Well, this question is to be answered in terms of relativity. This is because there is no benchmark of inference to conclude. To some, it may appear easy to some it may appear hard. Actually, in a broader sense, we can say that no course is easy or tough if you are willing to study it. Therefore to get pass marks would not be a matter of concern for you. In your formative years, if you have had good teachers, then you can develop interest. If you harbour an interest in a particular subject then it becomes easy for you. Mainly students having an inclination towards B group of science join the pharmacy stream. On this note, subjects such as remedial mathematics; biostatistics can be hard for some. Since it covers almost every field in science we can say it is one of the toughest courses. The ultimatum depends on someone’s hard work, dedication. The one who studies with passion can earn good marks and earning pass marks won’t be tough job for them. In fact, the teachers opine that it is somewhat difficult to fail in B. Pharmacy course. But if you are thinking that can you get pass marks by studying subjects of B. Pharmacy just prior exams, then the answer would undoubtedly be “No”. If you assume ‘easy’ means lesser portion, then also the answer would be no. It is a vast course with lengthy subjects.
Is It Easy To Get Pass Marks In B. Pharmacy? D Pharmacy
Now according to the norms of the B. Pharmacy education in India, the criteria of a passing candidate are as follows:-
To pass the examination in any subject, minimum passing for any component (head) is 40%, subject to the condition of 50% aggregate requirement for semester passing.
Grade in each subject will be calculated based on the summation of marks obtained under each head of the examination of Sessional Theory, External Theory, Sessional Practical and External Practical. Theory and practical component of the same course shall be considered as a separate head.
If a candidate gets more than or equals 50% marks in all heads of the subject it is considered as pass.
If a student gets 40% in some heads/subjects but the aggregate is more than 50% than also student will be passed.
If student aggregate is less than 50% but more than 40% in all heads, then overall semester result is failed. The student has to reappear in the exam to improve aggregate. The candidate can take the remedial exam in the subject with grade (CC/CD). One can take maximum subjects of three and fresh score will always be considered as the latest one.
D. Pharmacy Interview Questions & Answers for Freshers: Just like any other Pharmacy degree D. Pharmacy candidates also can seek jobs in the department of pharmacy. They are generally recruited as pharmacy technicians and interns to start with any firm. Also, some of the fresher D. Pharmacy candidates choose to work as an assistant to the Pharmacists at private stores. In case you are a recent D. Pharmacy graduate, you must spend some time going over the answers to habitually asked questions at a job interview, before you meet your potential employer. Therefore one can expect much more general questions than the core technical questions asked in the interview rounds of higher pharma degrees. But definitely, it would be good enough if you can brush up the syllabus of the D. Pharmacy curriculum and be ready to answer some of the subject-wise questions. As you are going to start the job as a learner so don’t fret over about the interviews, you just need to have the right attitude and confidence that you would be able to fulfil your role. Use the opportunity to learn as much as possible while working in the company. But after all, you are to clear the interview to get that breakthrough in your field. When it comes to facing an interview, it is normal to feel a little apprehensive. However, preparing for the interview helps to overcome your nervousness and boosts your confidence that helps you make a good impression. Even you do not crack at first there is so much to gain in terms of experience. You become wiser and careful for the previous mistakes that you did while appearing in the interview. Also, you get seasoned to face the interview board being freed of nervousness. Either way, you are the gainer with time. One important tip for the Pharmacy freshers would be to never lose any interview opportunity over thinking on it or procrastinating. The sooner you get trained as a fresher the sooner will be your progress.
D. Pharmacy Interview Questions & Answers for Freshers
Here are a few pharmacy fresh graduates’ interview questions that your interviewer is most likely to ask and go through these on how to answer them:
What duties a pharmacy technician is required to carry out?
Ans: A Pharmacy technician needs to be an expert at what he’s doing, given that, there is absolutely no room for mistakes when preparing medicines according to doctor’s orders. Duties comprise of: filling prescriptions, making medications as per the pharmacist’s orders, maintaining records of each prescription given out, collecting payment, assessing the insurance status before each prescription is handed out and maintaining sanitized and hygienic storage conditions.
What are the most important qualities for a pharmacy technician?
Ans: You should think about the skills needed to be a successful pharmacy technician that you also possess. “The most important necessity is to be detail-oriented. It’s crucial to be attentive when handling prescription medicine because the smallest oversight could be fatal. Maintaining a certain level of professionalism is the key as well because we represent the company and the customer should feel comfortable trusting us with their medication.”
Where do you see yourself in 5 years?
Ans: Before a company invests time in a new employee, they need to know whether the candidate will be committed to the job and whether he intends to be there long-term. Here you must talk about how you see yourself with the company based on the company’s specific characteristics and attributes in 5 years and how will stay abreast with the latest developments in your line of work.
Why do you want to work for our company?
Ans: Make sure that you research the company profile before you go for the interview and give special consideration to its values and goals. You will have to style your reply based on the company’s features, and show them why you suppose you would be great for the position.
How would you handle a difficult customer?
With this question, the interviewer is getting a sense of your communication skills and how you handle conflict.
Ans: “Customer service is an integral part of being a pharmacy technician. I wouldn’t take anything they say personally and do my best to resolve the situation. I would listen to their complaints, apologize, and try my hardest to satisfy the customer. My goal is for them to leave happy and continue doing business with us.”
Why did you choose pharmacy technician as a career?
The interviewer is curious about your motivation for becoming a pharmacy technician. Explain your reasoning for entering the field. Focus on the profession, not the “perks”.
Ans: “When I was in high school, my grandmother became extremely ill. Through her healing process, I saw the power of medicine. I started looking into how to become a pharmacy technician. It sparked a passion in me to pursue a career in healthcare in order to help my community. Also, I love how the field is constantly growing and evolving.”
“I always wanted to be a part of the healthcare industry and wished to be of service to the community”.
What is your greatest weakness?
This question can blindside you if you aren’t prepared.
Ans: You can mention a weak point that you have been working to improve. Or another option is spinning a negative into a positive. “I can be a little obsessive about triple checking everything. However, my reason for doing so is because I know there is no room for mistakes as a worker. I prefer to be that way so that I am reassured my work contains no errors.”
What is the significance of confidentiality in your profession?
Ans: Keeping the patient’s information undisclosed is very essential, given that as a pharmacy technician I have complete access to a customer’s private details. It is imperative for me to keep all information confidential because it is morally wrong toreveal information which thepatient has trusted me with.
What do you think is the most important business aspect of being a pharmacist?
Ans: Providing great patient care is probably the best thing you can do for the business side of pharmacy. Patients who feel they receive great care and have a pharmacist who is knowledgeable and cares about them individually will continue to frequent that pharmacy.
What was your favorite subject while in pharmacy school? What subject did you struggle with most?
Ans: Pharmacy is a job that requires a lot of responsibility, so pharmacists should truly enjoy what they do. This question asked applicants what they did and didn’t like about their studies to see if they enjoyed the overall experience of studying pharmacy. They will look for your Self-awareness your commitment to the pharmacy profession and your honesty in struggling with the subject.While pharmacy is about helping patients, it’s still a business. This question gives the candidate an opportunity to explain more broadly how they think about the business of pharmacy. What to look for:
Andhra Pradesh (AP) is India’s fourth largest state by geographic area of 275,045 km2 and fifth largest by the population as per record. Hyderabad is the capital and largest city of the state with a robust economy. One of India’s primary destinations for investment in industry and human capital is nothing but Hyderabad. Due to the establishment of the large IT cluster in AP, there are some major investments in infrastructures of educational institutes. The state gets benefits from a highly educated workforce belonging to the science, commerce and technological backgrounds. AP has numerous educational institutions, including over 1,300 arts, science, and commerce colleges. Over 1,000 MBA and MCA schools, 226 engineering colleges, 53 medical schools, and one Indian Institute of Technology (in Hyderabad) exist there with prestige. Also, a large number of institutes prevailing in AP is focused on life sciences and pharmacy courses.
Every year 35,000 skilled graduates, including 81,000 engineers and 10,000 management professionals emerge from AP. Overall the state contributes to 23% of all of India’s technology professionals. Additionally, the renowned institutes like the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology and the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology; dedicatedly working in the field life sciences has a huge impact towards the pharmaceutical industry of the state and of the country. To strengthen the pharmaceutical industry the Healthcare institutions have also been supportive.
Here we will check out some such approved colleges that provide D. Pharmacy course in AP.
D Pharmacy Colleges In Andhra Pradesh Telangana
Aurobindo College of Pharmacy, Gangadevipally, Machapur, Geesugonda, Warangal-506 331
Adarsa College of Pharmacy, G.Kothapalli, East Godavari-533 285.
Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, New Boinpally, Rajampet, Kadapa (D.T.) – 516126.
Balaji Institute of Pharmacy. Laknepalli, Narsampet, Warangal-506 331.
Bapatla College of Pharmacy, Bapatla, Guntur-522 101.
Bojjam Narsimhulu College of Pharmacy for Women, Vinaynagar, 17-1-383, Saidabad, Hyderabad -500 059.
Care College of Pharmacy, Oglapur, Atmakur, Warangal-506 006.
of Ph.Sciences, P.G courses “Maharajah College”, Phoolbagh, Vizianagaram.
Samuel George Institute of Ph.Sciences, Markapur, Prakasam(D.T.)
Pulla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Mehdipatnam, Hyderabad-500 028.
Government Polytechnic for Women, K M C(P.O), Warangal-506 007.
Government Polytechnic for Women, Srikakulam-522 005
Government Polytechnic for women, Guntur-522 006
Government Polytechnic for Women, Hindupur-515 202
Government Polytechnic for Women, Kadapa – 516002.
Government Polytechnic for Women, Kakinada-533 003
Government Polytechnic for Women, Nizamabad-503 001.
Government Polytechnic, Masabtank, Hyderabad-500 028
Government Polytechnic, Visakhapatnam.
D Pharmacy Colleges In Telangana
Gokaraju Rangaraju College of Pharmacy, Bachupally, Miyapur, Hyderabad-500 050
Hindu College of Pharmacy, Amaravathi Road, Guntur-522002.
J.College of Ph.Sciences, Maheswaram, Rangareddy-501 359.
Janagaon Inst of Ph.Sciences, Yeshwanthpur, Janagaon, Warangal
K L R Pharmacy College, Paloncha, Khammam (D.T.)-507115.
Chandrakala & Beelamkonda Venkateswarlu College of Pharmacy, Burripalem Road, Nelapadu, Tenali-522 201.
D.R Government Polytechnic, Wanaparthy, Mahabubnagar-509103.
Kamala Jaya Rao College of Pharmacy, Burugupudi, Korukonda, Rajahmundry -533 292.
Kamala Nehru Polytechnic for Women, Exhibition Grounds, M j j Road, Nampally, Hyderabad-500 001.
Koringa College of Pharmacy, Korangi, Tallarevu, East Godavari -533 461.
Harwards College of Pharmacy, K.Perumallapuram, East Godavari
Maharajah’s College of Pharmacy, Phoolbagh, Vizianagaram-534 002.
Malineni Lakshmaiah College of Pharmacy, Kanumalla, Singarayakonda, Prakasam-523 101.
Nalanda College of Pharmacy, P.O. Charlapally, Hyd.Road, Nalgonda-508 001.
Nirmala Coll of Pharmacy, Atmakur, Mangalagiri, Guntur -522 503
Nirmala College of Pharmacy, 3/166-A, Madras Road, Puttlampalli, Buddayapalli, Kadapa-516 002.
Vaageswari College of Pharmacy, Beside L.M.D Police Station, Ramakrishna Colony, Karimnagar-505 481.
The major hospital chains of AP include Apollo, Care, Global, Yashodha, Kamineni, Indo-American Cancer Institute, LV Prasad Eye Institute, and the Nizams Institute of Medical Sciences. These hospital chains are not only customers for the pharmaceutical industry but also assist with clinical research for new medications. It is certainly the time to capitalise the available resources to transform the State into a booming economic zone.
According to the Andhra Pradesh Economic Development Board (APEDB) GITAM Biotech Centre of Excellence, AP comprises rich resources and there is a need to develop the expertise to meet the growing demand in biotechnology. In a conference held by APEDB, its Vice-Chairman Lanka Srinivas said that 50% of the research in pharmacy is based on biotechnology and that the country will play a key role in the field in the coming years. Hope you liked this D Pharmacy Colleges In Andhra Pradesh Telangana A.P – D Pharm Educational Institutes article.
D Pharmacy Colleges in Maharashtra: The pharmacy profession and education have undergone a sea change as a provider of healthcare services in India post-independence. Although there has been a growing strength of pharmacy workforce in our country, the curriculum failed to meet the international standards. To promote excellence and uniformity in pharmacy education, the Pharmacy Council of India has formed a national task force for pharmacy education. Presently, the pharmacy education in India consists of a variety of courses, namely Diploma in Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy, Master of Pharmacy, and Master of Science in Pharmacy, Master of Technology in Pharmacy, Doctor of Pharmacy, and Doctor of Philosophy in Pharmacy. When we mention about Maharashtra it is the second most populated state of India. It is a home to core drug-makers that accounts for more than 18 per cent of medicines manufactured in India.
The state currently has 437 pharmacy institutes, offering diploma, graduation and master’s courses to aspirants. Here we are going to present the pharmacy education at diploma level and the institutes in Maharashtra that provide the academics.
D Pharmacy Colleges in Maharashtra – Pharma Diploma Mumbai Nagpur Pune
D Pharmacy College
Diploma in Pharmacy College
Adv V. R. Manohar Institute of Diploma in Pharmacy
07104 236 351
D.GAVIT Diploma in Pharmacy College
02564 230 017
E.S College of Pharmacy (D.Pharm) Limb
02162 268 763
Dagadojirao Deshmukh D. Pharmacy College
Shri D. Pharmacy College
Dagadojirao Deshmukh D. Pharmacy College
02383 225 522
Vamanrao Ithape D Pharmacy College
02425 259 397
Gandhi Natha Rangaji College of D Pharmacy
0217 262 1166
Adarsh Institute of Pharmacy (D.Pharm.)
02347 276 033
Dagadojirao Deshmukh D. Pharmacy College
02383 225 522
Diploma in Pharmacy in Nagpur
Bhausaheb Mulak College of D. Pharmacy
07116 244 600
Gandhi Natha Rangaji College of D-Pharmacy
0217 232 7040
Bhausaheb Mulak College of D. Pharmacy
Shri Dhaneshwari Manav Vikas Mandal’s, Diploma In Pharmacy Institute
Y.S. Khedkar College of D. Pharmacy
0240 248 2262
Shree Pushpasen Sawant College of D-Pharmacy
02362 229 022
MGV’s Institute of Pharmacy (D. Pharmacy)
02554 252 562
Kakasaheb Mhaske College of Pharmacy
0241 277 9430
Government College of Pharmacy, Karad
02164 271 196
College of Pharmacy (D. Pharm)
B.K.W.T D. Pharmacy College
02435 228 011
Vivek Vardhani Sevabhavi sanstha College Of Pharmacy (D.Pharm)
Siddhivinayak College of Pharmacy
07176 202 502
D-Pharmacy Institute Sangulwadi
Rasiklal M Dhariwal College of Pharmacy
020 2745 7683
D.Gavit D.Pharmacy College
Nandurbar, Patharai, Maharashtra
BCYRCS Institue of Diploma in Pharmacy
0712 271 5443
Adarsh Shikshan Prasarak Manals D. Pharmacy Institute
Swargiya Lilawati Satish Awhad D. Pharmacy
Hokarna Campus, Mukhed, Maharashtra
D. Pawar College of Pharmacy
Vidarbha Institute of Pharmacy
D Pharmacy colleges in MUMBAI
MET Institute of Pharmacy
1800 22 0234
SHARADCHANDRIKA SURESH PATIL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (D.PHARMACY)
S.P. Institute of Diploma in Pharmacy
07109 287 094
Satara College of Pharmacy, Degaon, Satara
02162 275 164
Shree Santkrupa Shikshan Sanstha’s College of Pharmacy (D. Pharm)
Ghogaon Chormarwadi, Maharashtra
Rajesh Bhaiyya Tope College of D. Pharmacy
Nipani-Bhalgaon, Aurangabad, Maharashtra
PRES College of Pharmacy (D.Pharm)
Shivgita Institute of Diploma in Pharmacy
Shriram Shikshan Sanstha’s College Of Pharmacy
02185 274 177
Shri Amolak Jain Vidya Prasarak Mandal Pharmacy College
02441 239 378
Government Polytechnic College
0257 222 1721
Adarsh Shikshan Sansthas College of Pharmacy
Sharadchandra Pawar College of Pharmacy
G.Sapkal College of Pharmacy
02594 220 163
Manohar Naik Institute of Pharmacy
National Pharmacy Academy
Mumbai ghatkopar East, Maharashtra
Shree Sant Muktabai Institute of Technology Jalgaon
Institute of Pharmacy (Maharashtra Cosmopolitan Education Society)
020 2645 2040
Pataldhamal Wadhwani college of Pharmacy,Yavatmal
KYDSCT’s College of Pharmacy
02582 255 125
Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy & Technology Management
022 4233 2000
Bhartiya Education Society Institute of Pharmacy
02194 222 848
Kamala Nehru Polytechnic (Phar)
0240 238 0077
Mumbai Education Trust College of Pharmacy
022 3955 4230
Dwarka Institute of Pharmacy
Rajarambapu College of Pharmacy
02342 238 200
Bajiraoji Karanjekar College of Pharmacy
07186 237 199
Dhule Charitable Society’s Institute Of Pharmacy
ANURAG COLLEGE OF PHARMACY
WARTHI, BHANDARA (M.S.)
07184 286 146
Mula Rural Institute Of Pharmacy, Sonai
Ali-Allana College of Pharmacy, Akkalkuwa
02567 252 815
Priyadarshani Yashodhara College of Pharmacy
07172 251 613
Shri Gulabrao Deokar Institute of Pharmacy & Research Center
0257 223 4397
Womens College of Pharmacy
0230 247 1361
Sitabai Thite College of Pharmacy, Shirur
02138 222 688
Kamla Nehru College of Pharmacy
07104 326 699
Rajgad Dnyanpeeth’s College of Pharmacy
02113 222 841
Parikrama Diploma in Pharmaceutical Sciences
02487 232 119
Eklavya College of Pharmacy
02352 222 203
Vasantidevi Patil Institute of Pharmacy
Kodoli, Kolhapur, Maharashtra
Tatyasaheb Kore College of Pharmacy
02328 223 501
Premlila Vithaldas Polytechnic College
022 2660 8676
G. Sapkal Institute of Pharmacy (D. Pharmacy)
02594 221 005
D. Patil Institute of Pharmacy
Urun Islampur, Maharashtra
02342 226 653
B.N.M. D. PHARMACY COLLEGE ALANI
JES’s College of Pharmacy
02564 232 669
Gulabrao Patil College of Pharmacy
0233 221 2560
Sant Gajanan Maharaj Rural Pharmacy College
02327 216 084
SSJP College of Pharmacy (D.Pharm)
Annasaheb Dange College of D. Pharmacy
02342 241 127
Central India Institute of Pharmacy
Jalna Education Society Institute of Pharmacy, Jalna
02482 236 214
Naikwadi Vaidyakiya Seva Sanstha’s Dr. Naikwadi College of D. Pharmacy
Nashik, Nimgaon Sinner, Maharashtra
Maharashtra College of Pharmacy Nilanga
02384 242 093
DY Patil College of Pharmacy
Akurdi Pune, Maharashtra
020 2765 6141
Target D.Pharmacy Institute
Rajarshi Shahu Chhatrapati Institute of Pharmacy
0231 264 2921
Samarth B.Ed & D.PHARMACY College
Venutai Chavan Pharmacy College
02166 224 499
Babasaheb Ambedkar Institute of D-Pharmacy
B. S. P. M`s. College of Pharmacy
02161 270 710
Shree P.E. (Tatya) Patil Institute Of Pharmacy Jalgaon
0257 235 2564
Bhagirathi Yashwantrao Pathrikar College of D Pharmacy
J.J.Magdum Trust’s, Anil Alias Pintu Magdum Memorial Pharmacy College
02322 221 929
VJSM D PHARMACY COLLEGE
02132 263 264
Jayawantrao Sawant Institute of Pharmacy
020 2697 0890
Pharmacy Education in near future
In fact, it would be a healthy change in terms of education to incorporate the addition of new institutes and closure of existing ones. It is in accordance with the recent trends in professional education to cope up with unemployment and futuristic economy in the land. At a time when technical courses such as engineering, management and computer application are witnessing a dip in enrolment, the demand for pharmacy courses is on the rise. The technical education body needs to be cautious while increasing the intake of pharmacy courses. According to the experts, the stream of pharmacy has emerged as an alternative to medicine, as the latter has a limited intake and is increasingly becoming unaffordable to a large section of the population. Students who cannot get admission in medical courses opt for pharmacy. This is an agreeable fact to accept that even when we went through the recession, the healthcare sector didn’t suffer any loss. The pharmaceutical sector is thriving because there is a rise in lifestyle diseases and as long as there is life the pharmacy will exist.
Information regarding D Pharma & B Pharma Entrance Examination in different states and universities in India are provided here
D Pharmacy Entrance exams List
Pharmacy is the science that deals with the preparation of drugs and its dosages. Currently, studying pharmacy courses are one of the top choices opted by students across the country. After engineering and medical, the most sought-after courses after Intermediate is none other than pharmacy. Those who have completed their class 12th exam with Physics, Chemistry and Biology / Mathematics are eligible for D. Pharmacy courses. The exam is held for those candidates who want to get admission in the polytechnic course of pharmacy called Diploma in Pharmacy which comes under the undergraduate course. A number of entrance examinations are conducted by the Central and the State Govt for pursuing D. Pharm course. Thus the applicants are required to clear any of the national, state or university level examinations organized by the respective authorities. One can expect the exams very competitive as millions of students appear to prove their merit through these entrance tests. Generally, these exams are scheduled after class 12 boards.
List of B Pharmacy Entrance Examination
In India, various universities and colleges offer D. Pharmacy, B. Pharmacy, M. Pharmacy programs along with other courses in this field. The colleges where one can pursue Pharmacy programs vary from Govt colleges, private and aided institutions. After the entrance examinations, the seats of these colleges are filled up according to the national and state ranks of the students. The best colleges in the country take up the highest ranking students. This is because the main purpose of the Pharmacy Entrance Exams is to select the most capable candidates amongst the other to grant enrolment into the Pharmacy colleges all over the country. Below are the names of the entrance examinations conducted by the different bodies of the state, national and university level.
B Pharmacy & D Pharmacy Entrance Examination List
WBJEE Pharmacy (West Bengal Joint Entrance Examination Pharmacy)
UPSEE Pharmacy (Uttar Pradesh State Entrance Examination Pharmacy)
UP-CPMT (Uttar Pradesh Combined Pre Medical Test)
NMAT-P (SVKM’S Narsee Monjee Institute Of Management Studies (NMIMS), Mumbai)
AU AIMEE (Annamalai University All India Medical Entrance Exam)
Punjab MBBS (Punjab MBBS/BDS Admissions)
Rajasthan MBBS (Rajasthan MBBS/BDS Admissions)
RPET Pharmacy (Board Of Technical Education, Rajasthan)
PUNJAB CET (Punjab Technical University,Jalandhar)
KLEU-AIET (KLE University All India Entrance Test)
Bihar MBBS (Bihar MBBS/BDS Admissions)
BITSAT Degree (BITS Admission Test)
MT CET Pharmacy (Maharashtra Pharmacy Common Entrance Test)
GAT UGTP (Gitam Admission Test)
CENTAC JET Pharmacy (Government Of Puducherry Centralized Admission Committee)
GUJCET Pharmacy (Gujarat Common Entrance Test Pharmacy)
VYAPAM PEPT (Madhya Pradesh Professional Examination Board, MP)
EAMCET Pharmacy (Engineering, Agriculture and Medical Common Entrance Test)
OLET (Haryana State Counseling Society OLET)
TNPCEE (Tamilnadu Professional Courses Entrance Examination)
The students carrying interest in chemistry and bio-medical subjects can opt for Pharmacy courses after completing their 12th or equivalent exam. Still before opting for these programs students going through the career counselling will be the best method to choose the field of interest. That would help him/her in future aspects of career and towards the contribution in society as well.
Hope you would find this article useful for those who are sarching for Information regarding D Pharma & B Pharma Entrance Examination in different states and universities in India.
Hello readers, Here today we present 10 Basic Definitions Every Pharmacy Student Must Know. This Pharmacology Notes will help all the B Pharm D Pharm Students.
Pharmacology is the study of interaction of drugs with living organisms. It also includes history, source, physicochemical properties, dosage forms, methods of administration, absorption, distribution mechanism of action, biotransformation, excretion, clinical uses and adverse effects of drugs.
2. Clinical Pharmacology:
It evaluate the pharmacological action of drug preferred route of administration and safe dosage range in human by clinical trails.
Drugs are chemicals that alter functions of living organisms. Drugs are generally given for the diagnosis, prevention, control or cure of disease.
It is the science of identification, selection, preservation, standardisation, compounding and dispensing of medical substances.
The study of the biological and therapeutic effects of drugs (i.e, “what the drug does to the body”).
Study of the absorption, distribution metabolism and excretion (ADME) of drugs (“i.e what the body does to the drug”).
It deals with the proper selection and use of drugs for the prevention and treatment of disease.
It’s the science of poisons. Many drugs in larger doses may act as poisons. Poisons are substances that cause harmful, dangerous or fatal symptoms in living substances.
It’s the effect of drugs upon microorganisms, parasites and neoplastic cells living and multiplying in living organisms.
An official code containing a selected list of the established drugs and medical preparations with descriptions of their physical properties and tests for their identity, purity and potency e.g. Indian Pharmacopoeia (I.P), British Pharmacopoeia(B.P).
Hello readers, hope you got these 10 Basic Definitions of Pharmacy . This Pharmacology Notes will help all the B Pharm D Pharm Students to get the basic idea of general pharma definitions.
Here is a great article for our readers especially D Pharmacy 1st Year B Pharm First Sem students who are struggling to learn Anatomy & Physiology Subjects. Hence we provide Notes as Solved Question Paperwhich are very important for your examinations.
Give functions of mitochondria & endoplasmic reticulum. (1 mark each)
Mitochondria is known as power house of cell. They are involved in cellular respiration, the process by which chemical energy is made available in the cell. When nutrients and oxygen come in contact with the oxidative enzymes of mitochondria, they combine to form CO2, water & energy, this is in the form of ATP. (aerobic oxidation)
Endoplasmic reticulum are of two types. Smooth and rough. Smooth ER synthesizes lipids and steroid hormones and associated with detoxification of drugs. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes. It is a site of synthesis of proteins that are exported from
iii) White fibrous tissue iv) Yellow elastic tissue
Specialised connective tissue: i) Bone ii) Cartilage
Vascular tissue: i) Blood ii) Lymphoid tissue
c) What are true ribs & false ribs? ( 2 marks)
There are 12 pairs of ribs. Anteriorly, the first seven pairs of ribs are attached to the sternum via costal cartilage & are known as true ribs. The next three ribs are attached indirectly via seventh rib & known as false ribs
d) Write composition of blood. (2 marks)
It is composed of a liquid matrix plasma (55%) & different cells suspended in it (45%).
SA node(sinoatrial node) This is small mass of specialized neuromuscular cells in the walls of myocardium of right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava. It is known as pacemaker of the heart as it initiates the impulses.
AV node- (atrioventricular node): This is the mass of neuromuscular cells in the wall of the atrial septum near the AV valves. Normally it conducts the impulses that are originated by SA node. It is known as secondary pace maker as it generates the impulses when there is problem with SA node.
g) Give the functions of CSF. (4 functions, 2 marks)
To support & protect brain & spinal
Maintain uniform pressure around
Acts as cushion & shock absorber
Keeps brain & spinal cord
h) Define (any two) (each 1 mark)
Presbyopia: As a process of aging, the lens loses its elasticity; the distant objects are seen clear but close objects are
Cataract: This is opacity of lens which may be age related or congenital bilateral or unilateral.
Hypermetropia: Also known as farsightedness. Far vision is normal but close vision is blurred, because the near image is focused behind the retina as eye ball length is too short or due to flattened
i) Write the functions of hypothalamus. ( 2 marks)
It controls the hormone release from pituitary
Control of autonomic nervous system, appetite & satiety, thirst, body , emotions, sexual behavior & biological clock.
j) Name any two cranial nerves with their function. (Any 2, 2 marks)
Olfactory – sense of smell
Optic – sense of light/vision
Occulomotor – movement of the eyeball, change shape of lens, Constriction of pupil, raising the upper lid.
Trochlear – movement of the eye
Trigeminal – receives impulses of pain temp. & touch for face & head, stimulates muscle of mastication
Abducent – abduction of eye ball
Facial – conveys impulse from taste buds & supplies muscles of facial expression
Auditory (vestibulocochlear) – conveys impulses to the cerebellum for posture &
Balance & sense of hearing
Glossopharyngeal – Sense of taste, production of saliva and movement of
Vagus – Secretion, movement in organs
Accessory – Movements of head, shoulder, pharynx and larynx
Hypoglossal – Supplies to the muscle of tongue & muscle surrounding the hyoid bone & helps in swallowing & speech.
k) What are auditory ossicles? (1 mark) Write their function. (1 mark)
Auditory ossicles: Malleus, incus & stapes are the three small bones in the middle ear extending from tympanic membrane to the oval window. Sound vibrations of tympanic membrane are amplified & transmitted by these bones.
l) What is B.P.? Name the factors affecting B.P. (def 1 mark and any 4 factors 1 mark)
B.P is the force or lateral pressure which the blood exerts on the wall of blood vessels. Factors affecting B.P. are exercise, nutrition, age, stress, circulating hormones, autonomic nervous system activity.
Q2. Solve any four of the following: 12
Define respiration. Write the process of external respiration. (def 1 mark, explanation 2 marks)
Respiration is a process of supply of oxygen present in atmosphere into the body & excretion for carbon dioxide.
External respiration- (cycle of breathing)
The normal human has 12-15 breath per min. Each breath consists of inspiration, expiration & pause.
Inspiration: The simultaneous contraction of intercostal muscles & diaphragm increases the capacity of thoracic cavity. This reduces the pressure in the lungs. To equalise the pressure the air from atmosphere enters the lungs. The process of inspiration is active as it needs energy for muscle contraction. It lasts for 2 sec.
Expiration: Relaxation of intercostal muscles & diaphragm results in decrease in the space in the lungs. As a result, the pressure inside the lungs increases as compared to atmospheric pressure. The air from the lungs is expelled from the lungs. This process is passive as does not require energy. The expiration lasts for 3 sec. After expiration there is pause & then the next cycle begins.
b) Write steps involved in urine formation. Describe selective reabsorption. (steps 1 mark, explanation 2 marks)
There are three processes of urine formation:
Selective reabsorption is the process by which the composition and volume of the glomerular filtrate is altered during its passage through the convoluted tubules, Loop of Henle and the collecting tubule. The purpose of this process is to reabsorb those constituents of the filtrate which are essential to the body, maintain the fluid and electrolyte balance and the alkalinity of blood.
Some constituents of the glomerular filtrate e.g. glucose; vitamins and amino acids get completely reabsorbed into the blood. These substances are called high- threshold substances.
Low-threshold substances like urea, uric acid are absorbed slightly.
Some substances e.g. creatinine are not at all absorbed.(no-threshold substances) Parathormone from parathyroid gland & calcitonin from thyroid gland regulate reabsorption of calcium & phosphate,
ADH from posterior pituitary increases the permeability of the tubule & increases water reabsorption.
Aldosterone by adrenal cortex increases reabsorption of sodium.
c)What is muscle tone? Give the functions of muscle. (muscle tone 1 mark, functions 2 marks)
Muscle tone is a sustained partial muscle contraction that allows maintenance of posture of the body.
Functions of the muscles are-
Skeletal muscles contract & help the movement of the body & stability of the joint. It also helps in generation of heat.Intercostal muscles help in respiration.
Smooth muscles helps contraction & relaxation of blood vessels & controls blood flow & movement of the food in the alimentary
Cardiac muscles help in the functioning of
d)Give the composition & function of gastric juice. (comp. 1 mark, functions 2 marks)
Composition of gastric juice:
Water, mineral salt, mucus, HCl, intrinsic factor, pepsinogen Functions of gastric juice-
Water liquifies the food.
HCl acidifies the food & stops the action of salivary
HCl kills the
Pepsinogen is activated to pepsin by HCl. This digests protein to smaller
Intrinsic factor absorbs vit. B12 from small
Mucus prevents mechanical injury to the stomach
e) Name hormones of adrenal cortex & mention their functions. (names 1 mark, functions 2 marks)
Adrenal cortex produces three groups of hormones namely glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoid & androgens.
Glucocorticoids: Cortisol or hydrocortisone is the main glucocorticoid. Others are corticosterone & cortisone.
They regulate metabolism like gluconeogenesis, lipolysis and proteolysis. Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone.) It regulates water & electrolyte balance. It increases the reabsorption of Na ions.
Androgens: The compounds secreted are insignificant to show any action.
f) Define reproduction. Name the different reproductive organs of male reproductive system. (def 1 mark, organs 2 marks)
Reproduction is the process of formation of offspring OR It is defined as process by which genetic material is passed from one generation to another & thus maintains continuation of species.
The male reproductive system consists of the following organs:
Urethra & Penis
Q3. Solve any four of the following: 12
Give differences between striated and smooth muscles. (any 6 points, 3 marks)
It is also known as striated Muscle
Non‐ striated muscle
It is less extensible
It is more extensible
The fibres (cell) are cylindrical and has
The cells are spindle shaped
with only one central nucleus
They are under the control of our will. (voluntary)
They are not under the
control of our will.(involuntary)
The fibrous tissue enclosing
the whole muscle extends beyond the fibres to become the tendon which attaches the muscle to the bone or skin.
Bundles of fibres form sheets of muscle.
There is distinct sarcolemma
No distinct sarcolemma
Present in tongue, arms or hands, legs,
Present in oesophagus, stomach,
b) Define: ( 1 mark each)
Gout: Inflammation of joints due to deposition of sodium urate crystals in the joints.
Arthritis: Chronic disease that results in pain and restricted movement of
Sprain: Joint injury in which some of the fibres of supporting ligament are damaged OR If a ligament is stretched or torn; the injury is called a
c) Name different type of blood group. Explain the term universal donor and universal recipient. (name 1 mark, explanation 2 marks)
Different blood groups are: A, B, AB and O
Blood group “O” is called as Universal donor and Blood group “AB” is called as
Individuals have different antigens on the surface of their RBCs. These antigens determine their blood groups.
Blood group ‘O’ has neither A nor B antigen on their cell membrane. There will be no agglutination and thus blood can be safely transfused into A, B, AB and O. but can receive from only O.Therefore, blood group O is called universal donor.
Whereas blood group AB has neither antiA nor antiB antibodies. Transfusion of any group into these individuals is safe since there are no antibodies to react with them. But can donate only to AB. Hence it is called as universal recipient.
d) Define cardiac cycle. Write various events in cardiac cycle. (def 1 mark, explanation 2 marks)
Cardiac cycle: The events which occur in the heart during the circulation of blood during each heart beat is called cardiac cycle OR The series of events during one heart beat is known as cardiac cycle.
Events in cardiac cycle:
Atrial systole (0.1 sec)
Ventricular systole (0.3 sec)
Complete cardiac diastole (0.4 sec)
Description of cardiac cycle (2 marks)
The superior & inferior vena cava transport the deoxygenated blood into right atrium. At the same time four pulmonary veins transport oxygenated blood into the left atrium. The impulses from the SA node spreads over the atria, atria contracts, the AV valves open and & blood flows to ventricles. ( atrial systole-0.1 sec)
When the wave of contraction reaches AV node, it is stimulated & emits impulses which spreads over AV bundle, bundle branches & purkinje fibres resulting in contraction of ventricles pumping the blood into pulmonary artery & the aorta. (ventricular systole 0.3 sec). After the contraction of the ventricles there is complete cardiac diastole(0.4 sec) when both atria & ventricles relax. After this the next cycle begins.
e) What is reflex action? Draw a well-labelled diagram of reflex arc. (Reflex action 1 ½ marks, diagram 1 ½ marks)
Reflex action is an automatic motor response given by the spinal cord to the sensory stimulus without involving brain in action. They are a part of defensive mechanisms of the body.
Important reflex actions are:
Quick closing of an eyelid if eye is
Sudden withdrawal of hand if fingers touch something
Quick recovery of the balance of the body to prevent falling after a
Sudden coughing attack if a food particle is
Diagram of reflex arc:
f) Mention layers of epidermis of skin. State functions of skin. ( names of layers 1 mark, any 4 functions 2 marks)
Layers of epidermis:
Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum and stratum granulosum & stratum germinativum Functions of skin:
Protection – It forms the water proof layer & protects the inner delicate structures. It acts as the barrier against the invasion of the microbes, chemicals &dehydration. The melanin pigment protects against the harmful UV
Regulation of body temp.- The temp. is constant at 36.8o When the metabolic rate of the body increases the body temp increases & vice versa. To ensure constant body temp, a balance between heat production & heat loss is maintained by the skin.
Formation of vit. D.- 7-dehydroxycholesterol is present in the skin. The UV light from the sun converts it to vit.
Sensation – It contains nerve endings of many sensory nerves which act as organ of sensation of touch, temp, pressure and
Absorption- Some drugs & chemicals are absorbed through the
Excretion- Skin is a minor excretory organ & excretes NaCl, urea & sub. like garlic.
Q4. Solve any four of the following: 12
Define and give normal values: (1 mark for each)
Tidal volume: It is the volume of air moved in & out of lungs during normal breathing. Normal value is 500
Inspiratory reserve volume: It is the amount of air that can be breathed in and above the tidal volume by the deepest possible inspiration. Normal value is 1800 – 3000
Residual volume: It is the volume of air remaining in lungs after forced Normal value is 1.2 L in males and 1.1 L in females.
Give physiology of neuromuscular transmission. ( 3 marks)
When a nerve impulse reaches neuromuscular junction, passage of action potential over the sole feet causes the vesicles of acetylcholine to rupture into the synaptic cleft. The acetylcholine acts on the cell membrane to increase its permeability.
This allows spontaneous leakage of Na causing endplate potential. When the endplate potential increases, it stimulates the entire muscle fibre causing an action potential to travel in both directions along the fibre. When the action potential spread to inside of muscle fibre then Ca ions are released. This causes contraction of muscle fibres. Immediately after action potential is over, the previously released Ca ions recombine with reticulum and the muscle contraction stops.
The enzyme acetylcholinesterase present in the synaptic cleft. causes hydrolysis of acetylcholine. The muscle fibre is repolaised again to receive successive stimuli.
d) Describe the structure of stomach. ( str 2 marks, diag 1 mark)
Stomach is a J-shaped dilated portion of the alimentary canal. It is continuous with the oesophagus at cardiac sphincter and with duodenum at pyloric sphincter. It has 2 curvatures – lesser curvature and greater curvature. The stomach is divided into three regions- fundus, body & antrum. There are three layers of smooth muscle fibres outer longitudinal, the middle circular layer & the inner oblique fibres. This helps the churning movement & peristaltic movement.
e) What is endocrine and exocrine gland? Name the endocrine glands. (each def 1 mark, any 4 endocrine glands 1 mark)
Endocrine glands are ductless glands which release their secretions (hormones) directly into the blood.
Exocrine gland: The glands that discharge their secretions through the duct are known as exocrine glands.
Endocrine glands: Pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, pancreas (islets of Langerhans). adrenal glands, pineal gland, testes in male and ovaries in female.
Menstruation: This is the series of events occurring regularly in females every 26-30 days throughout the child bearing age. The cycle consists of menstrual phase for 4 days, proliferative phase for 10 days & secretary phase for 14 days.
Proliferative phase: It is characterized by release of oestrogen by the maturing ovarian follicle under the influence of FSH from the anterior pituitary. Oestrogen stimulates the proliferation of the endometrium in preparation of the fertilized ovum. The endometrium becomes thicker by rapid cell multiplication and this is accompanied by an increase in the number of mucus-secreting glands and blood capillaries. This phase lasts for 10 days and stops when ovulation occurs and oestrogen production is inhibited i.e. when the ovarian follicle ruptures.
Q.5 Solve any four of the following: (12 marks, 03 marks each)
State the factors which accelerate and retard the clotting of blood. (3 marks, 1.5 marks each)
There are various factors which accelerate and retard the clotting of blood.
(1) Factors accelerating clotting are( any 3 points, 1.5 marks)
During menstruation and parturition
Injury to the walls of the blood vessels: An injury in the form of cut bleeds more freely than the injury by the
The venom of viper snakes
Higher temperature (above 46 0 C)
Presence of calcium salts
(2) Factors retarding clotting are (any 3 points, 1.5 marks):
In clinical condition like haemophilia, liver disease, afibrinogenemia, Christmas disease,
Removal calcium ions from the blood by addition of sodium or potassium or citrate
(c ) Calcium deficiency in blood
(d)Lower temperature: However, lower temperature causes contraction of blood vessels. ( e)Deficiency of vitamin K
(b) Describe how circulation of blood takes place through heart chambers. (3 marks)
The superior vena cava (for upper body) and inferior vena cava (for lower body) receive deoxygenated /impure blood from various part of the body through different veins. This deoxygenated/ impure blood they pour into the right atrium of heart. The blood from right atrium enters the right ventricle through a tricuspid valve, which prevent back flow of blood from ventricle into atrium.
The deoxygenated/ impure blood from right ventricle is forced into pulmonary artery through pulmonary valve. The pulmonary arteries divide into two branches each enters the right and left lungs. In the lungs, the red blood cells (RBCs) release carbon dioxide and absorbs oxygen. This oxygenated blood from right and left lungs is collected by four pulmonary veins and poured into left atrium. From left atrium this blood enters into left ventricle through bicuspid valve which prevents back flow of blood into left atrium.This oxygenated blood from left ventricle is forced into the aorta through aortic valve which prevent back flow of blood into left ventricle.
Give the various functions of medulla oblongata. (03 marks, 1mark for each function The vital centres consisting of group of cells associated with autonomic reflex activity lie in Medulla oblongata. They are,
Cardiac centre– The cardiac centre controls the rate and force of cardiac contraction and blood
Respiratory centre – The respiratory centre controls the rate and depth of respiration. Nerve impulses pass to the phrenic and intercostal muscles which stimulate the contraction of diaphragm and intercostal muscles, thus initiating
Vasomotor centre – This controls the diameter of blood vessels especially small arteries and arterioles.
Reflex centre – When irritating substance are present in stomach or respiratory tract, nerve impulse pass on to the medulla oblongata stimulating the reflex centre which initiate reflex actions like vomiting, sneezing and
(d) Explain retina of eye. (3marks)
Retina is the innermost layer of the eye. It gets stimulated by the light rays. It is composed of several layers of nerve cell body & the axons. There are light sensitive cells mainly of two types: the rods and
The entire retina contains about 7 million cones and 75 to 150 million
Rods function mainly in dim light and provide black-and-white vision, The rods have rhodopsin or visual purple is photosensitive pigment. It gets bleached with light & gets regenerated by vit. A. The rods are present more in the periphery of the
Cones sensitive to bright light & colour. cone opsins (also known as photopsins or iodopsin) present in cone cells, are used in colour
The central retina has macula lutea or yellow spot made up of only cone cells. It has central depression called fovea centralis.All the nerve fibres of retina form the optic nerve. The small area of the retina where the optic nerve leave the eye is known as optic disc or blind spot as no light sensitive cells are present here.
(e) Define nephritis. Give function of kidney. (Definition 1 mark, any 4 functions 2 marks)
Nephritis: Nephritis refers to inflammation of one or both kidneys due to infection or autoimmune disease.
Functions of kidney are:
Formation of urine –Each kidney consist of nephron which filter waste product from blood & helps in urine ,
Maintenance of acid base balance it helps maintaining pH by excretion of H+ ions & reabsorption of HCO3–
Maintenance of electrolyte balance
Maintenance of blood pressure. it regulates B.P. by Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone system
Maintenance of water Balance.it helps in maintaining water balance with the help of
Formation of erythropoietin hormone for erythropoeisis
(f) Define (3 marks, 1 mark for each definition)
Mastication: It is the process by which food is chewed and mixed with saliva to form a soft mass or bolus which is swallowed. ORMastication means chewing process takes place in mouth cavity.
Chyme: The thick semisolid mass of partially digested food that is passed from the stomach to the
ii) Digestion: The conversion of complex food ( carbohydrate , proteins & fats) into simpler form (glucose, amino acids & fatty acid) by mechanical breakdown & chemical digestion so that it is easily absorbed into the blood and utilized for energy.
Q.6 Solve any four of the following: (16 marks, 4 marks each)
State eight (8) functions of liver. (0.5 marks for each function)
Functions of liver
Secretion of bile: Bile salts are helpful in digestion and absorption of fats by its emulsification.
Glycogenic function: The hepatic cells by the action of enzymes convert glucose into glycogen and it is then stored in the
Formation of urea: Hepatic cells by the action of the enzyme cause deamination of amino acid, i.e. amine group is set free which forms
Metabolism of fat: Whenever energy is needed, the saturated stored fat is converted to a form in which it can be used to provide
Formation of RBCs in foetal
Destruction of RBCs forming bile pigments and
Formation of plasma
Formation of heparin, a natural anticoagulant in the
Storage of iron and vitamin B
Maintenance of body temperature: As a number of chemical reactions occur in the liver, heat is generated which is helpful in maintaining body
Excretion of toxic substances: The toxic substances entering the body through alimentary canal are destroyed in
Carbohydrate metabolism: It helps in maintaining plasma glucose level with the help of insulin &
Fat metabolism: Stored fat can be converted to a form in which it can be used by the tissue to provide
Protein metabolism: Deamination of amino -removes nitrogenous portion from amino acid not required for formation of new protein. Urea is formed from the nitrogenous portion which is excreted in urine. Break down of nucleic acids to form uric acid which is excreted in urine. Transamination: Removes the nitrogenous portion of amino acid & attaches it to carbohydrate molecule forming new non-essential amino acid. .
Synthesis of plasma protein & most blood clotting factors from amino
Breakdown of RBCs & defense against This is carried out by Kupffer cells.
Detoxification of drugs & noxious
Inactivation of hormones
Production of heat
Secretion of bile
Storage of glycogen, iron, copper, & water fat soluble vit-A, D,E, K, soluble vit. Like B12.
(b) What is hepatic portal circulation? Give its importance. (4marks; circulation 3 marks, importance 1 mark)
The portal circulation (3 marks)
In all parts of the body, the venous blood passes from the tissues to the heart by the direct route.
But, in the portal circulation, venous blood from the capillary bed of the abdominal parts, the spleen & the pancreas passes to the liver via the portal vein. The portal vein is formed by union of gastric vein from stomach, superior & inferior mesenteric veins from small and large intestine, splenic vein from spleen & cystic vein from gall bladder. The blood
passes through the secondary capillary bed, the hepatic sinusoid in the liver before entering the general circulation via the inferior vena cava.
Importance of portal circulation (1mark)
Blood with the high concentration of nutrients absorbed from the stomach & intestine goes to liver first. In the liver certain modifications takes place including the blood nutrient level. The venous blood then leaves liver via hepatic vein & joins the inferior vena cava.
(c) State functions of Semen and Placenta (4 marks, 2 marks each) Functions of Semen: (2 marks)
Increase motility and fertility of spermatozoa.
Semen is slightly alkaline, to neutralize the acidity of
Prostaglandin present causes contraction of
It contains nutrients to nourish and support the sperm during their journey through the female reproductive
Functions of placenta: (2 marks)
To provide the foetus with nourishment and removal of waste material from the
To act as the foetal lung by providing oxygenation of the fetal blood
The placenta also acts as a barrier in preventing certain micro-organisms of disease reaching the fetus thus protects the
The placenta helps the ovaries in the production of estrogen & progesterone hormones necessary for the continuation and maintenance of
(d)What is sensory and motor neuron? (1+1 marks). Draw a well labeled diagram of typical neuron (2 marks).
Sensory neuron (1 mark): They carry information from the body to the spinal cord. The impulses may then pass to the brain or to connector neurons of reflex arcs in the spinal cord.
Motor neuron (1 mark): They originate in the brain, spinal cord and autonomic ganglia. They transmit impulses to the effector organs; muscles and glands.
(e) Write the effect of sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation on:(4 marks, 2marks each )
Pupils:(0.5 + 0.5 marks)
Sympathetic stimulation: Dilation of pupils causing mydriasis.
Parasymp. stimulation: Constriction of pupils causing miosis.
(ii) Bronchioles 🙁 0.5+0.5 marks)
Sympathetic stimulation: Bronchodilation allowing greater amount of air to enter the lungs at each inspiration.
Other blood vessels: Vasoconstriction. Parasympathetic stimulation: Coronary artery: Vasoconstriction Skeletal blood vessels: Vasoconstriction Other blood vessels: Vasodilation
(e) Explain the role of insulin and glucagon in the body. (4 marks, 2 marks each) Role of insulin (3 marks):
Role of insulin
It increases the uptake of glucose by the
Increases the conversion of glucose to glycogen in the liver & skeletal
It increases the uptake of amino acids by the
It promotes the synthesis of fatty acids & storage of fats in adipose tissue
Prevents breakdown of protein, fat & gluconeogenesis
Role of glucagon (1 mark): Its function is to increase blood sugar level. Whenever the blood sugar level falls below the normal the glycogen stored in the liver is broken down to glucose by the hormone glucagon.
Thus the two hormones help to maintain the blood sugar level constant.
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D.Pharma (a) also called Diploma in Pharmacy, is pursued by the students in the medical field of Pharmacy. In India, one is eligible to opt for this education course after successfully completing Standard Twelve in science stream with Physics, Chemistry and either Biology as subjects. Consequently, the successful completion of this course allows one to be employed as a Registered Pharmacist in Pharmacy shops selling medicine. In fact, it is mandatory presently to have at least one qualified D.Pharm person employed in pharmacy must. Hence, a student can go for undergraduate degree course of B.Pharm after pursuing of D.Pharm in India.
Duration of the course -2 years. Each academic year will spread for not more than 180 working days with 500 hours of practical training in 3 months.
Candidate should be at least 17 years of age while securing admission.
D. Pharmacy Eligibility
Eligibility- 10+2 passed with Science stream subjects (PCB or M) from a recognized board is the minimum educational qualification required (in some institutes, PCB subjects are mandatory).
D. Pharmacy Entrance Examination:
Entrance Examination- It could be a direct admission or merit-based admission process. Reputed and well-established institutes follow their own entrance tests (while preparing the merit list).
Subjects for 1st year of D. Pharmacy
Biochemistry & Clinical Pathology
Human Anatomy & Physiology
Health Education & community pharmacy
D. Pharmacy Syllabusfor 1st year
Introduction of different dosage forms, Metrology, Packaging of pharmaceuticals, Size separation, Mixing and Homogenization, Clarification and Filtration, Extraction and Galenicals, Distillation, Introduction to drying process, Sterilization, Aseptic techniques, Processing of Tablets, Processing of Capsules, Study of immunological products
Acids, bases and buffers, Antioxidants, Gastrointestinal agents, Topical Agents, Antimicrobials and Astringents, Dental Products, Respiratory stimulants, Expectorants and Emetics, Antidotes, Major Intra and Extra cellular electrolytes, Inorganic official compounds, Radio pharmaceuticals and contrast media, Quality control of Drugs and pharmaceuticals, Identification tests for cations and anions.
Identification tests for inorganic compounds particularly drugs and pharmaceuticals, Limit test for chloride, Sulphate, Arsenic, Iron and Heavy metals, Assay of inorganic pharmaceuticals involving each of the following methods of compounds marked with (*) under theory. i. Acid-Base titrations (at least 3) ii. Redox titrations (one each of permanganometry and iodimetry). iii. Precipitation titrations (at least 2) iv. Complexometric titration (Calcium and Magnesium)
Definition, history and scope of Pharmacogonosy ,Various systems of classification of drugs and natural origin, Adulteration and drug evaluation, Brief outline of f alkaloids, terpenoids, glycosides, volatile oils, tannins and resins, Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, chemical constituents, Pharmaceutical aids, Miscellaneous
Identification of drugs by morphological characters. Physical and chemical tests for evaluation of drugs wherever applicable. Gross anatomical studies (t.s.) of the following drugs – Senna, Datura, cinnamon, cinchona, coriander, fennel, clove, Ginger, Nux-vomica, Ipecacuanha, Identification of fibers and surgical dressing.
Biochemistry & Clinical Pathology
Introduction to biochemistry,Carbohydrates, Lipids,Vitamins, Enzymes, Therapeutics (Lymphocytes and platelets, their role in health and disease. Erythrocytes)
Detection and identification of proteins. Amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids. Analysis of normal and abnormal constituents of Blood and Urine (Glucose, urea, creatine, cretinine, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatatase acid phosphatase, Bilirubin, SGPT, SGOT, calcium, Diastase,Lipase), Examination of sputum and faeces (microscopic & staining), Practice in injecting drugs by intramuscular, subcutaneous and intravenous routes, withdrawal of blood samples.
Human Anatomy & Physiology
Scope of Anatomy and physiology, Elementary tissues, Skeletal System, Cardiovascular System, Respiratory system, Urinary System, Muscular System,Central Nervous System, Sensory Organs, Digestive System, Endocrine System, Reproductive system
Study of the human Skeleton, Study with the help of charts and models of the following system and organs, Digestive system, Respiratory system, Ear, Cardiovascular system, Urinary system, Reproductive system Eye, Microscopic examination of epithelial tissue, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, Connective tissue and nervous tissues, Examination of blood films for TLC.DLC and malaria parasite, Determination of RBCs, clotting time of blood, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and Hemoglobin value, Recording of body temperature, pulse, heart-rate, blood pressure and ECG.
Health Education & community pharmacy
Concept of health,Nutrition and health, First aid, Environment and health,Fundamental principles of microbiology, Communicable diseases, Respiratory infections, Intestinal infection, Arthropod borne infections, Surface infection, Sexually transmitted diseases, Non-communicable diseases, Epidemiology
Dispensing of at least 100 products covering a wide range of preparations such as mixtures, emulsion, solutions, liniments, E.N.T. preparations. Ointments, suppositories, powders, incompatible prescriptions etc.
Introduction to the nomenclature of organic chemical systems, The chemistry of pharmaceutical organic compounds (Antiseptics and Disinfectants, Sulphonamides,Antileprotic Drugs, Anti-tubercular Drugs, Antimoebic and Anthelmintic Drugs, Antibiotic, Antifungal agent, Antimalarial Drugs, Tranquilizers, Hypnotics,General Anaesthetics, Antidepressant Drugs, Adrenergic drugs, Adrenergic antagonist, Cholinergic Antagonists, Diuretic Drugs, Cardiovascular Drugs, Hypoglycemie Agents, Coagulants and Anti coagulants, Local Anaesthetics, Analgesics and Anti-pyretics, Non-steriodal anti-inflammatory agents, Diagnostic Agents, Anticonvulsants, cardiac glycosides, Antiarrhythmic, Antihypertensives & Vitamins, Steroidal Drugs, Anti-Neoplastic Drugs
Systematic qualitative testing of organic drugs involving solubility determination, melting point and/or boiling point, detection of elements and functional groups (10 compounds). Official identification tests for certain groups of drugs included in the I.P. like barbiturates, sulfonamides, Phenothiazines, Antibiotics etc. (8 compounds). Preparation of three simple organic preparations.
Pharmacology & Toxicology
Introduction to pharmacology, Routes of administration of drugs, General mechanism of drugs action, Drugs acting on the central Nervous system, Drugs acting on respiratory system, Autocoids, Cardio vascular drugs, Drugs affecting renal function, Hormones and hormone antagonists, Drugs acting on digestive system, Chemotherapy of microbial diseases, Disinfectants and antiseptics.
The first six of the following experiments will be done by the students while the remaining will be demonstrated by the teacher. (Effect of potassium and calcium ions, acetylcholine and adrenaline on frog’s heart. Effect of acetyl choline on rectus abdomens muscle of frog and guinea pig ileum. Effect of spasmogens and relaxants on rabbit’s intestine. Effect of local anaesthetics on rabbit cornea. Effect of mydriatics and miotics on rabbit’s eye. To study the action of strychnine on frog. Effect of digitalis on frog’s heart. Effect of hypnotics in mice. Effect of convulsants and anticonvulsant in mice or rats.Test for pyrogens. Taming and hypnosis potentiating effect of chlorpromazine in mice/rats. Effect of diphenhydramine in experimentally produced asthma in guinea pigs.)
Origin and nature of pharmaceutical legislation in India,Principles and significance of professional Ethics, Pharmacy Act,1948, The Drugs and Cosmetics Act,1940, The Drugs and Magic Remedies (objectionable Advertisement)Act, 1954, Narcotic Drugs and psychotropic substances Act,1985, Latest Drugs (price control) order in force. Poisons Act 1919(as amended to date) Medicinal and Toilet preparations (excise Duties) Act, 1955 (as amended to date). Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971(as amended to date).
Drug store and Business Management
Part-I: Commerce- Introduction, Drug House Management, Sales, Recruitment, training, Banking and Finance. Part-II: Accountancy – Introduction to the accounting concepts and conventions.
Hospital & Clinical Pharmacy
Part-I: Hospital Pharmacy-Hospital, Hospital Pharmacy, Drug Distribution system in Hospitals, Manufacturing, Sterile manufacture, Non-sterile manufacture, P.T.C.(pharmacy Therapeutic Committee), Hospital Formulary system, Drug Information service , Surgical dressing, Application of computers. Part II: Clinical Pharmacy- Introduction to Clinical pharmacy practice, Modern dispensing aspects, Common daily terminology used in the practice of Medicine. Disease, manifestation and patho-physiology, Physiological parameters with their significance. Drug Interactions, Adverse Drug Reaction, Drugs in Clinical Toxicity, Drug dependences, Bio-availability of drugs.
In the employment areas of pharmacy, in the first place one can take up the role in Health Centres, Hospitals, Chemist shops, Drug Control Administration, Pharmaceutical firms, Sales and marketing department, Research Agencies Food and Drug Administration.
Also, a variety of pharmacy jobs are available as per the degree such as Technical Supervisor, Medical Transcriptionist, Pharmacist, Quality Analyst, Scientific Officer, Tutor, and Production Executive.
Hope our article on D. Pharmacy Year wise Subjects & Syllabus like D Pharma 1st & 2nd Year helped you to know what are all the subjects were included in the Diploma in pharmacy curriculum.