained under each head of the examination of Sessional Theory, External Theory, Sessional Practical and External Practical. Theory and practical component of the same course shall be considered as a separate head.
  • If a candidate gets more than or equals 50% marks in all heads of the subject it is considered as pass.
  • If a student gets 40% in some heads/subjects but the aggregate is more than 50% than also student will be passed.Is It Easy To Get Pass Marks In B. Pharmacy?
  • If student aggregate is less than 50% but more than 40% in all heads, then overall semester result is failed. The student has to reappear in the exam to improve aggregate. The candidate can take the remedial exam in the subject with grade (CC/CD). One can take maximum subjects of three and fresh score will always be considered as the latest one.

How to Start Apollo Pharmacy Franchise Setup in India? Procedure Documents Licence

How to Start Apollo Pharmacy Franchise Setup in India? Procedure Documents Licences

Apollo Pharmacy Franchise Setup in India :Apollo Pharmacy is a division of Chennai-based major healthcare Apollo Hospitals Enterprises Ltd. With India’s first and largest branded pharmacy network with more than 740 key locations outlets, it is accredited with International Quality Qualification offering genuine medicines with 24 hours of service. Apollo Pharmacy VP Atul Ahuja said it would add 250 outlets every year and that it has grown between 30 to 35 per cent every year. The company had a turnover of 1,150 cores in the last financial year. He mentioned that it is feasible to have home delivery of medicines, but the law of the land says that the dispensing of the medicines have to be done by the qualified pharmacists. He further said dispensing has become a critical aspect in the pharmacy retail chain business, which includes transportation, warehousing in proper cold environment and distribution, which are managed at the back end.

Why franchising Apollo Pharmacy?

Franchising is witnessing a consistent demand from the metros and other cities. If you are really interested to own this franchise, you have to gain insight into the franchise setup of the pharmacy. On one hand, as the owner of an independent business, you leverage your entrepreneurial capabilities while working with a nationally recognized brand like Apollo minimizes your risks. On the other hand, all the knowledge and expertise required to successfully run the business is ensured from the pharmacy end. The entire work of supply chain management right from procuring to warehousing and sale at outlets is done by an experienced pharmacist. Every business oriented person is aware of the great possibilities of facing problems in his career. In spite of knowing this, every businessman takes the risk because he has the courage that he can eventually resolve them and he also knows the rewards awaiting him after that. The bright side of working under the canopy of a large organization would be over-emphasized and is huge in India.

Franchise Benefits

The Apollo Pharmacy franchise has more to share about franchising considering some basic matters first before proceeding to the requirements. As a franchisee of Apollo Pharmacy, you definitely become the gainer. Check out how you can be?

  • The biggest benefit you are going to get while you own a pharmacy franchise is the great discount of the products from the wholesalers.
  • Better access to the newest technologies and access to approved new drugs, partnerships with the biomedical distributors and major medical and more exposure of your business through various advertising.
  • Being a part of Apollo Clinics network spreading across the Asian sub-continent, you will be able to offer world-class services without consuming your fortune.
  • You will have access to years of healthcare domain knowledge and expertise. You can achieve your business goals with the help of Apollo Pharmacy franchise’s essential guidelines and information about the pharmacy and anything about franchising also.

How do I get Apollo pharmacy franchise?

The very first step in the business process all franchising companies and franchisee take generally is, filling out the application forms and agreement. The most vital requirement is the financial investment along with the other qualifications. When it is fulfilled you can proceed to the final step which the training. It is done on hands and sometimes with orientation. The company is supposed to provide sufficient training to know everything inside and outside of the pharmacy.

Strategies you should implement as an Apollo pharmacy franchise

How to Start Apollo Pharmacy Franchise Setup in India? Procedure Documents Licences

To any of the franchise, the Apollo Pharmacy is generous enough to share its core strategies on how to manage your pharmacy carefully. Usually, you will learn more about its strategies during your actual training. You have to implement those to really boom your setup but yes it’s also not that you really have to take every detail they share to you. The successful businessman doesn’t depend on everything to the strategy of the mother company and therefore you must also combine your own ways to keep your business expanding. Use and gather knowledge, detect your limitations and of the company as well your personal strengths and weaknesses to plan beforehand of every action you take. Remember that you will be opinionated judged still it is important to listen to your own voice as long as you are sure of the outcome no matter what others tell you.

Pharmacy Student Quotes – Proud to be Pharmacist Quotes

Pharmacy Student Quotes

Pharmacy student quotes are considered to be one of the finest and trickiest quotes out of all the others.  It not only depicts the true nature of the profession but also the real agony, issues, concerned related deep within the core.  It simplifies certainly aspect of the trade which does not surface but lives deep within.  These are basically double meaning quotes which the student uses to portray their sentiments and bring out their piece of mind at a given juncture of life.  There are thousands of pharmacy student quotes that can really have a deep inner meaning yet tricky.


These quotes often led us to few of the most concerning and targeted day to day features in relation to the use of drugs, medicines, hygiene and other aspects of life and the irony of how we accept each and every major aspects in relation to it.  It teaches and gives social values and advices which we do not pay attention to but are quite evident.  Some of the best pharmacy student quotes can simply convey a deep story within its core and a social message about what would be the right path to go forward.

Pharmacy Student Quotes

Using pharmacy student quotes is a very much in fashion today and would certainly increase with the advent of time and demand, but the most important aspect in relation to it lies in its use and the best possible way to put into daily life.  Quotes will simply remain as they are until and unless we know how and where to it in a proper way.  Sometimes its usage and application can be really challenging and brings out the true and natural value of life on this planet to us.  Pharmacy student quotes do have literary importance to us till date.


What Are The Causes Of Kidney Stones? Food Treatment Pain Relief for Kidney Stones

What Are The Causes Of Kidney Stones? Food Treatment Pain Relief for Kidney Stones

What Are The Causes Of Kidney Stones?

Today we are going to provide some essential information towards one of such problems that we find almost in every family history, i.e. kidney stones. Yes, it may not seem such a threat to you while reading or listening but it can lead to severe kidney complications including blockage of the ureter( kidney to the bladder passage) or any chronic kidney disease. A kidney stone causes Pain that changes as it shifts to a different location or increase in intensity as the stone moves through your urinary tract. Releasing kidney stones can be extremely painful at times. But the stones usually don’t harm permanently if they’re detected early. Until the stones move around within your kidney or pass into your ureter you may not experience severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs to the lower abdomen and groin, or on urination. Sometimes Nausea and vomiting occur and chilled fever if an infection is present.

Symptoms of Kidney Stones

Additionally, some other noticeable symptoms include:

  • Persistent need to urinate
  • Urinating more often than usual in small amounts
  • Pink, red or brown urine
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • Severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs
  • Pain that spreads to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
  • Pain on urination
  • Pink, red or brown urine
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Persistent urge to urinate
  • Urinating more often than usual
  • Fever and chills if an infection is present

What is Kidney Stone? Definition

Kidney stones have no definite, single cause to form. When the urine becomes concentrated the minerals crystallize and stick together to form stones. They can be as tiny as a grain of sand and pass unnoticed with the urine. The bigger sizes can block your urine flow and hurt a lot often being worse than childbirth. These crystalline structures can surprisingly grow to the size of a golf ball with sharp edges. The constant build-up of dissolved minerals on the inner lining of the kidneys results in Kidney stones. Usually, these consist of calcium oxalate yet may be composed of several other compounds.


Is it useful for us to know the types of kidney stones?

Indeed it is important to know as the risks vary accordingly the type of stones recognized. Calcium stones are the most common kidney stones usually in the form of calcium oxalate. High doses of vitamin D in the diet, metabolic disorders and even intestinal bypass surgery can increase the concentration of calcium or oxalate in urine. Calcium stones are associated with certain migraine headaches or with taking certain seizure medications and found as in the form of calcium phosphate. Another stone that forms in response to an infection may be a urinary tract infection is called as Struvite stones. These stones can grow quickly and become quite large, with few symptoms or little warning. Uric acid stones form in people those who have gout, who don’t drink enough fluids or who lose too much fluid, those who eat a high-protein diet. Cystine stones appear in people with a hereditary disorder where the kidneys excrete too much of certain amino acids (cystinuria).

How to Prevent Kidney Stones:


Several risk factors that cause Kidney stones:

What Are The Causes Of Kidney Stones? Food Treatment Pain Relief for Kidney Stones

Less Intake of Water

One of the leading causes of kidney stones is lack of water in the body. This is because lack of water is unable to dilute the uric acid, a component of urine that makes the urine more acidic. Make enough time to drink the recommended eight to ten glasses of water a day. Gulp down a citrus drink frequently. The citrate in lemons can prevent stones formation.

Diet Check

Sodium- It is present in table salt that can raise your chances of getting several types of kidney stones. So the next time, have a check on your salty snacks, canned foods, packaged meats, and other processed foods.

What Are The Causes Of Kidney Stones? Food Treatment Pain Relief for Kidney Stones

Animal protein- Excessive intake of red meat and shellfish raises the uric acid level in your body that makes a favourable environment for the stones to appear. On its accumulation in the joints swells gout and also the acid reaches the kidney to cause stones. Moreover, high protein raises calcium level and lowers the amount of citrate in urine, both of which support stones.

In these turbulent times of impurities in food what you eat has a big role to play. Oxalate is a chemical that is present in healthy foods and vegetables. If you have had calcium stones in the kidney and if you eat or drink calcium-rich foods at the same time your body handles the oxalate. Then oxalates from these two sources tend to bind in the gut instead of in the kidneys.

Gut Problems

People with inflammatory bowel disease like Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are very much vulnerable to stones and other kidney problem. Bowel problems bring you diarrhoea making you urinate less. Your body tends to absorb extra oxalate from the intestine that gets in your urine.


Double the chance is likely there to get a kidney stone if you’re obese. When your body mass index is 30 or more you are obese. Extreme obesity is reduced with weight loss surgery yet the surgery itself can cause stones. Regular exercise and fitness programs are inevitable for improving health.

Questions for you & your Doctor when you feel you have Kidney Stones:

Do I have a kidney stone?
What size is my kidney stone?
Where is my kidney stone located?
What type of kidney stone do I have?
Will I need medication to treat my kidney stone?
Will I need surgery or another procedure to treat my kidney stone?
What’s the chance that I’ll develop another kidney stone?
How can I prevent kidney stones in the future?
I have these other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?
Do I need to follow any restrictions?
Should I see a specialist? If so, does insurance typically cover the services of a specialist?
Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you’re prescribing me?
Do you have any educational material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?
Do I need a follow-up visit?

Food Treatment Pain Relief for Kidney Stones

Foods that cause kidney stones

High-oxalate foods can cause kidney stones. Many plants contain oxalate, so it’s hard to avoid it entirely. But some foods have much more than others. Try to limit:

Almonds and cashews
Miso soup
Baked potatoes with skin
Cocoa powder
Bran cereals and shredded wheat cereals
French fries
Stevia sweeteners
Sweet potatoes
If you eat or drink calcium-rich foods at the same time, they can help your body handle oxalate without turning it into a kidney stone. So pair your spinach salad with low-fat cheese. Or mix nuts or berries into yogurt. Drinking milk does not cause kidney stones.

Kidney stones treatment

Do you want to know now how kidney stones are treated? Lets elaborate the answer. Treatment is tailored according to the type of stone. Urine can be strained and stones collected for evaluation.Drinking six to eight glasses of water a day increases urine flow. People who are dehydrated or have severe nausea and vomiting may need intravenous fluids.

Other treatment options include:

Pain relief may require narcotic medications. The presence of infection requires treatment with antibiotics. Other medications include:

allopurinol (Zyloprim) for uric acid stones
sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate
phosphorus solutions
ibuprofen (Advil)
acetaminophen (Tylenol)
naproxen sodium (Aleve)
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy uses sound waves to break up large stones so they can more easily pass down the ureters into your bladder. This procedure can be uncomfortable and may require light anesthesia. It can cause bruising on the abdomen and back and bleeding around the kidney and nearby organs.

Tunnel surgery (percutaneous nephrolithotomy)
Stones are removed through a small incision in your back. This procedure and may be needed when:

the stone causes obstruction and infection or is damaging the kidneys
the stone has grown too large to pass
pain can’t be controlled
When a stone is stuck in the ureter or bladder, your doctor may use an instrument called a ureteroscope to remove it. A small wire with a camera attached is inserted into the urethra and passed into the bladder. The doctor then uses a small cage to snag the stone and remove it. The stone is then sent to the laboratory for analysis.

Other Medical Conditions

Some disorders in people encourage one or more types of kidney stones to exist. Certain genetic diseases like medullary sponge kidney, a birth defect that causes cysts to form in the kidneys. In Parathyroidism the parathyroid glands can pump out extra hormones increasing calcium levels in your blood resulting in stones. Type 2 diabetes makes the urine more acidic, which encourages stones. Gout helps in uric acid build up that releases in the blood and form crystals in the joints and the kidneys. These types of kidney stones tend to be large and very painful. Renal tubular acidosis causes too much acid to build up in the body.

Among the many causes, some can affect any part of your urinary tract — from your kidneys to your bladder accompanied with extreme pain. Based on your situation and urgency, you may need to decide medication or operation. It takes nothing more than to take pain medication and drink lots of water to pass a kidney stone. In other instances where stones blocking the urinary tract, are associated with urinary infection causing complications requiring a surgery. Hence, better late than never keep an eye on the kidney stones when you already know the causes of these harmful nuggets of the kidney.

Hope you find this content helpful in your awareness towards kidney stones.

Why Am I so Tired? Today’s Causes & Reasons of Fatigue || MEN WOMEN Tiredness

Why Am I so Tired? Today's Causes & Reasons of Fatigue || MEN WOMEN Tiredness

Why Am I so tired?

If you are feeling constantly tired all day around or waking up at the last possible second before heading towards work then you might wonder what is wrong. You would keep asking yourself why you are so tired but you are clueless but the actual answer is fatigue. More or less fatigue stands behind as the cause of all the tiredness we experience. As far as the medical conditions are concerned there can be mental fatigue as well as physical fatigue.  Fatigue and a lack of energy are a big problem for many people, but these problems can only be addressed if you know the cause. Why Am I so Tired? Today’s Causes & Reasons of Fatigue || MEN WOMEN Tiredness will give you answer.

In this article lets make you clear on your doubts. 

  • Why Am I So Tired Quiz?
  • Why Am I So Tired Lately Female?
  • Why Am I Always Tired And Have No Energy?
  • Why Am I So Tired Today?
  • Why Am I Always Tired And Cold?
  • I’m Always Tired And Have No Energy?
  • Always Sleepy No Matter How Much Sleep I Get?
  • Why Am I So Tired In The Morning?

Here are the possible reasons for tiredness:

Why Am I so Tired? Today's Causes & Reasons of Fatigue || MEN WOMEN Tiredness

  • Why Am I So Tired Lately Female?

Sleep Debt

To our surprise, it is one of the common reasons for feeling tired. You can feel it in many ways if you aren’t getting enough sleep at night. Many people due to their too busy schedules go through life feeling too stressed and do not get all of the sleep they need to feel refreshed. Getting under the recommended 8 hours of sleep especially if the debt builds each night is not only associated with fatigue, but also impaired performance, and a greater risk of accidents. Hence, a quality sleep is inevitable to subdue fatigue.

  • Why Am I So Tired In The Morning?

Static lifestyle

When tiredness sets in you only want to sit back and relax at your home without any activity.  While keeping a healthy routine of Exercising can help to increase energy and reduce tiredness.  Moving around may be the best thing you can do to re-energize and eradicate fatigue. Research by the University of Georgia (UGA) in Athens discovered that when sedentary individuals completed an exercise program regularly, their fatigue improved compared with those who did not. Various experts suggest that all adults need 2 hours and 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week and muscle-strengthening activities that work all the major muscle groups on 2 or more days per week. You can plan out your activity judiciously across the week for your wellness rather than spend time watching a movie.

  • Why Am I Always Tired And Have No Energy?

Medical conditions

Depression is an important cause of tiredness associated with a condition causing abnormalities by mood-regulating chemicals called neurotransmitters in the brain. Depressed people suffer from sleep disorders and energy level. They also have trouble waking up in the morning and sleep too long. Financial problems, relationship issues, major life events, and upheavals such as moving house, unemployment, and bereavement — the list of potential stressors is never-ending. In fight or flight situations the chemicals that our body produces are toxins that can’t be used up and, over time, can damage the health. Depression often makes people feel sluggish and apathetic.

  • Always Sleepy No Matter How Much Sleep I Get?

Anaemia lets your body either have a lower than the normal number of red blood cells or it doesn’t have enough haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is the substance responsible for carrying oxygen throughout your body. When you have not enough red blood cells or too little haemoglobin your body doesn’t get enough oxygen and you feel tired or weak. Iron deficiency alone, even without anaemia, is now thought to be a cause of chronic fatigue. Eating a healthy and balanced diet can make you feel the difference after adopting the habit.

Hypothyroidism is a disease where the thyroid gland does not function fully producing insufficient thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones control your metabolism and when its levels are low, you may have symptoms of tiredness, weight gain, and feeling cold. Thyroid disease is very common, especially in women, and affects several millions of women. Moreover, hypothyroidism can mimic depression symptoms making the condition much confusing.

  • Why Am I Always Tired And Cold?

Hepatitis induces inflammation of the liver backing for several possible reasons from infections to obesity. Many important functions in the body from breaking down toxins into manufacturing proteins that control blood clotting, to metabolizing and storing carbohydrates, and much more is done with the liver. With the inflammation of the liver, these important processes gradually come to a halt. Your body functions when halted tiredness rules you.

Heart disease, especially in the case of heart failure patients tend to feel tired always and are unable to tolerate exercise. This is because the heart loses its capacity to pump oxygenated blood to muscles and other tissues in the body effectively. It would be difficult to even carry out your daily chores, like walking or carrying your groceries inside out.

  • Why Am I So Tired Today?

Diabetes is a condition in which either the body doesn’t make enough insulin hormone produced by the pancreas or it is unable to use it the way it should. Insulin helps glucose get into the body’s cells to be used for energy production. Diabetes may cause you to feel tired all the time due to various reasons.

A disorder characterized by intense fatigue that becomes a Chronic Fatigue Syndrome when it does not improve with rest and which worsen by physical or mental exertion. It is unknown what causes this condition.

Besides all these, we have a handful of reasons such as urinary tract infection, food intolerance, glandular fever, pregnancy, vitamin and mineral deficiencies that counts for feeling tired more than usual.



Diagnostic tests

The diagnosis is done with the help of tests to confirm the underlying cause(s) of tiredness. Starting with blood tests, urine tests, imaging scans, mental health questionnaires may be necessary depending on other symptoms. Tests can help rule out physical causes, such as an infection, hormonal problems, anaemia, liver problems, or kidney problems. If any imbalance is diagnosed it would need attention and treatment such as controlling diabetes. The physician probably starts with a sleep study to rule out a sleeping disorder. To practice good sleep hygiene we have to aim to go to bed and wake up at the same time each day, even on off days to maintain a consistent routine. The environment of sleep has to be dark and quiet with the bedroom temperature at a comfortable level of 60 to 67°F (as per The National Sleep Foundation). Avoid the light and sounds from screens of a mobile phone, a TV or computer as it stimulates brain activity affecting sleep quality at least an hour before sleeping. Complete dinner within 90 minutes before going to bed. As bedtime approaches, physically and mentally slow down. Listening to some soothing music or a warm bath would refresh you and clear your mind of stressful and worrying thoughts before going to sleep. Keeping a sleep diary may also help.

How to set up a Pharmaceutical company ? Starting Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Industry

How to set up a pharmaceutical company

How to set up a Pharmaceutical company?

For every ambitious pharmacy professional setting up a Pharmaceutical company is a dream project to them. Most of them haven’t start own pharmaceutical venture due to lack of knowledge and courage to start their pharmaceutical firm. If you have experience in the niche there is nothing better than this. In the backdrop of encouragement given by the Government of India to start-up businesses, it becomes relatively easy. Here we will try to help you to start your own pharmaceutical company. The two basic types of pharmaceutical companies are Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Company & Pharmaceutical Marketing Company. Based upon their marketing, sale and work basis irrespective of marketing and/or manufacturing type the company can fall under any categories of

  • Generic
  • Franchise
  • Pcd
  • Branded/Ethical
  • Speciality company e.g. Derma, ophthalmic, cardiac etc
  • Export or Import
  • OTC
  • Distribution

According to Experts, primarily there are five steps to start any pharmaceutical company.

Out of the five steps, the first three are mandatory to start.

  1. Company Registration (in case of proprietorship you can skip this process)
  2. Wholesale Drug License Obtain Drug License Number
  3. Generate Goods and Service Tax Number
  4. Get the trademark registered
  5. FSSAI Registration (In case of selling Food and Dietary Supplements also)

Resources Requirements:

  • Well furnished Premises (Cemented floor and concrete roof, walls, etc)
  • Competent Person i.e. Pharmacist or Experience Person
  • Administration and Office Accessories
  • Electricity and Water Supply
  • Freeze and Air conditioner (optional)

Procedure and Sequence to proceed

  1. Write a Business Plan and find a Company Name
  2. Brand Names and Choice of molecules
  3. Design of Company Logo and Printing/Promotional Material
  4. Fix the infrastructure (place, premises and building) for setup
  5. Fund generation (own, loan, investment etc)
  6. Company Registration
  7. Trade Mark Registration (Optional)
  8. Wholesale Drug License (For both Marketing and Manufacturing Company)
  9. Manufacturing License (For Manufacturing Company)
  10. Goods and Service Tax Identification Number (GSTIN)
  11. FSSAI License (If required)
  12. Search for Vendors (For marketing Companies, Third Party/Contract Manufacturers or Loan license manufacturers. For Manufacturing Companies, Packing material suppliers, raw material & bulk drug suppliers and other requirements fulfillers)
  13. Finalize Packaging and Packing, Design Material for medicines boxes, label, foils etc
  14. Start manufacturing in the case of a manufacturing company
  15. Place order to a manufacturer on basis of third-party manufacturing/ contract manufacturing/ Loan Licensing in case of a marketing company. When the products are ready to sell, initiate marketing and promoting products.

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Important Steps in starting Pharmaceutical Company

How to set up a pharmaceutical company

Indulging in an established company/firm to gain experience in the pharmaceutical sector by serving them as an employee will give you some idea. Otherwise, opt for training according to your need if don’t have experience in the pharmaceutical sector. Location of Business is to be done prudently while searching for building/premises for office, licenses and stock. It may be rented or owned but there should be adequate space as per government norm. Get ready with the list of all molecule and combinations you want to manufacture and/or marketing. Be sure that your brand/molecule doesn’t duplicate any other company working in Market. You should try your best to choose a unique name for your firm though it may be tricky. Make sure you appoint Technical and competent staff who will take care the needful.

Healthcare and pharmaceutical sectors are showing a good growth, and starting pharmaceutical company could be a good choice as it seems that the future is bright. The process involves various steps. You need to gather resources and data from recognized and valid sources. The Internet makes the task much easier. Therefore, the early you start the business, the better it is.