Pharmaceutical Chemistry B Pharmacy Second Year Notes || D Pharmacy Material PDF

Pharmaceutical Chemistry B Pharmacy Second Year Notes || D Pharmacy Material PDF

What are Local anaesthetics?
Local anaesthetics – Local anesthetics are drugs which produce insensitivity in a limited area around the site of application or injection of the drug by preventing generation and conduction of impulses along nerve fibers and nerve ending and the effects are reversible.
 What are Anthelmintics 
Anthelmintics – The drugs which are used to kill or remove the parasitic worms, the term anthelmintic should not be restricted just to drugs acting locally to expel worms from the g.i.t. Various types of worms are able to penetrate tissues, & the drugs used to act against systemic infections should be included also under the general term anthelmintic.
 What are anticoagulants?
Anticoagulants – An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting & anticoagulants are given to people to stop thrombosis (blood clotting inappropriately in the blood vessels).

What are Diagnostic agents?
Diagnostic agents – These are the agents or chemicals used to detect abnormalities in tissues & organs or to test an organ function, these are thus useful for the clinical diagnosis of the diseases & these agents do not usually have any medicinal values or pharmacological effect.

What are sympathomimetics?

Sympathomimetics – Drugs that mimic the actions obtained as a result of stimulation of the sympathetic or adrenergic nerves are called Sympathomimetics.


The drugs that produce pharmacological effects like adrenaline or nor adrenaline or drugs which bring about stimulation of adrenergic nerves are called Sympathomimetics.

Diuretics – Drugs which promote excretion of water & electrolytes from body through kidneys in the form of urine are called diuretics.

Define antimalarials, Classify them with suitable examples and give the structure of



Anti-malarial drugs: – The drugs which are used in the treatment of malaria caused due


to Plasmodium Species like Plasmodium Vivax, P. falcifrum, P.malariae, P. ovale are called as Anti-malarial drugs.


Quinine salts e.g. Quinine sulphate, Quinine phosphate, Quinine dihydrochloride.

8-Aminoquinolines e.g. Pentaquine, Isopentaquine, Pamaquine, Primaquine.

4-Aminoquinolines e.g. Chloroquine , Amodiaquine.

9-Aminoacridines e.g. Quinacrine, Mepacrine.

Biguanides e.g. Proguanil, Cycloguanil

e.g. pyrimethamine.

Artemisinin & its derivatives.

Miscellaneous: – They are further classified as mentioned below

Sulfones & sulfonamides.


Write physiological actions of histamine. Classify antihistaminics with examples.

Histamine is a biogenic amine involved in local immune responses as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter.

Histamine triggers the inflammatory response. As part of an immune response to foreign pathogens, histamine is produced by basophils and by mast cells found in nearby connective tissues.

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Physiological actions of histamine on various organs:

Blood vessels: Histamine causes dilation of blood vessels

Smooth muscle: It causes contraction of smooth muscle (Contraction of bronchi)

Excretory glands: Histamine has stimulant action on excretory glands. It increases nasal, lachrymal and bronchial secretion.

Acid secretion: Histamine increases acid secretion in stomach which causes peptic ulcer

Oedema: Excess secretion of histamine causes accumulation
of fluid and water in the body.

Allergy: It plays an important role in human allergy and allergic reactions.

Classification of antihistaminics:

H1 blockers or H1 antagonist:

Aminoalkylethers/Ethanolamines e.g. Diphenhydramine, Doxylamine

Ethylenediamine e.g.Mepyramine, Tripelennamine, Pyrilamine

Alkylamines/Propylamines e.g. Pheniramine, Chlorpheniramine, Triprolidine d)Phenothiazine derivatives e.g. Promethazine, Trimeprazine

Piperazine derivatives. e.g Meclizine, Cyclizine, Chlorcyclizine

Dibenzocycloheptenes: Cyproheptadine, Azatadine

Second generation antihistaminics: e.g. Cetrizine, Levocetrizine, Fexofenadine, Terfenadine

H2 Blockers or H2 receptor antagonist e.g. Ranitidine, Cimetidine, Famotidine
An inhibitor of histamine release e.g.Sodium Cromoglycate

Define vitamins. Write the important uses of vit. A, Nicotinic acid and ascorbic acid. 1 mark each.

Vitamins may be defined as potent organic substances which are essential for normal growth and maintenance of life of human and animals, which are not able to synthesize in adequate quantity.

Uses of Niacin or Nicotinic acid-

It is used for preventing vitamin B3 deficiency and related conditions such as pellagra.

Biochemically active form of Nicotinic acid is NAD (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and its phosphate (NADP). These two coenzymes are required in protein and amino acid metabolism and electron transfer reaction in respiratory chain.
It causes peripheral vasodilation

Large dose of nicotinic acid decreases serum cholesterol level.

Uses of Vitamin A-

It is used for treating vitamin A deficiency.

Prevention and treatment of Night blindness, Xerophthalmia and keratomalacia.

A is important for growth, development and maintenance of immune system.

Some people use vitamin A for improving vision and treating eye disorders including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma and

Vitamin A is also used for skin conditions including acne, eczema, psoriasis, cold sores, wounds, burns, sunburn.

Uses of Ascorbic acid-

In general this drug is used for the prevention and treatment of scurvy. This condition is caused by a lack of vitamin C often due to a lack of fresh fruit and vegetables. Symptoms of scurvy include a general feeling of being unwell, tiredness, muscle and joint pain, bleeding into the skin, around bones, into joints and from the gums, and loose teeth.
Ascorbic acid is involved in many redox reactions

(ii) Pethidine

Uses of Pethidine-

Analgesic activity: It is used in the treatment of severe pain like labor pain.

Spasmolytic agent: Pethidine is useful in the treatment of spasm of intestine, urinary bladder

Used as a substitute for morphine for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pains.

Used in combination with chlorpromazine & promethazine to produce narcosis.

It also produces mild euphoria.


Give storage conditions for


The aqueous solution is stable for at least 7 years at pH 7 to 8.

It is stored in sealed, sterile container so as to exclude microorganism and moisture.


It is stored in metal cylinder designed to hold compressed gases and kept in a cool room free from inflammable material.

The whole cylinder is painted orange. The shoulder should be stenciled with name or symbol “C3H6”. The name or symbol should be clearly stamped on the cylinder valve.

d) Write the difference between general anaesthetics and local anaesthetics. Give the

structure and chemical name of procaine.

2 marks for

Structure of procaine



H2N                                                  C          O                                           C2H5



Chemical name – 4-amino-(2-diethyl amino ethyl) benzoate or 2-(Diethyl amino)

ethyl-4-amino benzoate.

Distinguish between general anaesthetics and local anaesthetics


1. General anaesthetics are the agents which It may be defined as any substance
bring about loss of all modalities of sensation, applied topically or by localized
particularly pain, along with a reversible loss
injection or infiltration to dull or block
of consciousness.

. pain sensation.

2. General anesthesia is induced either by Local anesthesia is induced by topical
inhalation of volatile & gaseous anesthetics application of drugs to skin or mucous
like diethyl ether, halothane or parenteral membrane (surface anesthesia) or by
administration of intravenous anesthetics injection into area subjected to surgical
like thiopentone sodium. operation (infiltration anaesthesia) or

injection into dual membrane of spinal

cord (spinal anesthesia)

3. General anaesthesia is produced before Local Anaesthesia is produced in short
carrying out surgical operation or in surgical procedures & in dentistry.

4.Care of Vital organs essential Care of Vital organs is not essential

 E.g. halothane ,cycloprapane etc. E.g. procaine, lignocaine, benzocaine

Define and classify antihypertensive drugs.

Any agent used for reducing elevated blood pressure is known as antihypertensive agent or hypotensive agent.

Antihypertensive agents can be classified as follows below:-

Centrally acting agents: e.g. α-methyldopa, clonidine

Ganglion blockers : e.g. Pentolinium, Mecamylamine

Adrenergic neuron blockers e.g. Reserpine, Guanethidine

β-adrenergic blockers e.g. Propranalol, Atenolol

α-adrenergic blockers e.g. Prazosin, Tolazoline

Direct-acting vasodilators e.g. Hydralazine, Minoxidil

Calcium channel blockers eg. Verapamil

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) e.g.Captopril, enalapril maleate.

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3. Attempt any THREE of the following:

Write the general uses of diuretics. Give the structure and brand names of frusemide.

General uses of Diuretics:-

Diuretics are used to treat several conditions in medicine. Following are the conditions where diuretics are used

Hypertension or high blood pressure, Acute left ventricular failure or heart failure

Most types of oedema (renal oedema, oedema of pregnancy) or fluid accumulation

Acute renal failure and treatment of kidney stones

To excrete toxins and toxic metabolites out of the body.

To decreases intraocular pressure in glaucoma.

Treatment of hypercalcemia and hyperkalemia

Frusemide: Lasix, Fru, Frusenex, Tebemid etc.

Structure of frusemide:-

Define and classify NSAIDs.


NSAIDs is an abbreviation for a group of agents called Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs.


A. Nonselective COX inhibitors (conventional NSAIDs)

Salicylates: Aspirin, Diflunisal

Para Amino Phenol Derivatives- Phenacetin, Paracetamol (Acetaminophen)

Pyrazolone derivatives: Phenylbutazone, Oxyphenbutazone

Indole derivatives: Indomethacin, Sulindac

Propionic acid derivatives: Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Ketoprofen, Flurbiprofen

Anthranilic acid derivatives: Mephenamic acid
Aryl‐acetic acid derivatives: Diclofenac.

Oxicam derivatives: Piroxicam
Pyrrolo‐pyrrole derivative: Ketorolac
Preferential COX‐2 inhibitors: Nimesulide, Meloxicam, Nabumetone

Selective COX‐2 inhibitors: Celecoxib, Rofecoxib, Valdecoxib

Write any one important use of Indigo carmine, Evans blue, Fluorescein Sodium and Congo red.

Uses of Indigo carmine

It is administered intravenously to test renal function (by estimating the rate of excretion in urine) & to locate the uretheral orifices.

In the lab it is used as coloring agents.

Uses of Evans blue

Evans Blue is a di-azo compound used to determine blood volume in humans and animals.

The dye combines firmly with plasma albumin when injected into the blood stream and leaves the circulation very slowly.

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(Autonoalium, Placidox, Anaxol, Quietal, Diazewok, Zepose, Microdep


What    is    epilepsy?     Classify    anticonvulsants     and    write    the    structure     of


Epilepsy is a disease which arises due to the disorders of control nervous system. This disease is characterized by somewhat more or less frequent recurrence of seizures in

which there occur convulsions or other abnormal body movements, which are accompanied by loss or disturbance in consciousness. Anticonvulsants are classified as:

Barbiturates: – Barbitone sodium, Phenobarbitone, Methyl phenobarbitone.

Hydantoins :- Phenytoin, Mephenytoin

Oxazolidinediones :-Trimethadione, Paramethadione

Succinimides :- Ethosuximide, Phensuximide

Benzodiazepines: Diazepam, Clonazepam, Lorazepam, Nitrazepam

Miscellaneous :- Primidone, Carbamazepine, Valproic acid, Phenacemide, Pregabalin, Gabapentin

Phenobarbitone Structure

Define and classify narcotic analgesic drugs.

Narcotic analgesics are derivatives of opium, semi synthetic or synthetic agents having potent analgesic & narcotic activity and effective for the treatment of severe pain. Classification of Narcotic analgesics

Narcotic analgesic are classified as:-

Morphine and related compounds (Natural alkaloids of opium) e.g. Morphine, Codeine.

Semi-synthetic derivatives of morphine- Heroin, Brown Sugar
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Synthetic Agents- Methadone, Pethidine, Dextropropoxyphen hydrochloride


What do you know about sex hormones? Give the uses of Progesterone and Cortisone.

Sex hormones are the hormones which are produced mainly in gonads, ovaries or testes. They influence the development and maintenance of the structures directly and indirectly associated with reproduction. Three main types of sex hormones are

Androgenic or anabolic steroids :-

The androgens are mainly able to maintain the development and maintenance of the secondary male sex characters, thereby increasing virility and libido.

Oestrogens :- Oestrogens influence development and maintenance of secondary female sex characters. They are also essential for maintenance of pregnancy. They also exert anabolic effect on protein metabolism & water retention.


Progestogens are necessary for various changes takes place in uterus & vagina during menstrual cycle, for developing mammary tissue and for maintain pregnancy.

Uses of Progesterone:

It is used as a hormonal replacement therapy in deficiency of progesterone.

It is used in treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

It is also used along with estrogen in menstrual disorders, premenstrual tension

It is used in treatment of neoplasm of breast and endometriosis.

It has also been incorporated into an intra-uterine device for female contraception.

Treatment of habitual abortion.

Maintenance of pregnancy if it occurs.

Uses of Cortisone:

Anti-inflammatory action: Cortisone is a steroid that prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation.

Cortisone is used to treat many different conditions such as allergic disorders, skin conditions, ulcerative colitis, arthritis, lupus, psoriasis, or breathing disorders.

1 Mark sex hormones,

1.5 Marks to uses of each drug

Subject Title: Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I I Subject Code:

Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis

Treatment of lung infection

Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

It has immune suppressant action hence used in organ transplantation and autoimmune disorder.

Treatment of Addison’s disease.

Write the structure and uses of


Atropine Uses:

Atropine has antispasmodic action on smooth muscles, hence used for the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers and for the relief of renal and biliary colics.
Useful in symptomatic treatment of Parkinsonism.

It is one of the components of pre-anaesthetic medication, where it is given to reduce salivary and bronchial secretions and to diminish the risk of vagal inhibition of the heart.

It is used by ophthalmologist for its mydriatic effects.

Treatment of hyperhidrosis (Abnormal increased sweating)

1Mark Str.

1Mark use.


Propranolol Uses:

Treatment of various cardiac diseases like Cardiac arrhythmia, Arterial hypertension,

Angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, coronary atherosclerosis, tacycardia

Treatment of Pheochromocytoma (cancer of adrenal glands)

Treatment of glaucoma

5. Attempt any THREE of the following.

Write structure, chemical name uses and brand names of Paracetamol



Chemical name: p-hydroxy acetanilide OR 4-hydroxy acetanilide OR 4-Acetylaminophenol



Analgesics for relief of pain such as headache, toothache, neuralgia, rheumatism.

Brand names- Tylenol, Calpol, panadol, crocin, metacin, valadol, paldesic, Dolo

Define antiseptics and disinfectants. Classify them with examples


Def:  Antiseptic and disinfectants are the chemical agents which are employed to destroy

Pharmaceutical Chemistry

or inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganism. Antiseptics are applied on living tissues while disinfectants are used on inanimates or non living objects.


1) Alcohols & Aldehydes

E.g. Ethyl Alcohol, Isopropyl alcohol,  Formaldehyde

2) Halogen Compounds.

E.g. Chloramine T, Chorhexidine Acetate, Dibromopropamidine Isothionate.

3) Phenols & Related Compounds

E .g. Phenol, Chlorocresol, Chloroxylenol, Cresol, Hexachlorophene, Thymol.

4) Mercury Compounds.

E.g. , Thiomersal, Mercuric chloride

5) Dyes.

E.g. Proflavine Hemisulphate, Acriflavine, Brilliant Green, Crystal Violet (Gentian Violet), Methylene Blue.

6) Surface Active Agents

E.g. Benzalkonium Chloride, Cetrimide, Cetylpyridinium Chloride, Domiphen Bromide,

7) Miscellaneous Agents.

E.g.   Dequalinum Sulphate, Nitrofurazone.

Give structure, chemical name and uses of D.E.C.


M classification

2 M structure

1 M chemical name

1M uses


Chemical name: 7-Chloro-4-[4’-(diethylamino)-1-methyl butyl] amino quinoline

Dosage forms:

Chlroquine Phosphate Injection

Chlroquine Phosphate Tablets

Chlroquine Syrup

Chroquine Sulphate Injection

Chroquine Sulphate tablet

Brand Names: Cadiquin, Cloquin, Emquin, Lariago, Aralen, Avioclor, Quinross, Resochin, Nivaquine

Attempt any THREE of the following:

What are anti-amoebic agents? Classify them with suitable examples.

Anti-amoebic agents: The drugs which are used in the treatment of amoebic infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica are called as antiamoebic drugs.

Classification of antiamoebic drugs:

Drugs of natural origin: g. emetin

Synthetic drugs:

Quinoline derivative e.g. Chloroquine

Halogenated-8-hydroxyquinoline derivative e.g. quinidochlor, Diiodohydroxyquinoline

Nitro-imidazole derivative e.g. Metronidazole, Tinidazole


M definition

M classification

Page 27 of 32

Antibiotic: e.g. Paramomycin, Tetracycline, chlortetracycline, oxythromycin

Organic arsenicals: e.g. carbarsone

Miscellaneous e.g Diloxanide furoate

Explain the process of blood coagulation. Write the structure and chemical name of

Process of blood coagulation:

Thrombin and several clotting factors present in plasma and calcium ions are involved in the coagulation. Process of blood coagulation can be described as follows.

Whenever there is an injury to a blood vessel, there is formation of rough surface. When blood platelets come in contact with such a rough surface, they are injured.

Due to injury, they release the substance called thromboplastin. In the presence of thromboplastin and calcium in the blood plasma prothrombin is converted into thrombin which helps in conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.

The fibrin is insoluble and forms threads. The threads of fibrin form a net. In the holes of this net, blood cells are entangled. This mass then contracts to form a blood clot.

i) Indomethacine

Pharmaceutical Chemistry B Pharmacy Second Year Notes || D Pharmacy Material PDF

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic in rheumatoid arthritis

Treatment of spondylitis, osteoarthritis and in gout

Treatment of dysmenorrhea and migraine.


To relieve bronchial spasm in acute attacks of asthma.

It is used to increase blood pressure in treatment of hypotension.

Intra venous administration of Adrenaline is used to treat acute circulary collapse or cardiac arrest.

Treatment of allergic disorder.

Treatment of superficial bleeding due to its vasoconstriction effect.

Added to local anesthetic to prolong the duration of effect.

It has mydriatic effect.

Define and classify cholinergic drugs. Write the uses of Acetylcholine Definition:

The agents that mimic the action of acetylcholine or produce the effect of parasympathetic nerve stimulation are called as cholinergic drugs or parasympathomimetic agents.


Choline esters: Acetylcholine, Methacholine, Carbachol

Cholinomimetic alkaloids: Muscarine, Pilocarpine, Arecholine

Cholinesterase inhibitors (Indirectly acting)

Reversible Inhibitors- Physostigmine, Neostigmine, Pyridostigmine

Irreversible Inhibitors- Organophosphates (Parathion, Malathion), Insecticides.

Uses of Acetylcholine:

It reduces intraocular pressure in glaucoma

In the relief of atony of gut and urinary bladder



Pharmacodynamics Definition:

Pharmacodynamics the branch of pharmacology concerned with the effects of drugs and the mechanism of their action.

“Pharmacodynamics involves how the drugs act on target cells to alter cellular function.”

A. Receptor and non-receptor mechanisms: Most of the drugs act by interacting with a cellular component called receptor. Some drugs act through simple physical or chemical reactions without interacting with any receptor.

• Receptors are protein molecules present either on the cell surface or with in the cell e.g. adrenergic receptors, cholinoceptors, insulin receptors, etc.
• The endogenous neurotransmitters, hormones, autacoids and most of the drugs produce their effects by binding with their specific receptors.
• Aluminium hydroxide and magnesium trisilicate, which are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease act by non-receptor mechanism by neutralizing the gastric acid.

Pharmacodynamics Basics:

Many drugs are similar to or have similar chemical groups to the naturally occurring chemical and have the ability to bind onto a receptor where one of two things can happen- either the receptor will respond or it will be blocked.
A drug, which is able to fit onto a receptor, is said to have affinity for that receptor. Efficacy is the ability of a drug to produce an effect at a receptor. An agonist has both an affinity and efficacy whereas antagonist has affinity but not efficacy or intrinsic activity.
When a drug is able to stimulate a receptor, it is known as an agonist and therefore mimics the endogenous transmitter.
When the drug blocks a receptor, it is known as antagonist and therefore blocks the action of the endogenous transmitter (i.e. it will prevent the natural chemical from acting on the receptor).
However, as most drug binding is reversible, there will be competition between the drug and the natural stimulus to the receptor.

The forces that attract the drug to its receptor are termed chemical bonds and they are

(a)hydrogen bond

(b) ionic bond

(c) covalent bond

(d) Vander waals force.

Covalent bond is the strongest bond and the drug-receptor complex is usually irreversible.
K1 K3
DR Biological effect
D+R K2
Where D = Drug, R= receptor DR= Drug receptor complex (affinity)
K1 = association constant
K2 = dissociation constant
K3 = intrinsic activity
When first messengers like neurotransmitters, hormones, autacoids and most of drugs bind with their specific receptors, the drug receptor complex is formed which subsequently causes the synthesis and release of another intracellular regulatory molecule termed as second messengers e.g. cyclic AMP, calcium, cyclic GMP, inositol triphosphate (IP3), diacylglycerol and calmodulin which in turn produce subcellular or molecular mechanism of drug action.

B. Site of drug action:

– A drug may act:
(i) Extracellularly e.g: osmotic diuretics, plasma expanders.
(ii) On the cell surface e.g.: digitalis, penicillin, catecholamines
(iii) Inside the cell e.g.: anti-cancer drugs, steroid hormones.
C. Dose Response relationship
The exact relationship between the dose and the response depends on the biological object under observation and the drug employed.
When a logarithm of dose as abscissa and responses as ordinate are constructed graphically, the “S” shaped or sigmoid type curve is obtained.
The lowest concentration of a drug that elicits a response is minimal dose, and the largest concentration after which further increase in concentration will not change the response is the maximal dose.
1. Graded dose effect: As the dose administered to a single subject or tissue increases, the pharmacological response also increases in graded fashion up to ceiling effect.
– It is used for characterization of the action of drugs. The concentration that is required to produce 50 % of the maximum effect is termed as EC50 or ED50.50

2. Quantal dose effect: It is all or none response, the sensitive objects give response to small doses of a drug while some will be resistant and need very large doses. The quantal dose effect curve is often characterized by stating the median effective dose and the median lethal dose.
Median lethal dose or LD50: This is the dose (mg/kg), which would be expected to kill one half of a population of the same species and strain.
Median effective dose or ED50: This is the dose (mg/kg), which produces a desired response in 50 per cent of test population.
Therapeutic index: It is an approximate assessment of the safety of the drug. It is the ratio of the median lethal dose and the median effective dose. Also called as therapeutic window or safety.

The larger the therapeutic index, the safer is the drug. Penicillin has a very high therapeutic index, while it is much smaller for the digitalis preparation.

D. Structural activity relationship

The activity of a drug is intimately related to its chemical structure. Knowledge about the chemical structure of a drug is useful for:
(i) Synthesis of new compounds with more specific actions and fewer adverse reactions
(ii) Synthesis of competitive antagonist and
(iii) Understanding the mechanism of drug action.
Slight modification of structure of the compound can change the effect completely.

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Pharmacodynamics Examples:


Pharmacodynamics of atropine:

Atropine, a naturally occurring belladonna alkaloid, is a racemic mixture of equal parts of d- and l-hyoscyamine, whose activity is due almost entirely to the levo isomer of the drug. Atropine is commonly classified as an anticholinergic or antiparasympathetic (parasympatholytic) drug. More precisely, however, it is termed an antimuscarinic agent since it antagonizes the muscarine-like actions of acetylcholine and other choline esters. Adequate doses of atropine abolish various types of reflex vagal cardiac slowing or asystole. The drug also prevents or abolishes bradycardia or asystole produced by injection of choline esters, anticholinesterase agents or other parasympathomimetic drugs, and cardiac arrest produced by stimulation of the vagus. Atropine may also lessen the degree of partial heart block when vagal activity is an etiologic factor. Atropine in clinical doses counteracts the peripheral dilatation and abrupt decrease in blood pressure produced by choline esters. However, when given by itself, atropine does not exert a striking or uniform effect on blood vessels or blood pressure.

Pharmacodynamics of Furosemide

Furosemide, a sulfonamide-type loop diuretic structurally related to bumetanide, is used to manage hypertension and edema associated with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, and renal disease, including the nephrotic syndrome.

Furosemide, a loop diuretic, inhibits water reabsorption in the nephron by blocking the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter (NKCC2) in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. This is achieved through competitive inhibition at the chloride binding site on the cotransporter, thus preventing the transport of sodium from the lumen of the loop of Henle into the basolateral interstitium. Consequently, the lumen becomes more hypertonic while the interstitium becomes less hypertonic, which in turn diminishes the osmotic gradient for water reabsorption throughout the nephron. Because the thick ascending limb is responsible for 25% of sodium reabsorption in the nephron, furosemide is a very potent diuretic.

Pharmacodynamics of Heparin

Unfractionated heparin is a highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from 3000 to 30,000 daltons. Heparin is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, and other cells of vertebrates. Heparin is a well-known and commonly used anticoagulant which has antithrombotic properties. Heparin inhibits reactions that lead to the clotting of blood and the formation of fibrin clots both in vitro and in vivo. Small amounts of heparin in combination with antithrombin III, a heparin cofactor,) can inhibit thrombosis by inactivating Factor Xa and thrombin. Once active thrombosis has developed, larger amounts of heparin can inhibit further coagulation by inactivating thrombin and preventing the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. Heparin also prevents the formation of a stable fibrin clot by inhibiting the activation of the fibrin stabilizing factor. Heparin prolongs several coagulation tests. Of all the coagulation tests, activated partial prothrombin time (aPTT) is the most clinically important value.

Mechanism of action

Under normal circumstances, antithrombin III (ATIII) inactivates thrombin (factor IIa) and factor Xa. This process occurs at a slow rate. Administered heparin binds reversibly to ATIII and leads to almost instantaneous inactivation of factors IIa and Xa The heparin-ATIII complex can also inactivate factors IX, XI, XII and plasmin. The mechanism of action of heparin is ATIII-dependent. It acts mainly by accelerating the rate of the neutralization of certain activated coagulation factors by antithrombin, but other mechanisms may also be involved. The antithrombotic effect of heparin is well correlated to the inhibition of factor Xa. Heparin is not a thrombolytic or fibrinolytic. It prevents progression of existing clots by inhibiting further clotting. The lysis of existing clots relies on endogenous thrombolytics.

Pharmacodynamics of paracetamol
Pharmacodynamics of Acetaminophen

Acetaminophen (USAN) or Paracetamol (INN) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. It is a major ingredient in numerous cold and flu medications and many prescription analgesics. It is extremely safe in standard doses, but because of its wide availability, deliberate or accidental overdoses are not uncommon. Acetaminophen, unlike other common analgesics such as aspirin and ibuprofen, has no anti-inflammatory properties or effects on platelet function, and it is not a member of the class of drugs known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs. At therapeutic doses acetaminophen does not irritate the lining of the stomach nor affect blood coagulation, kidney function, or the fetal ductus arteriosus (as NSAIDs can). Like NSAIDs and unlike opioid analgesics, acetaminophen does not cause euphoria or alter mood in any way. Acetaminophen and NSAIDs have the benefit of being completely free of problems with addiction, dependence, tolerance and withdrawal. Acetaminophen is used on its own or in combination with pseudoephedrine, dextromethorphan, chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, codeine, hydrocodone, or oxycodone.

Mechanism of action:

Acetaminophen is thought to act primarily in the CNS, increasing the pain threshold by inhibiting both isoforms of cyclooxygenase, COX-1, COX-2, and COX-3 enzymes involved in prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. Unlike NSAIDs, acetaminophen does not inhibit cyclooxygenase in peripheral tissues and, thus, has no peripheral anti-inflammatory affects. While aspirin acts as an irreversible inhibitor of COX and directly blocks the enzyme’s active site, studies have found that acetaminophen indirectly blocks COX, and that this blockade is ineffective in the presence of peroxides. This might explain why acetaminophen is effective in the central nervous system and in endothelial cells but not in platelets and immune cells which have high levels of peroxides. Studies also report data suggesting that acetaminophen selectively blocks a variant of the COX enzyme that is different from the known variants COX-1 and COX-2. This enzyme is now referred to as COX-3. Its exact mechanism of action is still poorly understood, but future research may provide further insight into how it works. The antipyretic properties of acetaminophen are likely due to direct effects on the heat-regulating centres of the hypothalamus resulting in peripheral vasodilation, sweating and hence heat dissipation.

Pharmacodynamics of salbutamol

Salbutamol (INN) or albuterol (USAN), a moderately selective beta(2)-receptor agonist similar in structure to terbutaline, is widely used as a bronchodilator to manage asthma and other chronic obstructive airway diseases. The R-isomer, levalbuterol, is responsible for bronchodilation while the S-isomer increases bronchial reactivity. The R-enantiomer is sold in its pure form as Levalbuterol. The manufacturer of levalbuterol, Sepracor, has implied (although not directly claimed) that the presence of only the R-enantiomer produces fewer side-effects.

Mechanism of action:

Salbutamol is a beta(2)-adrenergic agonist and thus it stimulates beta(2)-adrenergic receptors. Binding of albuterol to beta(2)-receptors in the lungs results in relaxation of bronchial smooth muscles. It is believed that salbutamol increases cAMP production by activating adenylate cyclase, and the actions of salbutamol are mediated by cAMP. Increased intracellular cyclic AMP increases the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, which inhibits the phosphorylation of myosin and lowers intracellular calcium concentrations. A lowered intracellular calcium concentration leads to a smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. In addition to bronchodilation, salbutamol inhibits the release of bronchoconstricting agents from mast cells, inhibits microvascular leakage, and enhances mucociliary clearance.

Pharmacodynamics of vamana

The overall Pharmacodynamic of Vamanopaga dasemāni drugs is based on guna concept. Most of the drugs (90%) are having property of Laghu and Ruksa guna. These are based on Vāyu, Agni and Ākasa mahābhaūtik (one of the five elements of the universe) composition. Ācarya Caraka has mentioned only the role of gunas in the  Pharmacodynamic of Vamana karma (Bhadanta Nāgārjunā, Rasavaisesika, 2010). In fact guna is the thing
which represents a drug. So, the selection of a drug should be on the basis of gunas for Vamana karma. 
Ācarya has mentioned predominance of Vāyu and Agni mahābhūta drugs for Vamana karma. Rasas (taste) of vamana dravyas are chiefly katu and kasāya rasa which are composition of the same mahābhūtas. Most of
drugs are katu Vipāka having similar bhaūtic constitution. Other drugs are supportive to the therapy or to avoid complications during Vamana karma. As an example; honey which is mentioned in Vamanopaga dasemāni is added
to Vamana kalpa (prepared medicine) for increasing the palatability and giving soothing effect. Āyurveda says it is a good kapha chedaka (expectorant), helps in better expulsion of malarūpī kapha by vamana karma. Likewise Saindhava (salt) should be added to Vamana kalpa for Vilāyana (Agnivesa, Caraka Samhita, 2001) (liquefying)
of sticky Kaphadosa in channels. Effect of both the drugs is to help in a comfortable and irritation less procedure. added to Vamana kalpa for Vilāyana (Agnivesa, Caraka Samhita, 2001) (liquefying) of sticky Kaphadosa in channels. Effect of both the drugs is to help in a comfortable and irritation less procedure.

Pharmacodynamics of basti

Basti is chief Panchakama procedure used in Ayurveda. The pharmacodynamics of systemic effect of Basti may be understood through absorption mechanism, concept of system biology, neural stimulation mechanism, and excretory mechanism. As Basti is homogenous emulsion mixture of Honey, Saindhava,Sneha Dravya, Kalka, and decoction of crude drugs and Prakshepa Dravya, which is given through rectum, is absorbed, hence Basti is used as route of drug administration. Through rectal route large quantity of drugs can be delivered for systemic circulation and act accordingly. Concept of system biology opines that a change at cellular level of a system can bring changes in tissue, organ and system and in another system consequently & finally in whole body. As per recent advancement intestine not only is highly vascular but also highly innervated organ which forms ‘Enteric Nervous System’ (ENS).ENS may works in synergism with Central Nervous System of body. The cleansing action of Basti is related with the facilitation of excretion of morbid substances responsible for the disease process into the colon, from where it is evacuated.

Basti being the most widely used and highly effective treatment modality in the Ayurveda, it is the prime subject of interest for modern scientific community. With this background the basic question which comes forward regarding Basti is, “do active principles of drugs used in Basti get absorbed in systemic circulation. Triphaladi decoction Basti containing biomarker gallic acid and after Basti they traced it in the circulation. The rectum has rich blood and lymph supply and drugs can cross the rectal mucosa like other lipid membrane. Thus unionised and lipid soluble
substances are readily absorbed from the rectal mucosa. Small quantity of short chain fatty acid fatty acids, such as those from butterfat are absorbed directly into portal blood rather than being converted into triglycerides. This is because short chain fatty acids are more water soluble and allow direct diffusion from the epithelial cells into
capillary blood of villi. However decoction Basti gets a very little time maximum 48 minutes  to absorb from colon and rectum how so ever these areas have very large surface area and highly vascular needed for absorption. Retention time for Anuvashana Basti is relatively more so probability of absorption also increases. Anuvasana Basti
after reaching in the rectum and colon causes secretion of bile from gall bladder which leads to the formation of conjugate micelles which is absorbed through passive diffusion. Especially short chain fatty acid present in Sneha of
Anuvasana Basti may absorb from colon and large intestine part of gastrointestinal tract and break the pathology of disease. In Basti Karma, a homogenous emulsion

2) By System Biology Concept of Honey, Saindhava, Sneha Dravya, Kalka, and decoction mixed in remarkable combination after proper churning (break the large and middle chain fatty acid into small chain fatty acids) is given which facilitates absorption better then a single drug per rectum. In Ayurveda classics, various Basti Dravya are
mentioned in diverse proportion in different diseases, it again confirms pharmacodynamics of Basti through absorption mechanism

Pharmacodynamics of phenytoin

Phenytoin is an antiepileptic drug which can be useful in the treatment of epilepsy. The primary site of action appears to be the motor cortex where spread of seizure activity is inhibited. Phenytoin reduces the maximal activity of brain stem centers responsible for the tonic phase of tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures. Phenytoin acts to dampen the unwanted, runaway brain activity seen in seizure by reducing electrical conductance among brain cells. It lacks the sedation effects associated with phenobarbital. There are some indications that phenytoin has other effects, including anxiety control and mood stabilization, although it has never been approved for those purposes by the FDA. Phenytoin is primarily metabolized by CYP2C9.

Mechanism of action

Phenytoin acts on sodium channels on the neuronal cell membrane, limiting the spread of seizure activity and reducing seizure propagation. By promoting sodium efflux from neurons, phenytoin tends to stabilize the threshold against hyperexcitability caused by excessive stimulation or environmental changes capable of reducing membrane sodium gradient. This includes the reduction of post-tetanic potentiation at synapses. Loss of post-tetanic potentiation prevents cortical seizure foci from detonating adjacent cortical areas.

Pharmacodynamics of Aspirin

Acetylsalicylic acid is an analgesic, antipyretic, antirheumatic, and anti-inflammatory agent. Acetylsalicylic acid’s mode of action as an antiinflammatory and antirheumatic agent may be due to inhibition of synthesis and release of prostaglandins. Acetylsalicylic acid appears to produce analgesia by virtue of both a peripheral and CNS effect. Peripherally, acetylsalicylic acid acts by inhibiting the synthesis and release of prostaglandins. Acting centrally, it would appear to produce analgesia at a hypothalamic site in the brain, although the mode of action is not known. Acetylsalicylic acid also acts on the hypothalamus to produce antipyresis; heat dissipation is increased as a result of vasodilation and increased peripheral blood flow. Acetylsalicylic acid’s antipyretic activity may also be related to inhibition of synthesis and release of prostaglandins.

Mechanism of action:

The analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects of acetylsalicylic acid are due to actions by both the acetyl and the salicylate portions of the intact molecule as well as by the active salicylate metabolite. Acetylsalicylic acid directly and irreversibly inhibits the activity of both types of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) to decrease the formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. This makes acetylsalicylic acid different from other NSAIDS (such as diclofenac and ibuprofen) which are reversible inhibitors. Salicylate may competitively inhibit prostaglandin formation. Acetylsalicylic acid’s antirheumatic (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory) actions are a result of its analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms; the therapeutic effects are not due to pituitary-adrenal stimulation. The platelet aggregation-inhibiting effect of acetylsalicylic acid specifically involves the compound’s ability to act as an acetyl donor to cyclooxygenase; the nonacetylated salicylates have no clinically significant effect on platelet aggregation. Irreversible acetylation renders cyclooxygenase inactive, thereby preventing the formation of the aggregating agent thromboxane A2 in platelets. Since platelets lack the ability to synthesize new proteins, the effects persist for the life of the exposed platelets (7-10 days). Acetylsalicylic acid may also inhibit production of the platelet aggregation inhibitor, prostacyclin (prostaglandin I2), by blood vessel endothelial cells; however, inhibition prostacyclin production is not permanent as endothelial cells can produce more cyclooxygenase to replace the non-functional enzyme.

Pharmacodynamics of pantaprazole

Pantoprazole is a substituted benzimidazole indicated for the short-term treatment (up to 16 weeks) in the healing and symptomatic relief of erosive esophagitis. Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that suppresses the final step in gastric acid production.

Mechanism of action:

Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that suppresses the final step in gastric acid production by forming a covalent bond to two sites of the (H+,K+ )- ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. This effect is dose- related and leads to inhibition of both basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion irrespective of the stimulus.

Pharmacology Text Books Lists: D Pharm B Pharm Medical Students Top 10 Pharmacology Books

Hello readers in this article “List of Pharmacology & Toxicology Books” we provide Top 10 best rated Pharmacology Books along with Author Name which are bestselling Pharmacology textbooks in the current market. We provide Best Pharmacology Books Every Student Should Know to understand the subject in a proper and interactive way.

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What is Pharmacology:

Pharmacology is the study of interaction of drugs with living organisms. It also includes history, source, physicochemical properties, dosage forms, methods of administration, absorption, distribution mechanism of action, biotransformation, excretion, clinical uses and adverse effects of drugs. Pharmacology is both a basic and an applied science. It forms the backbone of rational therapeutics.Whereas the medical student and the prescribing physician are primarily concerned with the applied aspects, correct and skillful application of drugs is impossible without a proper understanding of their basic pharmacology. Medical  pharmacology, therefore, must include both fundamental background and clinical pharmacological information. Objective and quantitative data on the use of drugs in man, i.e., relationship between plasma concentration and intensity of therapeutic/toxic actions, plasma half lives, relative efficacy of different medications and incidence of adverse effects etc., are being obtained with the aim of optimising drug therapy. The concepts regarding mechanism
of action of drugs are changing. In addition, new drugs are being introduced in different countries at an explosive pace. A plethora of information thus appears to be important.

Here is a overview of General Pharmacology Text Books:

Section 1
General Pharmacological Principles
1. Introduction, Routes of Drug Administration
2. Pharmacokinetics: Membrane Transport, Absorption and Distribution of Drugs
3. Pharmacokinetics: Metabolism and Excretion of Drugs, Kinetics of Elimination
4. Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of Drug Action; Receptor Pharmacology
5. Aspects of Pharmacotherapy, Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Development
6. Adverse Drug Effects 82
Section 2
Drugs Acting on Autonomic Nervous System
7a. Autonomic Nervous System: General Considerations
7b. Cholinergic System and Drugs 99
8. Anticholinergic Drugs and Drugs Acting on Autonomic Ganglia
9. Adrenergic System and Drugs
10. Antiadrenergic Drugs (Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists) and
Drugs for Glaucoma

Section 3
Autacoids and Related Drugs
11. Histamine and Antihistaminics
2. 5-Hydroxytryptamine, its Antagonists and Drug Therapy of Migraine
13. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes (Eicosanoids) and Platelet Activating Factor
14. Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs and Antipyretic-Analgesics
15. Antirheumatoid and Antigout Drugs
Section 4
Respiratory System Drugs
16. Drugs for Cough and Bronchial Asthma
Section 5
Hormones and Related Drugs
17a. Introduction
17b. Anterior Pituitary Hormones
18. Thyroid Hormone and Thyroid Inhibitors
19. Insulin, Oral Hypoglycaemic Drugs and Glucagon
20. Corticosteroids 282
21. Androgens and Drugs for Erectile Dysfunction
22. Estrogens, Progestins and Contraceptives
23. Oxytocin and Other Drugs Acting on Uterus
24. Drugs Affecting Calcium Balance
Section 6
Drugs Acting on Peripheral (Somatic)
Nervous System
25. Skeletal Muscle Relaxants
26. Local Anaesthetics
Section 7
Drugs Acting on Central Nervous System
27. General Anaesthetics
28. Ethyl and Methyl Alcohols
29. Sedative-Hypnotics
30. Antiepileptic Drugs
31. Antiparkinsonian Drugs
32. Drugs Used in Mental Illness: Antipsychotic and Antimanic Drugs
33. Drugs Used in Mental Illness: Antidepressant and Antianxiety Drugs 454
34. Opioid Analgesics and Antagonists 469
35. CNS Stimulants and Cognition Enhancers 486

Section 8
Cardiovascular Drugs
36a. Cardiac Electrophysiological Considerations
36b. Drugs Affecting Renin-Angiotensin System and Plasma Kinins
37. Cardiac Glycosides and Drugs for Heart Failure 512
38. Antiarrhythmic Drugs 526
39. Antianginal and Other Anti-ischaemic Drugs
40. Antihypertensive Drugs 558
Section 9
Drugs Acting on Kidney
41a. Relevant Physiology of Urine Formation
41b. Diuretics 579
42. Antidiuretics 593
Section 10
Drugs Affecting Blood and Blood Formation
43. Haematinics and Erythropoietin 599
44. Drugs Affecting Coagulation, Bleeding and Thrombosis
45. Hypolipidaemic Drugs and Plasma Expanders 634
Section 11
Gastrointestinal Drugs
46. Drugs for Peptic Ulcer and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
47. Antiemetic, Prokinetic and Digestant Drugs
48. Drugs for Constipation and Diarrhoea 672
Section 12
Antimicrobial Drugs
49. Antimicrobial Drugs: General Considerations
50. Sulfonamides, Cotrimoxazole and Quinolones
51. Beta-Lactam Antibiotics 716

52. Tetracyclines and Chloramphenicol (Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics)
53. Aminoglycoside Antibiotics 743
54. Macrolide, Lincosamide, Glycopeptide and Other Antibacterial Antibiotics;
Urinary Antiseptics 752
55. Antitubercular Drugs
56. Antileprotic Drugs
57. Antifungal Drugs
58. Antiviral Drugs
59. Antimalarial Drugs
60. Antiamoebic and Other Antiprotozoal Drugs
61. Anthelmintic Drugs 849
Section 13
Chemotherapy of Neoplastic Diseases
62. Anticancer Drugs 857
Section 14
Miscellaneous Drugs
63. Immunosuppressant Drugs
64. Drugs Acting on Skin and Mucous Membranes
65. Antiseptics, Disinfectants and Ectoparasiticides
66. Chelating Agents 905
67. Vitamins 909
68. Vaccines and Sera
69. Drug Interactions

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General Pharmacology Textbooks will help B Pharm M Pharm D Pharm and medical students to:

1. Define various terminologies used in Pharmacology.
2. Know about nature and sources of drugs.
3. Understand pharmacodynamics like mechanism of drug action, dose relation ship and pharmacokinetics like absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of drugs.
4. Understand theoritical pharmacokinetics like half-life, order of kinetics, steady state plasma concentration.
5. Understand drug safety and effectiveness like factors affecting drug action and adverse drug reactions.
6. Understand new drug development and evaluation

List Of Pharmacology & Toxicology Books:

Pharmacology & Toxicology Books

List of Pharmacology Text Books Pharmacology Text Books For Pharmacy Medical Dentist Students
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Pharmacology Text Books For B Pharmacy


Rang & Dale’s Pharmacology- 7th Edition

Pharmacology: Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews

Pharmacology Text Books For M Pharmacy:


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Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics

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) Pharmacology: Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews

2) USMLE Road Map – Pharmacology

3) Katzung’s Pharmacology: Examination and Board Review

4) Kaplan Lecture Notes: Pharmacology

5) Pharmacology Brenner

6) Pharmacology: PreTest Self-Assessment and Review

7) Elsevier’s Integrated Pharmacology

8) Lecture Notes on Clinical Pharmacology

9) Pharmcards

10) Pharmacology – Oklahoma Notes

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D Pharmacy 1st Year B Pharm First Sem – Anatomy & Physiology Notes – Solved Question Paper

Lymph node D Pharmacy 1st Year B Pharm First Sem - Anatomy & Physiology Notes

Here is a great article for our readers especially D Pharmacy 1st Year B Pharm First Sem students who are struggling to learn Anatomy & Physiology Subjects. Hence we provide Notes as Solved Question Paper which are very important for your examinations.

Give functions of mitochondria & endoplasmic reticulum. (1 mark each)

 Mitochondria is known as power house of cell. They are involved in cellular respiration, the process by which chemical energy is made available in the cell. When nutrients and oxygen come in contact with the oxidative enzymes of mitochondria, they combine to form CO2, water & energy, this is in the form of ATP. (aerobic oxidation)

  • Endoplasmic reticulum are of two types. Smooth and rough. Smooth ER synthesizes lipids and steroid hormones and associated with detoxification of drugs. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes. It is a site of synthesis of proteins that are exported from

b)  Define tissue. Classify connective tissue. (def. 1 mark, classification 1 mark)

 10 Basic Definitions ofPharmacy

Groups of cells which have the same physical characteristics and similar functions are termed as tissues.

Classification of connective tissue:

  1. Connective tissue proper: i) Areolar tissu ii) Adipose tissue

        iii) White fibrous tissue     iv) Yellow elastic tissue

  1. Specialised connective tissue:         i) Bone ii) Cartilage
  1. Vascular tissue:       i) Blood                             ii) Lymphoid tissue

c)  What are true ribs & false ribs? ( 2 marks)

 There are 12 pairs of ribs. Anteriorly, the first seven pairs of ribs are attached to the sternum via costal cartilage & are known as true ribs. The next three ribs are attached indirectly via seventh rib & known as false ribs

d)  Write composition of blood. (2 marks)



It is composed of a liquid matrix plasma (55%) & different cells suspended in it (45%).

Plasma- CompositionWater-90-92%, plasma proteins, inorganic salts, nutrients, waste material, hormones & gases.

Blood cells – Red blood cells or erythrocytes, white blood cells or leucocytes and platelets or thrombocytes


e)  Draw and label lymph node 

Lymph node D Pharmacy 1st Year B Pharm First Sem - Anatomy & Physiology Notes


f)  What is SA node & AV node? (1 mark each)


SA node (sinoatrial node) This is small mass of specialized neuromuscular cells in the walls of myocardium of right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava. It is known as pacemaker of the heart as it initiates the impulses.

 AV node- (atrioventricular node): This is the mass of neuromuscular cells in the wall of the atrial septum near the AV valves. Normally it conducts the impulses that are originated by SA node. It is known as secondary pace maker as it generates the impulses when there is problem with SA node.

g)  Give the functions of CSF. (4 functions, 2 marks)

  1. To support & protect brain & spinal
  1. Maintain uniform pressure around
  1. Acts as cushion & shock absorber
  1. Keeps brain & spinal cord

h)  Define (any two) (each 1 mark)

 Presbyopia: As a process of aging, the lens loses its elasticity; the distant objects are seen clear but close objects are

  1. Cataract: This is opacity of lens which may be age related or congenital bilateral or unilateral.
  • Hypermetropia: Also known as farsightedness. Far vision is normal but close vision is blurred, because the near image is focused behind the retina as eye ball length is too short or due to flattened


i)   Write the functions of hypothalamus. ( 2 marks)


  1. It controls the hormone release from pituitary
  1. Control of autonomic nervous system, appetite & satiety, thirst, body , emotions, sexual behavior & biological clock.

j)  Name any two cranial nerves with their function. (Any 2, 2 marks)


Olfactory –                                       sense of smell

Optic  –                                          sense of light/vision

Occulomotor –                                 movement of the eyeball, change shape of lens, Constriction of pupil, raising the upper lid.

Trochlear –                                       movement of the eye

Trigeminal –                                    receives impulses of pain temp. & touch for face & head, stimulates muscle of mastication

Abducent –                                      abduction of eye ball

Facial –                                          conveys impulse from taste buds & supplies muscles of facial expression

Auditory (vestibulocochlear) –      conveys impulses to the cerebellum for posture &

Balance & sense of hearing

Glossopharyngeal –                       Sense of taste, production of saliva and movement of


Vagus –                                         Secretion, movement in organs

Accessory –                                  Movements of head, shoulder, pharynx and larynx

Hypoglossal –                              Supplies to the muscle of tongue & muscle surrounding the hyoid bone & helps in swallowing & speech.


k)  What are auditory ossicles? (1 mark) Write their function. (1 mark)

Auditory ossicles: Malleus, incus & stapes are the three small bones in the middle ear extending from tympanic membrane to the oval window. Sound vibrations of tympanic membrane are amplified & transmitted by these bones.

l)  What is B.P.? Name the factors affecting B.P. (def 1 mark and any 4 factors 1 mark)

B.P is the force or lateral pressure which the blood exerts on the wall of blood vessels. Factors affecting B.P. are exercise, nutrition, age, stress, circulating hormones, autonomic nervous system activity.

Q2.  Solve any four of the following:                                                          12

  1. Define respiration. Write the process of external respiration. (def 1 mark, explanation 2 marks)

Respiration is a process of supply of oxygen present in atmosphere into the body & excretion for carbon dioxide.

External respiration- (cycle of breathing)

The normal human has 12-15 breath per min. Each breath consists of inspiration, expiration & pause.

Inspiration: The simultaneous contraction of intercostal muscles & diaphragm increases the capacity of thoracic cavity. This reduces the pressure in the lungs. To equalise the pressure the air from atmosphere enters the lungs. The process of inspiration is active as it needs energy for muscle contraction. It lasts for 2 sec.

Expiration: Relaxation of intercostal muscles & diaphragm results in decrease in the space in the lungs. As a result, the pressure inside the lungs increases as compared to atmospheric pressure. The air from the lungs is expelled from the lungs. This process is passive as does not require energy. The expiration lasts for 3 sec. After expiration there is pause & then the next cycle begins.


b) Write steps involved in urine formation. Describe selective reabsorption. (steps 1 mark, explanation 2 marks)

There are three processes of urine formation:

  1. Glomerular filtration
  2. Selective reabsorption
  3. Tubular secretion.

Selective reabsorption:

Selective reabsorption is the process by which the composition and volume of the glomerular filtrate is altered during its passage through the convoluted tubules, Loop of Henle and the collecting tubule. The purpose of this process is to reabsorb those constituents of the filtrate which are essential to the body, maintain the fluid and electrolyte balance and the alkalinity of blood.

Some constituents of the glomerular filtrate e.g. glucose; vitamins and amino acids get completely reabsorbed into the blood. These substances are called high- threshold substances.

Low-threshold substances like urea, uric acid are absorbed slightly.

Some substances e.g. creatinine are not at all absorbed.(no-threshold substances) Parathormone from parathyroid gland & calcitonin from thyroid gland regulate reabsorption of calcium & phosphate,

ADH from posterior pituitary increases the permeability of the tubule & increases water reabsorption.

Aldosterone by adrenal cortex increases reabsorption of sodium.

Pharmacology Notes: PPT PDF – ANTICANCER DRUGS

c)What is muscle tone? Give the functions of muscle. (muscle tone 1 mark, functions 2 marks)

Muscle tone is a sustained partial muscle contraction that allows maintenance of posture of the body.


Functions of the muscles are-

Skeletal muscles contract & help the movement of the body & stability of the joint. It also helps in generation of heat.Intercostal muscles help in respiration.

  • Smooth muscles helps contraction & relaxation of blood vessels & controls blood flow & movement of the food in the alimentary
  • Cardiac muscles help in the functioning of

d)Give the composition & function of gastric juice. (comp. 1 mark, functions 2 marks)

Composition of gastric juice:

Water, mineral salt, mucus, HCl, intrinsic factor, pepsinogen Functions of gastric juice-

  1. Water liquifies the food.
  2. HCl acidifies the food & stops the action of salivary
  3. HCl kills the
  4. Pepsinogen is activated to pepsin by HCl. This digests protein to smaller
  5. Intrinsic factor absorbs vit. B12 from small
  6. Mucus prevents mechanical injury to the stomach

e)              Name hormones of adrenal cortex & mention their functions. (names 1 mark, functions 2 marks)

Adrenal cortex produces three groups of hormones namely glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoid & androgens.

Glucocorticoids: Cortisol or hydrocortisone is the main glucocorticoid. Others are corticosterone & cortisone.

They regulate metabolism like gluconeogenesis, lipolysis and proteolysis. Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone.) It regulates water & electrolyte balance. It increases the reabsorption of Na ions.

Androgens: The compounds secreted are insignificant to show any action.


f) Define reproduction. Name the different reproductive organs of male reproductive system. (def 1 mark, organs 2 marks)

Reproduction is the process of formation of offspring OR It is defined as process by which genetic material is passed from one generation to another & thus maintains continuation of species.

The male reproductive system consists of the following organs:

Testis            2 Epididymis 2 Spermatic cords 2
Seminal vesicles 2 Ejaculatory ducts 2 Prostate gland 1
Urethra & Penis 1

Q3.  Solve any four of the following:                                                          12

  1. Give differences between striated and smooth muscles. (any 6 points, 3 marks)
Sr. No Skeletal muscle Smooth muscle
1. It is also known as striated Muscle Non‐ striated muscle
2. It is less extensible It is more extensible
3. The fibres (cell) are cylindrical and has

many nuclei

The cells are spindle shaped

with only one central nucleus

4. They are under the control of our will. (voluntary) They are not under the

control of our will.(involuntary)

5. The fibrous tissue enclosing

the whole muscle extends beyond the fibres to become the tendon which attaches the muscle to the bone or skin.

Bundles of fibres form sheets of muscle.
6. There is distinct sarcolemma No distinct sarcolemma
7. Present in tongue, arms or hands, legs,


Present in oesophagus, stomach,

intestine, etc



b)             Define: ( 1 mark each)


  1. Gout: Inflammation of joints due to deposition of sodium urate crystals in the joints.
  2. Arthritis: Chronic disease that results in pain and restricted movement of
  • Sprain: Joint injury in which some of the fibres of supporting ligament are damaged OR If a ligament is stretched or torn; the injury is called a

c)              Name different type of blood group. Explain the term universal donor and universal recipient. (name 1 mark, explanation 2 marks)

Different blood groups are: A, B, AB and O

Blood group “O” is called as Universal donor and Blood group “AB” is called as

Universal recipient.

Individuals have different antigens on the surface of their RBCs. These antigens determine their blood groups.

Blood group ‘O’ has neither A nor B antigen on their cell membrane. There will be no agglutination and thus blood can be safely transfused into A, B, AB and O. but can receive from only O.Therefore, blood group O is called universal donor.

Whereas blood group AB has neither antiA nor antiB antibodies. Transfusion of any group into these individuals is safe since there are no antibodies to react with them. But can donate only to AB. Hence it is called as universal recipient.


d)             Define cardiac cycle. Write various events in cardiac cycle. (def 1 mark, explanation 2 marks)

Cardiac cycle: The events which occur in the heart during the circulation of blood during each heart beat is called cardiac cycle OR The series of events during one heart beat is known as cardiac cycle.

Events in cardiac cycle:

  • Atrial systole (0.1 sec)
  • Ventricular systole (0.3 sec)
  • Complete cardiac diastole (0.4 sec)

Description of cardiac cycle (2 marks)

The superior & inferior vena cava transport the deoxygenated blood into right atrium. At the same time four pulmonary veins transport oxygenated blood into the left atrium. The impulses from the SA node spreads over the atria, atria contracts, the AV valves open and & blood flows to ventricles. ( atrial systole-0.1 sec)

When the wave of contraction reaches AV node, it is stimulated & emits impulses which spreads over AV bundle, bundle branches & purkinje fibres resulting in contraction of ventricles pumping the blood into pulmonary artery & the aorta. (ventricular systole 0.3 sec). After the contraction of the ventricles there is complete cardiac diastole(0.4 sec) when both atria & ventricles relax. After this the next cycle begins.

e)   What is reflex action? Draw a well-labelled diagram of reflex arc. (Reflex action 1 ½ marks, diagram 1 ½ marks)

Reflex action is an automatic motor response given by the spinal cord to the sensory stimulus without involving brain in action. They are a part of defensive mechanisms of the body.


Important reflex actions are:

  1. Quick closing of an eyelid if eye is
  2. Sudden withdrawal of hand if fingers touch something
  3. Quick recovery of the balance of the body to prevent falling after a
  4. Sudden coughing attack if a food particle is

Diagram of reflex arc:


f)                Mention layers of epidermis of skin. State functions of skin. ( names of layers 1 mark, any 4 functions 2 marks)

Layers of epidermis:

Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum and stratum granulosum & stratum germinativum Functions of skin:

  1. Protection – It forms the water proof layer & protects the inner delicate structures. It acts as the barrier against the invasion of the microbes, chemicals &dehydration. The melanin pigment protects against the harmful UV
  2. Regulation of body temp.- The temp. is constant at 36.8o When the metabolic rate of the body increases the body temp increases & vice versa. To ensure constant body temp, a balance between heat production & heat loss is maintained by the skin.
  3. Formation of vit. D.- 7-dehydroxycholesterol is present in the skin. The UV light from the sun converts it to vit.
  4. Sensation – It contains nerve endings of many sensory nerves which act as organ of sensation of touch, temp, pressure and
  5. Absorption- Some drugs & chemicals are absorbed through the
  6. Excretion- Skin is a minor excretory organ & excretes NaCl, urea & sub. like garlic.

Q4.  Solve any four of the following:                                                          12

  1. Define and give normal values: (1 mark for each)
  2. Tidal volume: It is the volume of air moved in & out of lungs during normal breathing. Normal value is 500


  1. Inspiratory reserve volume: It is the amount of air that can be breathed in and above the tidal volume by the deepest possible inspiration. Normal value is 1800 – 3000
  • Residual volume: It is the volume of air remaining in lungs after forced Normal value is 1.2 L in males and 1.1 L in females.

  Give physiology of neuromuscular transmission. ( 3 marks)

When a nerve impulse reaches neuromuscular junction, passage of action potential over the sole feet causes the vesicles of acetylcholine to rupture into the synaptic cleft. The acetylcholine acts on the cell membrane to increase its permeability.

This allows spontaneous leakage of Na causing endplate potential. When the endplate potential increases, it stimulates the entire muscle fibre causing an action potential to travel in both directions along the fibre. When the action potential spread to inside of muscle fibre then Ca ions are released. This causes contraction of muscle fibres. Immediately after action potential is over, the previously released Ca ions recombine with reticulum and the muscle contraction stops.

The enzyme acetylcholinesterase present in the synaptic cleft.  causes hydrolysis of acetylcholine. The muscle fibre is repolaised again to receive successive stimuli.

d)             Describe the structure of stomach. ( str 2 marks, diag 1 mark)

 Stomach is a J-shaped dilated portion of the alimentary canal. It is continuous with the oesophagus at cardiac sphincter and with duodenum at pyloric sphincter. It has 2 curvatures – lesser curvature and greater curvature. The stomach is divided into three regions- fundus, body & antrum. There are three layers of smooth muscle fibres outer longitudinal, the middle circular layer & the inner oblique fibres. This helps the churning movement & peristaltic movement.




e)              What is endocrine and exocrine gland? Name the endocrine glands. (each def 1 mark, any 4 endocrine glands 1 mark)

Endocrine glands are ductless glands which release their secretions (hormones) directly into the blood.

Exocrine gland: The glands that discharge their secretions through the duct are known as exocrine glands.

Endocrine glands: Pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, pancreas (islets of Langerhans). adrenal glands, pineal gland, testes in male and ovaries in female.


f)                Define menstruation. Explain proliferative phase of menstruation.(def 1 mark, explanation 2 marks)

Menstruation: This is the series of events occurring regularly in females every 26-30 days throughout the child bearing age. The cycle consists of menstrual phase for 4 days, proliferative phase for 10 days & secretary phase for 14 days.

Proliferative phase: It is characterized by release of oestrogen by the maturing ovarian follicle under the influence of FSH from the anterior pituitary. Oestrogen stimulates the proliferation of the endometrium in preparation of the fertilized ovum. The endometrium becomes thicker by rapid cell multiplication and this is accompanied by an increase in the number of mucus-secreting glands and blood capillaries. This phase lasts for 10 days and stops when ovulation occurs and oestrogen production is inhibited i.e. when the ovarian follicle ruptures.

Q.5  Solve any four of the following:        (12 marks, 03 marks each)


  1. State the factors which accelerate and retard the clotting of blood. (3 marks, 1.5 marks each)

There are various factors which accelerate and retard the clotting of blood.

(1)   Factors accelerating clotting are( any 3 points, 1.5 marks)


  • During menstruation and parturition
  • Injury to the walls of the blood vessels: An injury in the form of cut bleeds more freely than the injury by the
  • The venom of viper snakes
  • Higher temperature (above 46 0 C)
  • Presence of calcium salts


(2)   Factors retarding clotting are (any 3 points, 1.5 marks):

  • In clinical condition like haemophilia, liver disease, afibrinogenemia, Christmas disease,
  • Removal calcium ions from the blood by addition of sodium or potassium or citrate


(c ) Calcium deficiency in blood

(d)Lower temperature: However, lower temperature causes contraction of blood vessels. ( e)Deficiency of vitamin K

(b)   Describe how circulation of blood takes place through heart chambers. (3 marks)


The superior vena cava (for upper body) and inferior vena cava (for lower body) receive deoxygenated /impure blood from various part of the body through different veins. This deoxygenated/ impure blood they pour into the right atrium of heart. The blood from right atrium enters the right ventricle through a tricuspid valve, which prevent back flow of blood from ventricle into atrium.

The deoxygenated/ impure blood from right ventricle is forced into pulmonary artery through pulmonary valve. The pulmonary arteries divide into two branches each enters the right and left lungs. In the lungs, the red blood cells (RBCs) release carbon dioxide and absorbs oxygen. This oxygenated blood from right and left lungs is collected by four pulmonary veins and poured into left atrium. From left atrium this blood enters into left ventricle through bicuspid valve which prevents back flow of blood into left atrium.This oxygenated blood from left ventricle is forced into the aorta through aortic valve which prevent back flow of blood into left ventricle.

  • Give the various functions of medulla oblongata. (03 marks, 1mark for each function The vital centres consisting of group of cells associated with autonomic reflex activity lie in Medulla oblongata. They are,


  • Cardiac centre– The cardiac centre controls the rate and force of cardiac contraction and blood
  • Respiratory centre – The respiratory centre controls the rate and depth of respiration. Nerve impulses pass to the phrenic and intercostal muscles which stimulate the contraction of diaphragm and intercostal muscles, thus initiating
  • Vasomotor centre – This controls the diameter of blood vessels especially small arteries and arterioles.
  • Reflex centre – When irritating substance are present in stomach or respiratory tract, nerve impulse pass on to the medulla oblongata stimulating the reflex centre which initiate reflex actions like vomiting, sneezing and

(d)   Explain retina of eye. (3marks)


  • Retina is the innermost layer of the eye. It gets stimulated by the light rays. It is composed of several layers of nerve cell body & the axons. There are light sensitive cells mainly of two types: the rods and
  • The entire retina contains about 7 million cones and 75 to 150 million
  • Rods function mainly in dim light and provide black-and-white vision, The rods have rhodopsin or visual purple is photosensitive pigment. It gets bleached with light & gets regenerated by vit. A. The rods are present more in the periphery of the
  • Cones sensitive to bright light & colour. cone opsins (also known as photopsins or iodopsin) present in cone cells, are used in colour
  • The central retina has macula lutea or yellow spot made up of only cone cells. It has central depression called fovea centralis.All the nerve fibres of retina form the optic nerve. The small area of the retina where the optic nerve leave the eye is known as optic disc or blind spot as no light sensitive cells are present here.


(e)  Define nephritis. Give function of kidney. (Definition 1 mark, any 4 functions 2 marks)


Nephritis: Nephritis refers to inflammation of one or both kidneys due to infection or autoimmune disease.

Functions of kidney are:

  1. Formation of urine –Each kidney consist of nephron which filter waste product from blood & helps in urine ,
  2. Maintenance of acid base balance it helps maintaining pH by excretion of H+ ions & reabsorption of HCO3
  3. Maintenance of electrolyte balance
  4. Maintenance of blood pressure. it regulates B.P. by Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone system
  5. Maintenance of water helps in maintaining water balance with the help of
  6. Formation of erythropoietin hormone for erythropoeisis

(f)  Define (3 marks, 1 mark for each definition)


  1. Mastication: It is the process by which food is chewed and mixed with saliva to form a soft mass or bolus which is swallowed. OR Mastication means chewing process takes place in mouth cavity.
  2. Chyme: The thick semisolid mass of partially digested food that is passed from the stomach to the
  3. ii) Digestion: The conversion of complex food ( carbohydrate , proteins & fats) into simpler form (glucose, amino acids & fatty acid) by mechanical breakdown & chemical digestion so that it is easily absorbed into the blood and utilized for energy.


Q.6  Solve any four of the following: (16 marks, 4 marks each)


  • State eight (8) functions of liver. (0.5 marks for each function)


Functions of liver

  1. Secretion of bile: Bile salts are helpful in digestion and absorption of fats by its emulsification.
  2. Glycogenic function: The hepatic cells by the action of enzymes convert glucose into glycogen and it is then stored in the
  3. Formation of urea: Hepatic cells by the action of the enzyme cause deamination of amino acid, i.e. amine group is set free which forms
  4. Metabolism of fat: Whenever energy is needed, the saturated stored fat is converted to a form in which it can be used to provide
  5. Formation of RBCs in foetal
  6. Destruction of RBCs forming bile pigments and
  7. Formation of plasma
  8. Formation of heparin, a natural anticoagulant in the
  9. Storage of iron and vitamin B
  10. Maintenance of body temperature: As a number of chemical reactions occur in the liver, heat is generated which is helpful in maintaining body
  11. Excretion of toxic substances: The toxic substances entering the body through alimentary canal are destroyed in






  1. Carbohydrate metabolism: It helps in maintaining plasma glucose level with the help of insulin &
  2. Fat metabolism: Stored fat can be converted to a form in which it can be used by the tissue to provide
  • Protein metabolism: Deamination of amino -removes nitrogenous portion from amino acid not required for formation of new protein. Urea is formed from the nitrogenous portion which is excreted in urine. Break down of nucleic acids to form uric acid which is excreted in urine. Transamination: Removes the nitrogenous portion of amino acid & attaches it to carbohydrate molecule forming new non-essential amino acid. .
  1. Synthesis of plasma protein & most blood clotting factors from amino
  2. Breakdown of RBCs & defense against This is carried out by Kupffer cells.
  3. Detoxification of drugs & noxious
  • Inactivation of hormones
  • Production of heat
  1. Secretion of bile
  2. Storage of glycogen, iron, copper, & water fat soluble vit-A, D,E, K, soluble vit. Like B12.

(b)      What is hepatic portal circulation? Give its importance. (4marks; circulation 3 marks, importance 1 mark)

The portal circulation (3 marks)

In all parts of the body, the venous blood passes from the tissues to the heart by the direct route.

But, in the portal circulation, venous blood from the capillary bed of the abdominal parts, the spleen & the pancreas passes to the liver via the portal vein. The portal vein is formed by union of gastric vein from stomach, superior & inferior mesenteric veins from small and large intestine, splenic vein from spleen & cystic vein from gall bladder. The blood


passes through the secondary capillary bed, the hepatic sinusoid in the liver before entering the general circulation via the inferior vena cava.

Importance of portal circulation (1mark)

Blood with the high concentration of nutrients absorbed from the stomach & intestine goes to liver first. In the liver certain modifications takes place including the blood nutrient level. The venous blood then leaves liver via hepatic vein & joins the inferior vena cava.

(c)      State functions of Semen and Placenta (4 marks, 2 marks each) Functions of Semen: (2 marks)

  1. Increase motility and fertility of spermatozoa.


  1. Semen is slightly alkaline, to neutralize the acidity of
  1. Prostaglandin present causes contraction of
  1. It contains nutrients to nourish and support the sperm during their journey through the female reproductive

Functions of placenta: (2 marks)


  1. To provide the foetus with nourishment and removal of waste material from the
  1. To act as the foetal lung by providing oxygenation of the fetal blood
  1. The placenta also acts as a barrier in preventing certain micro-organisms of disease reaching the fetus thus protects the
  2. The placenta helps the ovaries in the production of estrogen & progesterone hormones necessary for the continuation and maintenance of


(d)What is sensory and motor neuron? (1+1 marks). Draw a well labeled diagram of typical neuron (2 marks).

Sensory neuron (1 mark): They carry information from the body to the spinal cord. The impulses may then pass to the brain or to connector neurons of reflex arcs in the spinal cord.

Motor neuron (1 mark): They originate in the brain, spinal cord and autonomic ganglia. They transmit impulses to the effector organs; muscles and glands.

(e)      Write the effect of sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation on:(4 marks, 2marks each )

  • Pupils:(0.5 + 0.5 marks)

 Sympathetic stimulation: Dilation of pupils causing mydriasis.

Parasymp.  stimulation: Constriction of pupils causing miosis.

(ii)   Bronchioles 🙁 0.5+0.5 marks)

Sympathetic stimulation: Bronchodilation allowing greater amount of air to enter the lungs at each inspiration.

Parasymp. stimulation: Bronchoconstriction (Broncho-spasm)

  • Blood vessel (1+1 marks) Sympathetic stimulation: Coronary artery: Vasodilation Skeletal blood vessels: Vasodilation

Other blood vessels: Vasoconstriction. Parasympathetic stimulation: Coronary artery: Vasoconstriction Skeletal blood vessels: Vasoconstriction Other blood vessels: Vasodilation

(e)  Explain the role of insulin and glucagon in the body. (4 marks, 2 marks each) Role of insulin (3 marks):

Role of insulin

  1. It increases the uptake of glucose by the
  1. Increases the conversion of glucose to glycogen in the liver & skeletal
  1. It increases the uptake of amino acids by the
  1. It promotes the synthesis of fatty acids & storage of fats in adipose tissue
  2. decreases
  3. Prevents breakdown of protein, fat & gluconeogenesis

Role of glucagon (1 mark): Its function is to increase blood sugar level. Whenever the blood sugar level falls below the normal the glycogen stored in the liver is broken down to glucose by the hormone glucagon.

Thus the two hormones help to maintain the blood sugar level constant.


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Skeletal Muscle Relaxants Drugs Classification Uses Pharmacology PPT + PDF Mechanism of Action

Skeletal muscle relaxant mechanism of Action 1

Skeletal Muscle Relaxants Drugs

Skeletal Muscle Relaxants

  • The main clinical use of skeletal muscle relaxant is it acts an adjuvant in surgical anesthesia to obtain relaxation of skeletal muscles à this minimizes the risk of respiratory & cardiovascular depression
  • These drugs block the post-synaptic actions of ACh at motor end plate
  • On the basis of their site & mechanism of action…these are classified as
  1. Peripherally acting muscle relaxants[These act peripherally at neuromuscular junction]
  2. a) Non-Depolarizing Blockers (Competitive Blockers)
  • Basis:These drugs prevent the access of ACh to NM receptor of motor end plate à prevent its depolarization
  1. Long Acting: d-Tubocurarine (d-TC), Metocurine, Doxacurium, pancuronium, pipecuronium, gallamine
  2. Intermediate acting: Atracurium, Cisatracurium, Vecuronium, Rcuronium

d-Tubocurarine: – Not clinical used do to its histaminic effects. • Succinylcholine: – SCh is the most commonly used muscle relaxant for passing tracheal tube. It induces rapid, complete and predictable paralysis with spontaneous recovery in ~5 min. – Occasionally SCh is used by continuous i.v. infusion for producing controlled muscle relaxation of longer duration. – It should be avoided in younger children unless absolutely necessary, because risk of hyperkalaemia and cardiac arrhythmia is higher

Pancuronium: – It is a synthetic steroidal compound, ~5 times more potent and longer acting than d-TC. – Because of longer duration of action, needing reversal, its use is now restricted to prolonged operations, especially neurosurgery. • Pipecuronium: – Muscle relaxant with a slow onset and long duration of action; steroidal in nature; recommended for prolonged surgeries. Nondepolarizing blockers – Individual compounds

 Vecuronium: – It is a most commonly used muscle relaxant for routine surgery and in intensive care units.. • Atracurium: – Four times less potent than pancuronium and shorter acting. • Rocuronium: – Muscle relaxant with a rapid onset and intermediate duration of action which can be used as alternative to SCh for tracheal intubation without the disadvantages of depolarizing block and cardiovascular changes. Nondepolarizing blockers – Individual compounds

 iii.      Short Acting: Mivacurine, Rapacuronium

  1. b) Depolarizing Blockers (persistent depolarizers)
  • Basis:They produce an excessive depolarization which persists for longer duration at NMJ à because they are resistant to hydrolysis by true AChE present in synaptic cleft
  • Succinyl Choline
  1. Centrally Acting Muscle Relaxants

  • Basis:These drugs reduce skeletal muscle tone à by selective action in the cerebrospinal axis without altering consciousness
  • Carisoprodol, Chlorzoxazone, Diazepam, Clonazepam, Baclofen, Tizanidine

III. Directly Acting Muscle Relaxants

  • Basis:These directly interfere with the contractile mechanisms of voluntary muscle
  • Dantrolene
  1. Misc Group
  • Quinine, Botulinum toxins A & B

Comparison of d-Tubocurarine & Succinylcholine

Parameters d-Tubocurarine Succinylcholine
1.Mechanism Competitive blockade at NM receptors Persistent depolarization of NM receptors followed by their desensitization
2.Potency ++ (Moderate) + (less)
3.Onset 4-5 min 1 min
4.Duration 30 – 50 min with no muscle sore 5 – 6 min followed by muscle sore
5.Type of Relaxation Progressive flaccid paralysis Initial fasciculations followed by flaccid paralysis
6.Effect of Neostigmine Reversal i.e antagonism Potentiation on effect
7.NM  blocking drugs Potentiation on effect No effect
8.Hypothermia Decreases effect Increased effect
9.Histamine release ++ (Moderate) Negligible
10.    BP Hypotension No effect
11.    Cardiac Muscarinic receptors No effect Stimulates. Bradycardia in low doses, tachycardia in large doses
12.    Respiratory effects Bronchospasm Nil
13.    GIT Effects Constipation Nausea, Vomitting
14.    Serum K+ levels No change Hyperkalaemia
15.    Intraocular pressure No change Raised
16.    Pharmacogenetic variation in metabolism Nil (it is excreted through kidney) Metabolized by pseudocholinesterase (exhibit prolonged apnoea)
17.    Other Nil Malignanat hyperthermia

Mechanism of Action of Skeletal Muscle Relaxants Drugs:

Skeletal muscle relaxant Drugs mechanism of Action PDF MOAPPT

Skeletal muscle relaxant mechanism of Action 1 Skeletal muscle relaxant mechanism of Action PPT


  • It is orally active GABA-mimetic drug àwhich acts as a GABA agonist at GABAB receptors
  • The GABABreceptors are G-protein coupled receptors à which hyperpolarize neurons by increasing K+ conductance & reduce Ca+2 conductance
  • Its actions àresults from an action at spinal level where it inhibits both monosynaptic & polysynaptic reflexes
  • Activation of GABAB recptors in the brain àresults in hyperpolarisation in the cord & brain à which interfere with the release of excitatory neurotransmitters
  • It also reduces pain associated with spastic conditions ßas it inhibits the release of substance-P in the spinal cord

Baclofen Therapeutic Uses

  • To relieve painful spasticity in multiple sclerosis
  • It is also used to relieve spasticity from spinal injuries but it is not very useful in cerebral palsy
  • It can also serve as an important substitute to treat trigeminal neuralgia & tardive dyskinesia
  • It imrves he quality f life of patients suffering with severe spasticity & pain

Baclofen Side Effects

  • Sedation, drowsiness, muscle weakness, ataxia
  • Sudden withdrawal may precipitate anxiety, tachycardia & Hallucinations
  • It is teratogenic & risk in pregnancy


  • It is a phenytoin analogue àbut its site for antispastic action lies ouside the CNS
  • It acts directly at the contractile mechanisms of voluntary muscle by reducing depolarization induced Ca+2 release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
  • The muscle fibers still respond to nerve stimulus àthe contractile responses are reduced but not absolutely abolished by dantrolene à the net result is muscle weakness rather than paralysis
  • It also facilitates GABA which results in the depression of brain stem reticular functions & efferent motor neuron activity àit produces sedation but no selective action on polysynaptic reflexes

Dantrolene Therapeutic Uses

  • It is used to treat spasticity resulting from upper motor neuron lesions such as spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis & cerebral palsy
  • It is the drug of choice for the treatment of malignant hyperthermia
  • It is also used in the treatment of neurolept malignant syndrome
  • Orally it is poorly absorbed but absorption is consistent
  • Plasma half-life is 9-12 hrs
  • A/Es– generalized muscle weakness, sedation, diarrhea, hepatitis after prolonged use

References •

Tripathi KD. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology, 7th Ed, New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publisher (P) Ltd, 2013.

Pharmacology Notes: PPT PDF – ANTICANCER DRUGS – What is Cancer? Types/ Causes

Pharmacology Notes PPT PDF - ANTICANCER DRUGS - What is Cancer Types Causes

Pharmacology Notes


Cancer cells have lost the normal regulatory mechanisms that control cell growth and multiplication.

What is Cancer?

• Cancer cell have lost their ability to differentiate (that means to specialize). Cancer refers to any one of a large number of diseases characterized by the development of abnormal cells that divide uncontrollably and have the ability to infiltrate and destroy normal body tissue. Cancer often has the ability to spread throughout your body.

Types of Cancer?

• Benign cancer cell stay at the same place
Malignant cancer cells invade new tissues to set up secondary tumors, a process known as metastasis

Causes of cancer

Common Causes of Cancer:

Smoking and Tobacco. Diet and Physical Activity. Sun and Other Types of Radiation. Viruses and Other Infections

• Chemicals causing cancer are called mutagens
• Cancer can be caused by chemicals, life style (smoking), and viruses

Gene mutations

A gene mutation can instruct a healthy cell to Allow rapid growth or Fail to stop uncontrolled cell growth or cells lose the controls (tumor suppressor genes) or even Make mistakes when repairing DNA errors

Definitions of cancer

genes that are related to cause cancer are called oncogenes.
Genes that become onogenic upon mutation are called protooncogenes.

Pharmacology Notes PPT PDF - ANTICANCER DRUGS - What is Cancer Types Causes

General signs and symptoms of cancer

Unexplained weight loss
Skin changes
Darker looking skin (hyperpigmentation)
Yellowish skin and eyes (jaundice)
Reddened skin (erythema)
Itching (pruritis)
Excessive hair growth
Change in bowel habits or bladder function
Long-term constipation, diarrhea,
Sores that do not heal
White patches inside the mouth or white spots on the tongue
Unusual bleeding or discharge
Thickening or lump in the breast or other parts of the body
Indigestion or trouble swallowing
Recent change in a wart or mole or any new skin change
Nagging cough or hoarseness

Top 10 Anti Cancer Drugs

anti cancer drugs list ppt pharmacology

List of Anti cancer Drugs








Cytarabine (ara-c)


Interferon α
Interleukin 2
Tacrolimus (fk506)
Tumour necrosis factor α




Interleukin 11
Sargramostim (GM-CSF)

anti cancer drugs ppt pdf notes b pharm m pharm medicos d pharm pharmacology

Pharmacology anti cancer drugs ppt pdf notes b pharm m pharm medicos d pharm

anti neoplastic anti cancer drugs ppt pdf notes b pharm m pharm medicos d pharm

Anticancer drugs pharmacology pdf anticancer drugs list pdf classification of anticancer drugs wikipedia anticancer drugs classification ppt classification of anticancer drugs with mechanism of action classification of anticancer agents anticancer drugs classification mnemonics top 10 anti cancer drugs.

Geographical Indication – IPR Notes PDF PPR M Pharm

Geographical Indication - IPR Notes PDF PPR

Here you Get:

What is meant by geographical indication?
Why is geographical indications and appellations of origin important?
What is a protected geographical indication?
What is GI registration?

A geographical indication is basically a notice stating that a given product originates in a given geographical area. An appellation of origin is a more precise form of geographical indicator, which specifies that the product has qualities that are derived specifically from the fact that it is made in a particular region.
As stated above a geographical indication is a broad term, which includes appellation of origin, indication of source, and geographical indication in strict sense. In the literature, the term geographical indication is generally used in its broader sense to embody all these terms (appellation of origin, indication of source, and geographical indication in strict sense. Geographical indications can be protected nationally either by decree or by a register.
Internationally they can be protected by reciprocal arrangements between countries or in the case of appellations of origin by the Lisbon Agreement. Furthermore the TRIPS Agreement requires all members of the World Trade Organization to protect geographical indications.

The use of geographical indications is an important method of indicating the origin of goods and services. One of the aims of their use is to promote commerce by informing the customer of the origin of the products. Often this may imply a certain quality, which the customer may be looking for. They can be used for industrial and agricultural products. Protection of such indications is on a national basis but there are various international treaties that assist the protection in a range of countries.

Geographical Indication - IPR Notes PDF PPR

Geographical indications in a broad sense include indications of source, appellation of origin, and geographical indication (in the strict sense). It should be pointed out that the Paris Convention does not use in its terminology the term geographical indication; it rather utilizes the terms,indications of source and appellations of origin.
An indication of source means any expression or sign used to indicate that a product or service originates in a country, a region, and a specific place where the product originated. Example: Made in Japan.

An appellation of origin means the geographical name of a country, region, specific place which serves to designate a product originating therein, the characteristic qualities of which are due exclusively or essentially to the geographical environment, including natural or human factors or both.
Example: Champagne.

Got for:

What is meant by geographical indication?
Why is geographical indications and appellations of origin important?
What is a protected geographical indication?
What is GI registration?

Trade Marks – IPR notes PDF PPT Regulatory Affairs M Pharmacy Study Material

Trade Marks - IPR notes PDF PPT Regulatory Affairs M Pharmacy Study Material

“A trademark is a sign that individualizes the goods or services of a given enterprise and distinguishes them from its competitors.”

This section has covered the basics of trademarks. You have learned that a trademark is a word, a logo, a number, a letter, a slogan, a sound, a color, or sometimes even a smell which identifies the source of goods and/or services with
which the trademark is used.
Trademarks are one area of intellectual property and their purpose is to protect the name of the product rather than the invention or idea behind the product.

Trade Marks

Trademarks can be owned by individuals or companies and should be registered at a governmental agency, which is usually referred to as the Trademarks Office. When a trademark is used in connection with services, it is sometimes referred to as a “service mark”.

Trade Marks - IPR notes PDF PPT Regulatory Affairs M Pharmacy Study Material
Generally speaking, trademarks should be distinctive and should neither be generic nor merely descriptive of the goods or services they represent. For example, the word “vegetable” cannot be registered as a trademark of a supermarket, since it is certainly descriptive of items which a supermarket sells. In addition, it cannot be
registered as a trademark for carrots, since it is a generic term for carrots. On the other hand, the word “vegetable” might well serve as a trademark for bicycles since it has little or nothing to do with bicycles.
Trademarks should preferably not be geographical or primarily a surname. Thus, “Paris” cannot serve as a trademark for perfume. In many countries, trademarks which comprise mere letters and/or numbers (i.e. the proposed trademark cannot be pronounced as a word or words or just has too few letters) or are surnames are considered to be indistinct.

Trade Marks Registration 

In some instances, trademark registration can still be obtained for trademarks that are merely (i) descriptive, (ii) a surname, (iii) geographic or (iv) indistinct.Trademarks, also known as brand names, are part of everyday life. The average person sees or hears more than 1,500 trademarks each day! Just as your own name identifies and distinguishes you, the main purpose of a trademark is to identify the source of a product and to distinguish that product from products coming from other sources. For example, a trademark helps you to choose between Ivory soap and Dial soap.
It should be mentioned that collective marks and certification marks are also protected in a large number of countries. Famous marks or well-known marks have also been granted a special protection.
Trademarks usually ensure a consistent level of quality – be it good or bad. A mark helps you to use your experience either to return to a desirable product or service or to avoid an undesirable one.
Legislative Texts:
• Paris

Trademarks existed in the ancient world. As long as 3000 years ago, Indian craftsmen used to engrave their signatures on their artistic creations before sending them to Iran. Later on, over 100 different Roman pottery marks were in use, including the FORTIS brand that became so famous that it was copied and counterfeited. With the flourishing trade in the Middle Ages the use of trademarks increased.
Today trademarks (often abbreviated as TM in English) are in common usage and most people on the planet could distinguish between the trademarks for the two soft drinks Pepsi-Cola and Coca-Cola.
The growing importance of trademarks in commercial activities is due to the increased competition among companies undertaking trade in more than one country.
Trademarks have been used to simplify the identification by consumers of goods or services, as well as their quality and value. Thus, a trademark may be considered as a tool of communication used by producers to attract consumers.
In this module you will learn what sort of signs can be used for trademarks and what characteristics they must have. You will be able to distinguish between a collective mark and a certification mark. This module will also explain how well known or famous marks are given special protection under the Paris Convention and the TRIPS Agreement.

A trademark may consist of words, designs, letters, numerals or packaging, slogans, devices, symbols, etc.
The Coca-Cola Company ® PepsiCo, Inc. ®

It is necessary to say that a service mark is similar to a trademark, differing only in that the latter protects goods, while the former protects services. Generally speaking the term trademarks includes both trademark and service marks

B Pharmacy – Computers Questions & Answers M pharma B Pharm

1.The computer is assisting the human being in almost every activity. Explain

A computer is an electronic device, which executes software programs. It consists of 2 parts-hardware and software . The computer processes input through input devices like mouse and keyboard. The computer displays output through output devices like color monitor and printer. The size of a computer varies considerably from very small to very big. The speed of computers also has a very large range. Computers have become indispensable in today’s world. Millions of people use computers all over the world.

B Pharmacy - Computers Questions & Answers M pharma B Pharm

There are several uses of computers: –

• Word Processing – Word Processing software automatically corrects spelling and grammar mistakes. If the content of a document repeats you don’t have to type it each time. You can use the copy and paste features. You can printout documents and make several copies. It is easier to read a word-processed document than a handwritten one. You can add images to your document.
• Internet – It is a network of almost all the computers in the world. You can browse through much more information than you could do in a library. That is because computers can store enormous amounts of information. You also have very fast and convenient access to information. Through E-Mail you can communicate with a person sitting thousands of miles away in seconds. There is chat software that enables one to chat with another person on a real-time basis. Video conferencing tools are becoming readily available to the common man.
• Digital video or audio composition – Audio or video composition and editing have been made much easier by computers. It no longer costs thousands of dollars of equipment to compose music or make a film. Graphics engineers can use computers to generate short or full-length films or even to create three-dimensional models. Anybody owning a computer can now enter the field of media production. Special effects in science fiction and action movies are created using computers.
• Desktop publishing – With desktop publishing, you can create page layouts for entire books on your personal computer.
• Computers in Medicine – You can diagnose diseases. You can learn the cures. Software is used in magnetic resonance imaging to examine the internal organs of the human body. Software is used for performing surgery. Computers are used to store patient data.
• Mathematical Calculations – Thanks to computers, which have computing speeds of over a million calculations per second we can perform the biggest of mathematical calculations.
• Banks – All financial transactions are done by computer software. They provide security, speed and convenience.
• Travel – One can book air tickets or railway tickets and make hotel reservations online.
• Telecommunications – Software is widely used here. Also all mobile phones have software embedded in them.
• Defense – There is software embedded in almost every weapon. Software is used for controlling the flight and targeting in ballistic missiles. Software is used to control access to atomic bombs.
• E-Learning – Instead of a book it is easier to learn from an E-learning software.
• Gambling-You can gamble online instead of going to a casino.
• Examinations-You can give online exams and get instant results. You can check your examination results online.
• Computers in Business – Shops and supermarkets use software, which calculate the bills. Taxes can be calculated and paid online. Accounting is done using computers. One can predict future trends of business using artificial intelligence software. Software is used in major stock markets. One can do trading online. There are fully automated factories running on software.
• Certificates – Different types of certificates can be generated. It is very easy to create and change layouts.
• ATM machines – The computer software authenticates the user and dispenses cash.
• Marriage – There are matrimonial sites through which one can search for a suitable groom or bride.
• News-There are many websites through which you can read the latest or old news.
• Classmates-There are many alumni websites through which you can regain contact with your classmates.
• Robotics – Robots are controlled by software.
• Washing Machines – They operate using software.
• Microwave Oven – They are operated by software.
• Planning and Scheduling – Software can be used to store contact information, generating plans, scheduling appointments and deadlines.
• Plagiarism – Software can examine content for plagiarism.
• Greeting Cards – You can send and receive greetings pertaining to different occasions.
• Sports – Software is used for making umpiring decisions. There are simulation software using which a sportsperson can practice his skills. Computers are also to identify flaws in techhnique.
• Aeroplanes – Pilots train on software, which simulates flying.
• Weather analysis – Supercomputers are used to analyze and predict weather.
Computers have leapfrogged the human society into another league. It is used in each and every aspect of human life. They will spearhead the human quest of eradicating social problems like illiteracy and poverty. It is difficult to imagine a world bereft of computers. This revolutionary technology is indeed a boon to the human race. May computers continue to shower their blessings to us.

2. Write a detailed note on the generations of computers?

First Generation – 1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes
The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. A magnetic drum, also referred to as drum, is a metal cylinder coated with magnetic iron-oxide material on which data and programs can be stored. Magnetic drums were once use das a primary storage device but have since been implemented as auxiliary storage devices.
They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. First generation computers relied on machine language to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Machine languages are the only languages understood by computers. While easily understood by computers, machine languages are almost impossible for humans to use because they consist entirely of numbers. Computer Programmers, therefore, use either high level programming languages or an assembly language programming. An assembly language contains the same instructions as a machine language, but the instructions and variables have names instead of being just numbers.
Every CPU has its own unique machine language. Programs must be rewritten or recompiled, therefore, to run on different types of computers. Input was based on punch card and paper tapes, and output was displayed on printouts. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951.
Second Generation – 1956-1963: Transistors
Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation computer. Transistor is a device composed of semiconductor material that amplifies a signal or opens or closes a circuit. Invented in 1947 at Bell Labs, transistors have become the key ingredient of all digital circuits, including computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 50s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.
Third Generation – 1964-1971: Integrated Circuits
The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. A chip is a small piece of semi conducting material (usually silicon) on which an integrated circuit is embedded. A typical chip is less than ¼-square inches and can contain millions of electronic components (transistors). Computers consist of many chips placed on electronic boards called printed circuit boards. There are different types of chips. For example, CPU chips (also called microprocessors) contain an entire processing unit, whereas memory chips contain blank memory.
Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.
Fourth Generation – 1971-Present: Microprocessors
The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits we rebuilt onto a single silicon chip. A silicon chip that contains a CPU. In the world of personal computers, the terms microprocessor and CPU are used interchangeably. At the heart of all personal computers and most workstations sits a microprocessor. Microprocessors also control the logic of almost all digital devices, from clock radios to fuel-injection systems for automobiles. In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.
Fifth Generation – Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence
Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
In May,1997, an IBM super-computer called Deep Blue defeated world chess champion Gary Kasparov in a chess match. The hottest area of artificial intelligence is neural networks, which are proving successful in an umber of disciplines such as voice recognition and natural-language processing.

3.what are the basic functions of computer? list the main structural components of a computer and cpu?

Computer can keep track of any different types of information. With software like Microsoft word, notepad. it makes inputting any data such as words, articles relatively easy. Examples of input devices include, your keyboard, computer mouse, microphone etc.
Computer can rapidly solve all types of numerical problems. Solving numerical problems can be considered as an example of computer processing. With the ability of data manipulation of company, task can be completed efficiently with effectively. Saving lots and lots of time and effort, compared to human work. Aslo, computer are accurate and error free, they can process huge amount of information at the same time and they inexpensive.
Imagine you have a collections of ten thousand photos. You are going to london to meet your relative and were told to bring that ten thousands photos over. Guess what? That is alot of things. So with the advent of computer, you can just save that ten thousand photos and bring your laptop over. That’s that simple!. Example of computer storage include, harddisk, cd rom, dvd rom and others.
Output is one of the most commonly used function in computer. It may refers to the graph that is being plotted in microsoft excel, the song that you are playing from media player, the powerpoint slide,

The four main components of the computer are:
A: CPU (Central processing unit):
It is the main part of the computer; it performs all the operations of the computer. It is the heart of the computer. It is usually named by the processor.
B: Main memory.
This part of the computer is used for the storage of data.
C: I/O devices.
These devices are used for sending and receiving the data from computer to another device. These are referred as the channel between the computer system and the external world. And also the other peripheral communication lines.

D: System Interconnection.
Lines that connect several components to enable them to perform heir specific operations or some mechanism that is used for the communication between CPU, main memory and the I/O devices.
While the four components of the CPU are:
A: Control Unit: this is the main part of the CPU; it is the part in the CPU which do all the processing.
B: ALU: it is the acronym of Arithmetic Logic Unit, this part of the CPU performs all the necessary arithmetic functions.
C: Registers: this is a small unit in the CPU for the storage of small amount of data.
D: CPU interconnection: there is mechanism which is used for the communication between registers, ALU and Control Unit

4. Write a program that counts from one to ten.Print the values on a separate line for each and include a message of your choice when the count is 3 and a different message when the count is 7.

#include <stdio.h>
{int a;
for (a=1;a<11;a++)
{printf (“count is %d\n”,a);

if (a==3)
printf(“Current count is THREE\n”);

if (a==7)
printf(“now count is seven\n”)
Output is
count is 1
count is 2
count is 3
Current count is THREE
count is 4
count is 5
count is 6
count is 7
now count is seven
count is 8
count is 9
count is 10

5.Write a program that counts from 1 to 12, print the count and its square for each count.

#include <stdio.h>
{int a,b;
for (a=1;a<13;a++)
printf (“count is %d and its sqare is %d \n”,a,b);

Output is
count is 1 and its square is 1
count is 2 and its square is 4
count is 3 and its square is 9
count is 4 and its square is 16
count is 5 and its square is 25
count is 6 and its square is 36
count is 7 and its square is 49
count is 8 and its square is 64
count is 9 and its square is 81
count is 10 and its square is 100
count is 11 and its square is 121
count is 12 and its square is 144

6. What is recursion? Explain with an example

Recursion in computer science is a way of ‘Thinking About’ and then ‘Solving’ problems
int func1(int input1)
if(base condition)
return some finite value.
return func1(input2) //Function calls itself.
So, to design a solution(algorithm) to any problem in such a way that one function is having a call to itself inside a body and problem is reduced in each successive self calls to that limit that we reach base condition that returns some result(finite value) and no further recursive calls are made further. This makes a recursive solution and this way of solving the problem is called ‘Recursion’.

Example : Palindrome Recursive Algorithm

7. what is an operating system? Discuss the history and functions of operating system?

An operating system is the most important software that runs on a computer.Software is any set of instructions that performs some task on a computer. The operating system performs many essential tasks for your computer. It controls the memory needed for computer processes, manages disk space, controls peripheral devices, and allows you to communicate with the computer without knowing exactly how a computer works.
discuss the history and functions of operating system?

an overview of its history development:
a. Unix- 1960’s, developed by AT&T, and designed to be portable, multitasking, multi-user in a time-sharing configuration.
b. MS-DOS- 1980’s, developed by Microsoft, specialized in programming languages and software development.
c. SUN OS- 1982, version of the UNIX OS, developed by SUN Microsystems, specialized in workstations and server system.
d. Mac OS- 1984, developed by Apple Computer for their Apple Macintosh Computer, widely credited for their popularizing the GUI
e. Windows 1.0- 1985, was the first attempt of Microsoft to implement a multi-tasking graphical user interface based on the operating system environment on the PC platform
f. OS/2- next released from Windows 1.0, created by Microsoft and IBM, to be used on IBM’s Personal System/2 computers. It will be discontinued to use at the end of this year 2006. It is intended as a protected-mode, doesn’t share similarities on Windows, but are alike in UNIX and XENIX.
g. Windows 3.0- 1990, third major released of Microsoft Windows, specialized on GUI interface.
h. Windows NT 3.1- 1993, first released of Windows NT, capable of business server. After Windows NT 3.1 came Windows NT Advanced Server
i. Windows 1995- 1995, a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. Codename: Chicago. It was widely improved from its GUI features whose format and structure is still used today by Windows XP.
j. Windows 1998- 1998, a graphical operating system and an update of Windows 95, among its features are AGP support, functional USB drivers, and support for multiple monitors and WebTV
k. Windows 2000- 2000, comes with four versions like Professional, Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server. It was functional in Microsoft Management Console (MMC), and Standard System Management Applications.
l. Windows XP-2001, successor of Windows 2000, developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers.
m. Operating System composed of different functions namely:
1.) Processor Management
2.) Memory Management
3.) Housekeeping
4.) User Interface
5.) Storage Management
6.) Device Management
7.) Job Sequencing
8.) Job Control
9.) Job Sequencing
10) Error Handling
11.) I/O Handling
12.) Interrupt Handling
13.) Scheduling
14.) Resource Control
15.) Protection

8. what are the different editions of windows 2000? Explain their uses?what are the security features in windows 2000?

Microsoft released various editions of Windows 2000 for different markets and business needs: Professional, Server, Advanced Server and Datacenter Server. Each was packaged separately.
Windows 2000 Professional was designed as the desktop operating system for businesses and power users. It is the client version of Windows 2000. It offers greater security and stability than many of the previous Windows desktop operating systems. It supports up to two processors, and can address up to 4 GB of RAM. The system requirements are a Pentium processor (or equivalent) of 133 MHz or greater, at least 32 MB of RAM, 650 MB of hard drive space, and a CD-ROM drive (recommended: Pentium II, 128 MB of RAM, 2 GB of hard drive space, and CD-ROM drive).[85]
Windows 2000 Server shares the same user interface with Windows 2000 Professional, but contains additional components for the computer to perform server roles and run infrastructure and application software. A significant new component introduced in the server versions is Active Directory, which is an enterprise-wide directory service based on LDAP. Additionally, Microsoft integrated Kerberos network authentication, replacing the often-criticised NTLM authentication system used in previous versions. This also provided a purely transitive-trust relationship between Windows 2000 domains in a forest (a collection of one or more Windows 2000 domains that share a common schema, configuration, and global catalog, being linked with two-way transitive trusts). Furthermore, Windows 2000 introduced a Domain Name Server which allows dynamic registration of IP addresses. Windows 2000 Server supports up to 4 processors, requires 128 MB of RAM and 1 GB hard disk space, however requirements may be higher depending on installed components.
Windows 2000 Advanced Server is a variant of Windows 2000 Server operating system designed for medium-to-large businesses. It offers clustering infrastructure for high availability and scalability of applications and services, including main memory support of up to 8 gigabytes (GB) on Physical Address Extension (PAE) systems and the ability to do 8-way SMP. It supports TCP/IP load balancing and enhanced two-node server clusters based on the Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) in Windows NT Server 4.0 Enterprise Edition.[86] Limited number of copies of an IA-64 version, called Windows 2000 Advanced Server, Limited Edition were made available via OEMs. System requirements are similar to those of Windows 2000 Server,[85] however they may need to be higher to scale to larger infrastructure.
Windows 2000 Datacenter Server is a variant of Windows 2000 Server designed for large businesses that move large quantities of confidential or sensitive data frequently via a central server.[87] Like Advanced Server, it supports clustering, failover and load balancing. Its minimum system requirements are normal, but it was designed to be capable of handing advanced, fault-tolerant and scalable hardware—for instance computers with up to 32 CPUs and 64 GBs RAM, with rigorous system testing and qualification, hardware partitioning, coordinated maintenance and change control. Limited number of copies of an IA-64 version, called Windows 2000 Datacenter Server, Limited Edition were made available via OEMs. System requirements are similar to those of Windows 2000 Advanced Server,[85] however they may need to be higher to scale to larger infrastructure.

9. What is word processor? What are its basic features? What are the special features of word-2000?

word processor is a software program capable of creating, storing, and printing documents. Unlike the standard typewriter, users using word processors have the ability of creating a document and making any changes anywhere in the document. This document can also be saved for modification at a later time or to be opened on any other computer using the same word processor.
what are its basic features?
insert text: Allows you to insert text anywhere in the document.
delete text: Allows you to erase characters, words, lines, or pages as easily as you can cross them out on paper.
cut and paste : Allows you to remove (cut) a section of text from one place in a document and insert (paste) it somewhere else.
copy : Allows you to duplicate a section of text.
page size and margins : Allows you to define various page sizes and margins, and the word processor will automatically readjust the text so that it fits.
search and replace : Allows you to direct the word processor to search for a particular word or phrase. You can also direct the word processor to replace one group of characters with another everywhere that the first group appears.
word wrap : The word processor automatically moves to the next line when you have filled one line with text, and it will readjust text if you change the margins.
print: Allows you to send a document to a printer to get hardcopy.
file management : Many word processors contain file management capabilities that allow you to create, delete, move, and search for files.
font specifications: Allows you to change fonts within a document. For example, you can specify bold, italics, and underlining. Most word processors also let you change the font size and even the typeface.
footnotes and cross-references: Automates the numbering and placement of footnotes and enables you to easily cross-reference other sections of the document.
Graphics: graphics allows one to embed illustrations and graphs into a document. Some word processors let you create the illustrations within the word processor; others let you insert an illustration produced by a different program.
headers , footers , and page numbering: Allows you to specify customized headers and footers that the word processor will put at the top and bottom of every page. The word processor automatically keeps track of page numbers so that the correct number appears on each page.
layout : Allows you to specify different margins within a single document and to specify various methods for indenting paragraphs.
macros : A macro is a character or word that represents a series of keystrokes. The keystrokes can represent text or commands. The ability to define macros allows you to save yourself a lot of time by replacing common combinations of keystrokes.
merges: Allows you to merge text from one file into another file. This is particularly useful for generating many files that have the same format but different data. Generating mailing labels is the classic example of using merges.
spell checker : A utility that allows you to check the spelling of words. It will highlight any words that it does not recognize.
tables of contents and indexes: Allows you to automatically create a table of contents and index based on special codes that you insert in the document.
thesaurus: A built-in thesaurus that allows you to search for synonyms without leaving the word processor.
windows : Allows you to edit two or more documents at the same time. Each document appears in a separate window. This is particularly valuable when working on a large project that consists of several different files.
WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get): With WYSIWYG, a document appears on the display screen exactly as it will look when printed

what are the special features of word-2000?

10. what is a presentation package ?list a few of the packages ? create a power point presentation listing the achievements of your/any organization?

Presentation software (sometimes called “presentation graphics”) is a category of application program used to create sequences of words and pictures that tell a story or help support a speech or public presentation of information. Presentation software can be divided into business presentation software and more general multimedia authoring tools, with some products having characteristics of both. Business presentation software emphasizes ease- and quickness-of-learning and use. Multimedia authoring software enables you to create a more sophisticated presentation that includes audio and video sequences. Business presentation software usually enables you to include images and sometimes audio and video developed with other tools.

list of a few of the packages


ASAP is ideal for businesspeople who want to spend more time writing a winning speech — instead of spending hours adding audio-visual gimmicks. Its learning curve is about five minutes.
Anyone who’s ever used Windows software will find ASAP’s three basic screens for outlines, previews, and presentations so familiar they’ll be finished creating almost before they realize it. You can apply any one of 22 graphic styles to each of the 13 basic templates. ASAP automatically reformats fonts so your text will fit properly on the screen, and there are a score of preset color schemes. ASAP doesn’t have all the multimedia features of other packages. But if you make just a couple of presentations a month, it will save you a lot of aggravation.
Harvard Graphics
Harvard Graphics 3.0 for Windows 3.1 is one of the most powerful software packages available. (An updated version for Windows 95 should be out by the time you read this; there’s no Mac version.)
Harvard Graphics is best for those whose professional lives depend on making successful presentations. It lets you preview transitions between slides, edit text inside a slide, and experiment with different chart styles. The program is also the first to incorporate a variety of handy features, such as a black-and-white preview so you can see what your color slides will look like when they’re printed out. An online tutorial shows you how to work with different graphic-file formats. All of this has earned Harvard Graphics a reputation as Microsoft PowerPoint’s smarter brother.
Powerpoint has been the standard-bearer for the technically adept for a few years now, and its new incarnation — PowerPoint for Windows 95, which will run solely on Windows 95 (surprise!) — should solidify its popularity. (PowerPoint 4.0 for Macs is also available, for $339; it lacks a couple of features from the Windows 95 version, such as the ability to animate objects and titles.
Harvard Graphics includes the same features as PowerPoint and is easier to use. Better yet, since PowerPoint is so ubiquitous, your presentation won’t look like everyone else’s if you create it on Harvard Graphics. So why opt for PowerPoint? Chances are, everyone else in the office is using it — which means you can easily upload part of a coworker’s presentation if you are pinched for time.
Gold Disk’s Astound
Gold Disk’s Astound 2.0 program is one of the best multimedia authoring packages. You can give inventory statistics and sales projections panache by making the numbers sliiiiiiiide onto the screen and the bar charts crumble. Astound does take patience to learn. Both Windows and Macintosh versions are available.
To complete your box of software presentation tools, consider two smaller digital wrenches.

Lotus Screencam

Lotus Screencam 2.0 for Windows 3.1 keeps a log of your onscreen activity. Move your mouse pointer or click open a file, and Lotus ScreenCam records it. Once you’ve made a digital record of what you’ve done on the screen, you can add explanatory captions or a personal narration. These mini-movies can easily be stored as a single file — perfect for training-types of presentations.
Presentation World
Presentation World from Cinemar Corp, a Windows CD-ROM disc, contains expert advice on making presentations without having to attend … another presentation. Using video clips and graphics, it offers tips on content development, organization, multimedia elements, even hardware.
John R. Quain ([email protected]) is a contributing editor at Fast Company and appears regularly on the CBS News program “Up to the Minute.”

What is IPR? Patent & Process of filing a Patent Application

What is IPR Patent Process of filing a Patent Application

The purpose of a patent is to provide a form of protection for technological advances.  The theory is that patent protection will provide a reward not only for the creation of an invention, but also for the development of an invention to the point at which it is technologically feasible and marketable, and that this type of an incentive would promote additional creativity and encourage companies to continue their development of new technology to the point at which it is marketable, useful to the public and desirable for the public good.


The Patent system in India is governed by the Patents Act, 1970 (No 39 of 1970) & The Patents Rules 1972, effective from April 20,1972. Subsequently The Patents Act, 1970 is amended effective from January 1, 1995 & The Patents Rules, 1972 is amended effective from June 2, 1999.


Application form in triplicate.

Provisional or complete specification in triplicate. If the provisional specification is filed it must be followed by complete specification within 12 months (15 months with extension).

Drawing in triplicate (if necessary).

Abstract of the invention (in triplicate).

Information and undertaking listing the number, filing date and current status of each foreign patent application in duplicate.

Priority document (if priority date is claimed).

Declaration of inventorship where provisional specification is followed by complete specification or in case of convention application.

Power of attorney (if filed through Patent Agent).

Fee in cash/by local cheque/by demand draft.


Application is required to be filed according to the territorial limits where the applicant or the first mentioned applicant in case of joint applicants for a patent normally resides or has domicile or has a place of business or the place from where the invention actually originated .If the applicant for the patent or party in a proceeding having no business, place or domicile in India., the appropriate office will be according to the address of service in India given by the applicant or party in a proceeding.


All the applications for patent accompanied by complete specification are examined substantively. A first examination report stating the objection(s) is communicated to the applicant or his agents. Application or complete specification may be amended in order to meet the objection(s). Normally all the objections must be met within 15 months from the date of first examination report. Extension of time for three months is available, but application for extension therefore must be made before the expiry of normal period of 15 months. If all the objections are not complied with within the normal period or within the extended period the application will be deemed to have been abandoned. When the application is found to be suitable for acceptance it is published in the gazette of India (Part III, Section2). It is deemed laid open to the public on the date of publication in the gazette of India.


Notice of opposition must be filed within four months of notification in the Gazette. Extension of one month is available, but must be applied for before expiry of initial four month period.

Process of Grant or Sealing of PATENT

If the application is not opposed or the opposition is decided in favour of the applicant or is not refused the patent is granted or sealed on payment of sealing fee within 6 months from the date of advertisement. However, it is extendable by three months.


The Register of Patents will be kept in the Patent Office and its branch offices. Register of Patents can be inspected or extract from it can be obtained on payment of prescribed fee. Register of Patents contains full details of the Patent which include Patent number, the names and addresses of the patentee; notification of assignment etc.; renewals, particulars in respect of proprietorship of patent etc.


A patent grant gives the patentee the exclusive right to make or use the patented article or use the patented process. He can prevent all others from making or using the patented process. A patentee has also the right to assign the patent, grant licenses under, or otherwise deal with it for any consideration. These rights created by statute are circumscribed by various conditions and limitations.


Renewal fees are payable every year. The first renewal fee is payable for third year of the patent’s life, and must be paid before the patent’s second anniversary. If the patent has not been issued within that period, renewal fees may be accumulated and paid immediately after the patent is sealed, or within three months of its recordal in the Register of the Patents.

Date of payment of Renewal fees is measured from the date of the patent. Six months’ grace is available with Extension fee. No renewal fees are payable on patents of addition, unless the original patent is revoked and the patent of addition is converted into an independent patent; renewal fees then become payable for the remainder of the term of the main patent.

No renewal fees are payable during the pendency of the application for a patent; renewal fees that become overdue during pendency are payable upon sealing within three months of recordal in the Patent Register.

What is IPR Patent Process of filing a Patent Application


Annual reports as to the extent of working, by every patentee and licensee, are a statutory requirement and must be submitted by March, 31 each year for the previous year ending December, 31.


On failure to work a patent within three years from the date of its sealing, an interested party may file petition for grant of a compulsory license.

Every patent for an invention relating to a method or process for manufacture of substances intended for use, or capable of being used, as food, medicines, or drugs, or relating to substances prepared or produced by chemical process (including alloys, optical glass, semi-conductors and inter-metallic compounds) shall be deemed to be endorsed “Licenses of Right” from the date of expiry of three years from the date of sealing the patent.


Applications must be filed on the prescribed form with the Controller for the registration of assignments and any other documents creating an interest in a patent in order for them to be valid. In order to be valid, an assignment must be recorded within six months from the date of the document. A six-months extension may be obtained.


Applications must be filed on the prescribed form with the Controller for the registration of licenses and any other documents creating an interest in a patent in order for them to be valid. A license must be recorded within six months from the date of the document.


A patent lasts for 14 years from the date of filing the complete specification (if an application is filed with provisional specification on January 1, 1989, and a complete specification is filed on January 1, 1990, the duration is counted from January 1, 1990). However, for food, drug and insecticide patents, the life is seven years from the date of complete specification, or five years from date of sealing, whichever is shorter.


Application for restoration of a patent that lapses due to nonpayment of renewal fees must be made within one year of lapse. If an overdue annuity is not paid within the extension period, the one-year period for seeking restoration commences from the date of recordal.


Infringement can consist of taking away essential features of the patented invention; utilizing claimed features; copying patented substances; mechanical equivalence; taking part of the invention. while the patent is in force. Use by the government or for government purposes is not infringement. Such use must be paid for on terms to be agreed upon before or after use. Accidental or temporary use, use for research, use on foreign vessels, do not constitute infringement.


Appeal lies in the High Court. Appeal must be lodged within three months from the decision of the Controller.