Lecturer Job Opportunities in Hyderabad : A career as a lecturer requires a graduate-level education, subject-area expertise and the desire to share knowledge. They teach academic or career topics to students pursuing college or university degrees. Hyderabad the name sounds historical though but now with the time, it has evolved into an industrial hub and home to many. It is such a place that offers various kinds of opportunities in education, jobs and business. In this article, we are going to discuss the jobs related to lectureships and its scope in this state. What and how to start and where to go, if you have these questions in mind then please go through the content.
Lecturers are required to be subject-area experts because they need to have solid insight on specific subjects of teaching and calls for up gradation along with the time. Few lecturers fulfill this requirement by conducting original research as part of a postdoctoral fellowship. Publishing original research in professional journals within the fellowship provides a solid body of work in a subject area. The criteria for becoming a lecturer in private colleges require a Master’s degree and a first-class doctoral degree or have a valid NET/SET score for the govt. or central govt. college based on the discipline. Besides these, the experience of teaching, work experience in the specific field; research and publication gets priority while hiring. The key skills needed are research, critical thinking, communication, writing, and computer skills; knowledge of classroom management with no age bar in most cases.
The All India Status of Higher Education (AISHE) report reveals that | Hyderabad occupies the third highest number of colleges in the country. It clocks the third position leaving behind only Bengaluru and Jaipur. As per the annual report, Hyderabad has 487 colleges covering over 90% of colleges those are private unaided colleges. Majority of them offer under-graduate general courses included nursing, agriculture and engineering courses. The districts of Rangareddy have 395 colleges and Nalgonda has 289 coming fifth and tenth respectively. Guntur district occupied the eighth spot with 309 colleges. Thus, it is quite obvious that many opportunities can emerge throughout the region for the lecturer jobs.
Interview Questions & Answers on Pharmaceutical Production Jobs
Pharmacy graduates often tend to think about the vast areas of pharmacy of where to apply for jobs. Are you looking out for jobs to boom your pharmacy career? Aren’t there numerous jobs available in the pharmaceutical industry? Well, the answer to these questions is certainly YES and there are many opportunities to start with. While we provide overall information about pharmacy career, in this article we are going to talk about how to pursue a job in the production department of the pharma industry. A fantastic opportunity for pharmacist graduates is that they can work as a research scholar in R & D production team, assist the pharmaceutical manager, play the role of contract production pharmacist, and outsource the drug information to drive the sales and marketing team. The candidates who are considered to be fresher shall have to start with internship and for experienced all sorts of work are there to be explored. If anyone is seeking part-time jobs he or she can apply according to the need of various manufacturing drug companies. Coming to the point of pharmacy production, as a production pharmacist, one needs to help the production manager in achieving the required output. The job holder would be responsible for taking orders from the production manager and oversees manufacturing activities. In addition to that, he supervises the subordinate employees, does plans for production target and plays an important role in managing the company. Moreover, Production department exists in a formulation plant as well as in bulk (API) plant. The Formulation production jobs are generally offered to B. Pharmacy freshers.
So, if want to get into this pharma production jobs then make a firm decision by keeping this information in mind. You need to prepare well for the production pharmacist job interview questions and answers. Go ahead to the interview with a sound confidence and learn technical answers related to production as much as possible. For this to happen we have compiled some of the common Pharma interview questions for production jobs which are technical questions for production job aspirants. This series hopefully would help you for succeeding the interview.
Interview questions for Pharma production jobs are given below!
Questions and Answers
1) Define the tablet?
Ans) Tablet is a solid dosage form. It contains the Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) along with the excipients.
2) Define API?
Ans) API, known as Active pharmaceutical Ingredient. It is the first and important ingredient in any drug formulation. It is a biologically active component responsible for the drug effect.
3) What is excipient and give any two examples with their use?
Ans) Excipient is an inactive or inert component of the drug formulation which is helpful for improving the tablet characteristics.
Examples: Diluents, useful for increasing the bulk volume of a tablet. Also used for improving the flow properties while compressing the tablet. Lubricants, useful for improving the flow properties while compressing the tablet.
4) Give the examples for diluents and lubricants?
Ans) Diluents- Mannitol, sorbitol, starch, lactose, sucrose etc.
Lubricants – Magnesium stearate, calcium stearate, stearic acid etc.
5) Name the tablet preparation methods?
Ans) Wet granulation, Dry granulation, Direct compression.
6) Explain the wet granulation, dry granulation and direct compression?
Ans) Wet granulation: It involves mixing, wet sieving, drying, dry screening and compression. API and excipients are mixed well, then binder solution/ granulation fluid added to form a wet mass, wet mass is screening through a suitable sieve, formed granules are dried. Dried granules are again screened through a sieve. It helps to break down the granule agglomerates to produce a compatible size for preparing the tablet. These same size granules blended and compressed.
Dry granulation: It involves mixing, slugging, screening and compression. API and Excipients are mixed well and particles are aggregated under high pressure for forming slugs. These slugs are screened to form uniform granules for compressing the tablets.
Direct compression: In this method, blend of API and Excipients are directly compressed to form tablets without changing physical nature of material itself.
7) Name any three tablet processing problems and explain it?
Ans) Mottling, Capping and lamination.
Mottling- unequal colour distribution of a tablet.
Capping- Partial or complete separation of a tablet top or bottom crowns.
Lamination- Separation of tablets into two or more layers.
8) What is the difference between picking and sticking?
Ans) Picking- Because of adhesion to the punch faces, Localized portion missing on the surface of the tablet.
Sticking- Adhesion of tablet localized portion to the punch faces resulting in rough and dull appearance.
9) Define capsule and how many types of capsules are available?
Ans) It is a solid dosage form. It contains API and excipients enclosed in a water soluble shell made up of gelatin. Two types of capsules are available. Hard gelatin and soft Gelatin capsules.
10) Explain about hard gelatin capsules?
Ans) It contains two parts called body and cap. Body, a long narrow section. Cap, a smaller wide portion, it fixes over the body.
11) What is the biggest and smallest capsule size?
Ans) Sterile dosage forms administered by injections thorough one more layers of the skin.
13) Explain about Water For Injection (WFI)?
Ans) Purified water without any pyrogen, prepared by distillation or reverse osmosis.
14) What is pyrogen?
Ans) They are the metabolic products of microorganisms produced from living or dead microorganisms.
15) Difference between water for injection (WFI) and sterile water for injection (SWFI)?
Ans) WFI – Purified water without any pyrogen
SWFI – Purified and sterile water without any pyrogen
16) Difference between ampule and vial?
Ans) Ampule is simple dose unit and Vial is multiple dose units.
17) Use of additives in the parenteral formulations?
Ans) Additives are used for increasing the stability of solutions.
18) Explain about different types of additives with examples?
Ans) Anti oxidants are used for preventing the auto oxidation of medicament/drug in the formulation. e.g.: Ascorbic acid, Butylated Hydroxy Anisole(BHA), Butylated Hydroxy Toulene(BHT)
Synergists: Enhances the activity of anti oxidants. e.g.: Citric acid, Citarconic acid, Phosphoric acid, Tartaric acid etc.
Preservatives- Helps to prevent the microbial growth in the formulation. e.g.: Benzalkonium chloride, phenyl mercuric acetate, Thiomersol.
19) Give examples of tonicity modifiers?
Ans) Sodium chloride, Dextrose.
20) Which colours used in parenteral formulations?
Ans) Colours will not be used in the parenteral formulations.
21) What Do You Mean By Dq, Iq, Oq, & Pq?
Answer: Design Qualification (DQ): documented verification that the proposed design of the facilities, equipment, or systems is suitable for the intended purpose.
Installation Qualification (IQ): documented verification that the equipment or systems are installed or modified & comply with the approved design of the manufacturer’s recommendations and/or user requirements.
Operational Qualification (OQ): documented verification that the equipment or systems are installed or modified & perform as intended throughout the anticipated operating ranges.
Performance Qualification (PQ): documented verification that the equipment and ancillary systems are connected & can perform effectively and reproducibly based on the approved process method and specifications.
22) Define Strip Package And Blister Package?
Answer: Strip packages have at least one sealed pocket of material with each pocket containing a single dose of the product. The package is made of two layers of film or laminate material. The nature and level of protection which is required by the contained product will affect the composition of these layers.
Blister packages are composed of a base layer, with cavities called blisters which contain the pharmaceutical product, and a lid. This lid is sealed to the base layer by heat, pressure or both. They are more rigid than strip packages and are not used for powders or semi-solids. In tropical areas blister packages with an additional aluminium membrane is used which provide greater protection against high humidity.
Production Pharmacist Interview Questions & Answers. Looking for production pharmacist jobs? There are numerous jobs available in pharmaceutical industry? Pharma interview questions for production jobs discussed in this post. Production department Manufacturing Production Interview Questions & Answers quality control testing of foods, medical devices and pharmaceutical products.Production officer interview questions shared by candidates
D. Pharmacy Interview Questions & Answers for Freshers: Just like any other Pharmacy degree D. Pharmacy candidates also can seek jobs in the department of pharmacy. They are generally recruited as pharmacy technicians and interns to start with any firm. Also, some of the fresher D. Pharmacy candidates choose to work as an assistant to the Pharmacists at private stores. In case you are a recent D. Pharmacy graduate, you must spend some time going over the answers to habitually asked questions at a job interview, before you meet your potential employer. Therefore one can expect much more general questions than the core technical questions asked in the interview rounds of higher pharma degrees. But definitely, it would be good enough if you can brush up the syllabus of the D. Pharmacy curriculum and be ready to answer some of the subject-wise questions. As you are going to start the job as a learner so don’t fret over about the interviews, you just need to have the right attitude and confidence that you would be able to fulfil your role. Use the opportunity to learn as much as possible while working in the company. But after all, you are to clear the interview to get that breakthrough in your field. When it comes to facing an interview, it is normal to feel a little apprehensive. However, preparing for the interview helps to overcome your nervousness and boosts your confidence that helps you make a good impression. Even you do not crack at first there is so much to gain in terms of experience. You become wiser and careful for the previous mistakes that you did while appearing in the interview. Also, you get seasoned to face the interview board being freed of nervousness. Either way, you are the gainer with time. One important tip for the Pharmacy freshers would be to never lose any interview opportunity over thinking on it or procrastinating. The sooner you get trained as a fresher the sooner will be your progress.
D. Pharmacy Interview Questions & Answers for Freshers
Here are a few pharmacy fresh graduates’ interview questions that your interviewer is most likely to ask and go through these on how to answer them:
What duties a pharmacy technician is required to carry out?
Ans: A Pharmacy technician needs to be an expert at what he’s doing, given that, there is absolutely no room for mistakes when preparing medicines according to doctor’s orders. Duties comprise of: filling prescriptions, making medications as per the pharmacist’s orders, maintaining records of each prescription given out, collecting payment, assessing the insurance status before each prescription is handed out and maintaining sanitized and hygienic storage conditions.
What are the most important qualities for a pharmacy technician?
Ans: You should think about the skills needed to be a successful pharmacy technician that you also possess. “The most important necessity is to be detail-oriented. It’s crucial to be attentive when handling prescription medicine because the smallest oversight could be fatal. Maintaining a certain level of professionalism is the key as well because we represent the company and the customer should feel comfortable trusting us with their medication.”
Where do you see yourself in 5 years?
Ans: Before a company invests time in a new employee, they need to know whether the candidate will be committed to the job and whether he intends to be there long-term. Here you must talk about how you see yourself with the company based on the company’s specific characteristics and attributes in 5 years and how will stay abreast with the latest developments in your line of work.
Why do you want to work for our company?
Ans: Make sure that you research the company profile before you go for the interview and give special consideration to its values and goals. You will have to style your reply based on the company’s features, and show them why you suppose you would be great for the position.
How would you handle a difficult customer?
With this question, the interviewer is getting a sense of your communication skills and how you handle conflict.
Ans: “Customer service is an integral part of being a pharmacy technician. I wouldn’t take anything they say personally and do my best to resolve the situation. I would listen to their complaints, apologize, and try my hardest to satisfy the customer. My goal is for them to leave happy and continue doing business with us.”
Why did you choose pharmacy technician as a career?
The interviewer is curious about your motivation for becoming a pharmacy technician. Explain your reasoning for entering the field. Focus on the profession, not the “perks”.
Ans: “When I was in high school, my grandmother became extremely ill. Through her healing process, I saw the power of medicine. I started looking into how to become a pharmacy technician. It sparked a passion in me to pursue a career in healthcare in order to help my community. Also, I love how the field is constantly growing and evolving.”
“I always wanted to be a part of the healthcare industry and wished to be of service to the community”.
What is your greatest weakness?
This question can blindside you if you aren’t prepared.
Ans: You can mention a weak point that you have been working to improve. Or another option is spinning a negative into a positive. “I can be a little obsessive about triple checking everything. However, my reason for doing so is because I know there is no room for mistakes as a worker. I prefer to be that way so that I am reassured my work contains no errors.”
What is the significance of confidentiality in your profession?
Ans: Keeping the patient’s information undisclosed is very essential, given that as a pharmacy technician I have complete access to a customer’s private details. It is imperative for me to keep all information confidential because it is morally wrong toreveal information which thepatient has trusted me with.
What do you think is the most important business aspect of being a pharmacist?
Ans: Providing great patient care is probably the best thing you can do for the business side of pharmacy. Patients who feel they receive great care and have a pharmacist who is knowledgeable and cares about them individually will continue to frequent that pharmacy.
What was your favorite subject while in pharmacy school? What subject did you struggle with most?
Ans: Pharmacy is a job that requires a lot of responsibility, so pharmacists should truly enjoy what they do. This question asked applicants what they did and didn’t like about their studies to see if they enjoyed the overall experience of studying pharmacy. They will look for your Self-awareness your commitment to the pharmacy profession and your honesty in struggling with the subject.While pharmacy is about helping patients, it’s still a business. This question gives the candidate an opportunity to explain more broadly how they think about the business of pharmacy. What to look for:
Here in this article we provide you Cognizant Pharmacovigilance Interview Questions along with TCS CTS walk in for M.Pharmacy and B pharmacy Freshers. Generally the Pharmacovigilance in TCS & CTS will be conducted in the same office around 10:00 AM to 2.30 PM.
INTERVIEW PROCESS FOR PHARAMACOVIGILANCE IN CONGNIZANT
Its really good to know where about of anything you do prior. When you decide to go for an interview it is really good to know the pattern of the interview along with its process. Pharmacovigilance is the trending topic these days. I will let you know here expected rounds of interview.
1) Communication –2 min oral talking on your own topic or Group Discussion 2) Aptitude 3) Narrative writing (may be a case study related to clinical trial) 4) HR Round
These days group discussion is very important part of the interview. This is the deciding factor whether you go forward. You have to talk properly with a ear on others speech. Be alert and talk accordingly.
Aptitude is the most important task you need to practice before. Not only for this position for every job you have to give this task successfully
INTERVIEW Questions FOR PHARAMACOVIGILANCE IN CONGNIZANT
Now we discuss Competency Areas for Pharmacovigilance Professionals. If you want to be a pharmacovigilance Professionals you have know all these things.
Information management skills # Knowledge of relevant Pharmacovigilance information sources including: printed publications, unpublished sources, databases, websites, social media sites, market research, patients and healthcare professionals, investigator sponsored research and external bodies. # Effective understanding and use of the principles of information capture, storage, searching and retrieval. # Effective use of appropriate IT systems and programs.
Scientific knowledge # Ability to understand in detail clinical, biomedical and scientific reports about pharmaceutical products at a level to allow appropriate capture, review and processing of safety data.
Analytical skills # Ability to analyse and appraise safety data as part of the ongoing benefit-risk assessment of the company’s products. # Ability to make informed decisions after finding the relevant facts.
Communication skills # Ability to communicate information effectively and clearly in written form to allow sharing of safety data within the company and to regulatory bodies as required.
Understanding the wider context # Knowledge of the business and of the pharmaceutical industry. # Understanding of the external environment: the NHS, Government policy, regulatory requirements.
Understanding of relevant legal and related issues # European and Global PV Regulations # Medicines Act and Statutory Instruments. # Data Protection legislation. # Copyright.
Ethics # Understanding of, and compliance with, company policies, legal requirements, the European # Good Vigilance Practice Modules, ABPI Pharmacovigilance Expert Network guidance and other industry guidelines that are relevant to pharmacovigilance. # Application of sound professional judgement to ethical issues.
Workload Management # Ability to prioritise, plan and organise work with the appropriate sense of urgency based on regulatory requirements and business needs.
Personal skills # Team management and leadership skills (for team leaders and managers). # Strategic planning (especially for managers). # Interpersonal skills. # Understanding of the needs and priorities of regulatory bodies. # Use of effective questioning to accurately record safety data. # Ability to actively listen. # Teamwork. # Courteous manner and consideration of others’ views.
Proactivity # Informing management of important issues as they arise which require their attention. # Ensuring all company employees and contractors are appropriately trained to capture safety data. # Actively increasing awareness of Pharmacovigilance requirements to colleagues and third parties in appropriate ways.
Accountability # Compliance with regulatory requirements. # Compliance with standard operating procedures and company policies. # Continuous development # Developing and improving knowledge and skills. # Keeping abreast of developments in regulatory requirements. # Developing the role in line with regulatory requirements and the company’s needs. # Identifying and implementing improvements in ways of working – for self and for team/department.
PRECLINICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT AND PHARMACOVIGILANCE 7.5 C
The past decade has seen a rise in the numbers of people working in the field of drug safety and pharmacovigilance. This trend is likely to continue and reflects a greater focus on the safety of medicines. This introductory course in Preclinical Safety Assessment and Pharmacovigilance is organized by the Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences at Uppsala University in collaboration with the Uppsala Monitoring Centre at The World Health Organization.
This is a half-time web-based course during 10 weeks. This corresponds to 20 hours work per week and requires a commitment to engage in all assignments. This web-based course encompasses safety aspects in all phases of drug development and drug use. We will discuss the safety of drug candidates and new pharmaceuticals based on toxicity studies as well as on clinical trials. We will also review risk / benefit assessment of drugs and the safe use of medicines. There is no need to physically attend the university for any sessions or examination and the language of instruction is English. A web-based teaching platform (the Student Portal) will be used. The course includes video lectures, five mandatory individual assignments, three mandatory group assignments and a final web-based examination. The course is given twice a year, in the beginning of each semester. Apply online. The April admission round starts in the middle of March and ends 15 April. The October admission round starts in the middle of September and ends 15 October. The next course starts 1 September and finishes 9 November, 2014. For more detailed information about the course click here.
INTERVIEW FOR PHARAMACOVIGILANCE IN CONGNIZANT Quintiles TCS
ROUND 1: HR will ask you to speak something about yourself and he will analyze your accent and style of English . TIP TO FACE THIS ROUND: before attending prepare SD very well without getting struck and with good accent . ROUND 2: mostly they won’t conduct group discussion but sometimes they may conduct .it’s also bit easy just you need to open mouth and should speak something relavent to topic with good accent ROUND 3: In this round you need to write online English ,logical Aptitude test time will be 45 mins for each set (Exam will be in the micromax Tabs) TIP TO FACE THIS ROUND: ENGLISH APTITUDE :Prepare English Grammar ,question will be like jumbling words, passages, prepositions, vocabulary etc..(45mins) NUMERICAL APTITUDE: coding and decoding its very simple search and find in the google how to prepare coding and decoding , small logical calculations, family relations questions etc.. ROUND 4: (HR AND TECHNICAL) ;Need to perform with good accent in English with confidant in HR round they won’t ask any technical questions ,if you have any experience they will ask about your previous work experience and company. TECHINICAL: they don’t ask much from our core pharmacy you need to prepare pharmacovigilance topics and basic pharmacology. NOTE: main matter to get pharmacovigilnce job in congnizant (voice process) is you have to perform with good English accent .
Hope this article provided you the information you need regarding the Cognizant Pharmacovigilance Interview Questions along with TCS CTS walk in for M.Pharmacy and B pharmacy Freshers. Generally the Pharmacovigilance in TCS & CTS will conduct interviews on a regular basis, so you need to be cautious and attentive to their announcements.
As you are looking to apply Pharmacovigilance department we are here to help you Pharmacovigilance Applying, Interview process & Tips to prepare the Pharmacovigilance Interview. Many Multinational companies like Quintiles Accenture CTS cognizant are hiring candidates in bulk for Pharmacovigilance posts. If you are fresher and trying to enter to this Pharmacovigilance thing you are at the rite place.
Pharmacovigilance applying,interview process and tips to preparation:
Know About the Pharmacovigilance companies :
Quintlies CTS Accenture
About companay : Quintiles is the worlds largest Contract Research Organizaiton(CRO) where it mainly focuses on clinical trials phase 2-4.
Apply for Pharmacovigilance Interview & Exam
You have to apply through the officaial websites. Some times few people who work can post on some facebook groups about their companies recruitment. You can follow them. Never give any one bucks to get you to the interview or to crack the job.
Attend the Pharmacovigilance Screening test & Interview
Logical and reasoning
Pharmacovigilance Interview Phase 1
After the written test they will evaluate your papers in one or two hour. If you are qualified in the written test you will be having hr round where we can expect common hr questions like 1)tell me about yourself 2)why should i hire you? 3)why you want to join in our company? 4)what you know about our company? Be confident while answering and prepare for these questions and practice before interview if this is your first interview. 90%they will send you for the next Technical round.
Pharmacovigilance Interview Phase 2
This is purely Technical. This is the last round where you will have more chances to eliminate but through proper preparation its easy to face. mostly questions they ask: 1)Adverse events 2)Adverse effects 3)what is pharmacovigilance 4)what is the work we do in pharmacogivilance 5) is it important pharmacovigialnce 6)drug regulatory authorities 7)pharmacovigilance terminology,case studies. 8)some important drugs pharmacological and mechanism of action.
ALL THE BEST for your Pharmacovigilance Career and Interview. We are here to help out. Please comment if you have any doubts. Keep visiting us for more Pharmacovigilance Interview Question and answers articles. Help your friends by referring our site to crack pharma sucess.
HPLC Interview Preparation for Pharmacy & Science Graduates
Have you graduated in pharmacy or science stream? Then either you must be searching for a job which gives good fetching and career growth or pursue higher studies specialization. Also, there are several corporations which offer you various job opportunities apart from your stream. Among the science and pharmacy graduates, one of the brightest fields is to opt for HPLC vacancies. High-performance liquid chromatographies (HPLC) have widespread use in Pharmaceutical Industrial and Analytical Field. In industries, the main purposes of employing HPLC are for identifying, quantifying and purifying the individual components of the mixture.
It is a chromatographic technique used to split a mixture of compounds and play an important and critical role in the fields of analytical chemistry, biochemistry and industrial. HPLC has a role of Open Access Journal too as it helps in drug formulations. Since it is used to test the products and to detect the raw ingredient used to make them i.e., qualitative and quantitative analysis there are stringent regulations established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Moreover, this obligates all pharmaceutical companies to detect the quality of their products by using the HPLC before allowing them to sell it in the global market.
Specific Benefits of Using HPLC
The most important benefit gained from the HPLC technique in the industrial and analytical field is that it helps in structure elucidation and quantitative determination of impurities and degradation products in bulk drug materials and pharmaceutical formulations. These benefits gained by the utilization of HPLC are not only limited for the synthetic drugs and formulas but also include herbal medicine too. Therefore, in this regard, the open access journals shall encourage the researchers to work hard in order to clarify the importance of HPLC use in the industrial or analytical field is a very important point.
The industries look for young, dynamic and talented candidates who bring different ideas, skills and experiences to mix and ready to learn and dive into the organization. If you properly put your efforts in getting jobs of HPLC based industries then obviously you need to prepare for these interview questionnaire sessions.
Interview Q/A for HPLC
What is the principle of HPLC?
Answer: When a mixture of compounds is passed through the HPLC column; it gets separate into its components before it exits from the column. Details on the principle of HPLC System are given on different websites. The basic principal of HPLC is the partitioning the analytes between the solid phase and the mobile phase.
Why do we use HPLC?
Answer: Polar molecules in the mixture will therefore spend most of their time moving with the solvent. That means now it is the polar molecules that will travel through the column more quickly. Reversed phase HPLC is the most commonly used form of HPLC.
What to Do When Back Pressure Increases?
An increase in back-pressure usually suggests either a guard or analytical column problem. To find exactly where the problem lies we suggest you remove the guard column (if you are using one) and replace the old cartridge with a new one.
If the original pressure is restored, you solved the problem.
If the pressure remains high, disconnect the analytical column from the system, backflush it (do NOT connect the column to the detector while doing so) and run a few column volumes of your mobile phase through the column.
If the problem still persists you may have some strongly retained contaminants in your column coming from your previous injections.
Run the appropriate restoration procedures, as suggested by the column manufacturer, and retest the column.
If the initial pressure is not restored you may have to change the inlet frit or replace the column.
Always run your system (2 to 5 ml/min) without the guard column and the analytical column to verify that your pressure isn’t coming from another source, like a blocked in-line column prefilter, blocked/kinked tubing, particulates blocking your injector etc.
Always work your way from the detector back to the pump to isolate the problem.
How Do I Determine The Void Volume In Hplc?
Answer: The void volume of a system is usually determined by injecting an unretained standard (Uracil in RP-HPLC) that has no or very little retention on a particular phase. Slight variations in this value are explained by the extra column dead volume of your specific system configuration and set-up.
Multiply the elution time of the unretained compound by the flow rate to get the actual void volume of the system and column. To determine the column void volume alone you would need to subtract the system void volume determined without the column attached.
5. Why Should I Use A Guard Column With My Analytical Or Preparative Column?
A guard column is recommended to protect the analytical/preparative column from contamination from particulates from the injection, debris from worn pump seals/injector rotor seals or unfiltered mobile phases.
Filtration through a 0.22um to 0.45 um should be done in order to remove particles and help degas the mobile phase at the same time.
Solid Phase Extraction or Liquid Liquid Extraction also help produce a cleaner sample for direct injection.
Failure to use a guard column directly exposes the analytical or preparative column to contamination and therefore reduces its practical lifetime.
Care should be taken to use, whenever possible, the same material in the guard column as in the analytical/preparative column especially when doing method development.
Typical analytical guard columns are 1 or 2 cm long with either 2.0 (2.1) or 4.0 (4.6) mm depending on the column dimensions and 1cm long for 10mm, 21.2mm & 30mm column id.
Whether you opt for 1 or 2 cm long guard columns is tied to how harsh your mobile phase is and how messy your sample is. Ideally, in order to keep your chromatography and to avoid increasing the system pressure, you should use the shortest guard column available and use the same id as the column whenever available. Otherwise you should choose the closest smaller id guard column available.
What Happens If My Sample Solvent Is Stronger Than My Mobile Phase?
We do not recommend injecting in a stronger solvent because it usually results in peak distortion, broadening, poor sensitivity, and shortening of retention times.
This happens because some analytes will tend to travel too quickly through the column, instead of eluting in a symmetrical band.
If you absolutely must do this, keep the volume as small as possible and make sure the solvents are miscible.
How Much Sample Can I Inject On My Lc Column?
Answer:Two different types are possible:
Mass overload (too much analyte injected on the column)
Volume overload (too much liquid injected on the column)
The chromatograms are somewhat different in these 2 situations.
In mass overload, the analyte molecules saturate the silica at the inlet end of the column which causes the excess molecules to move forward down the column without much interaction, reducing in turn the analyte retention time and showing a “shark fin” peak shape (fronting).
Volume overload occurs when the injected sample volume is large enough to carry analyte molecules through a significant proportion of the interstitial volume within the column and leads to shark fin type peaks as well and later elution times.
What Size Threads Are On The End Fittings Of My Hplc Column?
Answer: Most fittings on your HPLC and UHPLC systems and columns have 10-32 threads. However, you will find that fittings and columns from Waters, Rheodyne and SSI (Lab Alliance) have different seating depths.
What Is The Internal Diameter Of My Lc Tubing?
Answer: The internal diameter of HPLC grade stainless steel tubing is identified by the color coded band on the pre cut tubing while HPLC PEEK tubing is also colored according to its internal diameter.
Typical encountered colors used for 1.16” od HPLC tubing (color coded band for SS or solid color for PEEK) are:
Black = 0.004” ID
Red = 0.005” ID
Yellow = 0.007” ID
Blue/Tan = 0.010” ID
Orange = 0.020” ID
Green = 0.030” ID
Please note that these colors may differ depending on the manufacturer especially when it comes to HPLC stainless steel tubing. Please check with your tubing supplier/manufacturer to confirm tubing ID color coding. Please note that the HPLC stainless steel tubing comes in precut lengths as it is virtually impossible to produce smooth, clean, bur-free cuts without the manufacturer’s precise machinery tools. As for SS in HPLC, it also becomes extremely difficult to produce, in-house, bur-free, perfect cuts especially when using the narrower IDs (less than 0.005” ID).
How Much Should I Change My Injection Volume If I Change The Size Of My Column?
Answer: Optimal injection volumes are directly related to the cylinder volume of your column and are, therefore, dependent on the cross sectional area (A=π r2) and length (L) of your column. Since that is the case, you can estimate any adjustment from an existing method for injection volume.
If you are converting to a different size ID (with packing material and length remaining the same), just multiply your current volume by the ratio of the radii squared to determine the correct volume for your new method. For example, if you are currently injecting 20 µL on a 150 x 4.6 mm column and then switch to a 150 x 3.0 mm column, you could estimate the adjusted volume by multiplying 20 x (1.52)/(2.32). Your new volume should be about 8.5 µL.
How Do I Determine Total Column Volume Or Void Volume For Lc?
Answer: The term “column volume” usually refers to the void volume, which represents the volume of mobile phase that is between the silica particles. This area is referred to as the interstitial space. You can estimate void volume by multiplying the total column volume (pi x radius2 x length) by a factor that estimates the typical packing efficiency for a particular column type. For fully porous columns, the equation for void volume (in mL) is V = (0.68) pi r2 L, where V = column volume in mL, r = column radius in cm, and L = column length in cm. For superficially porous columns, such as our Raptor columns, the factor is different and the equation is V = (0.50) pi r2 L.
Void volume is more commonly estimated experimentally by injecting a standard containing an analyte that is known to have no, or negligible, retention on that particular column phase. A good example of this for reversed-phase HPLC is uracil. One should be aware that this estimation is also subject to extra column dead volume for the specific instrument that is being used, so it may vary slightly.
Why Am I Seeing Bleed From My Biphenyl Column On My Uv But Not On My Mass Spec?
Answer: A small amount of phase bleed is inherent for all phases, including phenyl phases, and is somewhat dependent on the size and dimensions of the column. This bleed is usually negligible and does not affect retention times, but may be visible, particularly by UV detection. It can often be reduced after conditioning. Bleed may also be minimized by using an isocratic elution, a shallower gradient, and/or incorporating a gradient flush between runs.
What Should I Use To Analyze Explosives (as Per Epa Method 8330b) By Hplc?
Answer: While no one LC column can provide baseline separation for all of these analytes combined, the Raptor Biphenyl and Raptor ARC-18 columns from Restek are an outstanding choice for primary and confirmation analysis. Fully porous HPLC particles, namely the Ultra C8 and Ultra Aromax columns, are also an option. Keep in mind that a variety of column phases may provide partial solutions for this method, but Restek has found these pairs to give optimal results.
Is Special Conditioning Needed For The Raptor Biphenyl Column Prior To Its First Use, Or If It Has Been Sitting Idle?
Answer: For the most part, the Raptor Biphenyl column behaves just like any other reversed-phase column. However, in certain circumstances, longer equilibration times may be needed. Switching between organic solvents, such as acetonitrile and methanol, may require a 15-20 minute flush in high organic mobile phase.
How Much Equilibration Time Is Required In Between Gradient Runs On A Raptor Biphenyl Column?
Answer: Whether you are using fully porous silica or SPP silica, some equilibration time is needed between runs if you are using a gradient and the amount of time is similar for both types of columns. Usually, the equivalent of 7 column (void) volumes is sufficient unless you are using an ion-pairing technique.
1 What Mobile Phase Solvents Are Compatible With Spp Or Raptor Columns?
Any solvent that is commonly used for reversed-phase LC will work fine, including but not limited to water, methanol, and acetonitrile.
Can I Pump Solvent Through The Raptor Biphenyl Column Backwards To Clean It?
Answer: Similar to UHPLC columns, it is not recommended to reverse the flow for these columns. However, you can still pump through a series of solvents, as long as they are miscible.
18. How Much Can I Inject Onto A Raptor Column?
Answer: Injection volume depends on a number of factors including column dimensions, sample solvents, and analysis requirements. As is always a good practice with chromatography, try to inject as little as possible and in the same or weaker solvent than your mobile phase.
How Do Raptor Arc-18 Columns Differ From Ordinary C18s?
Answer: The significant difference is the ruggedness of the bonded phase. With the ARC-18, any residual silanol groups are shielded and made inert through steric protection. The result is a wider operating pH range of 1.0–8.0. The ARC-18 is particularly useful between a pH of 1.0 and 3.0, where other C18 column phases may begin to degrade under these harsh conditions. Like the Raptor Biphenyl column, the stationary phase is bonded to superficially porous silica particles (SPP).
How Well Does The Raptor Arc-18 Column Work For Acids And Bases?
Answer: The ARC-18 provides added retention for charged bases and, in many cases, is preferred over a conventional end-capped C18. For neutral acids, it works well and is preferred over end-capped C18 phases, particularly at pH < 3. The ARC-18 also works for neutral bases and charged acids, but provides more advantages and performs best at the lower pH ranges.
Can The Raptor Arc-18 Column Be Used With 100% Aqueous Mobile Phases?
Answer: No. We recommend using the Raptor ARC-18 column with at least 5% organic in the mobile phase. For applications requiring higher aqueous content, we suggest the Ultra Aqueous C18 or Pinnacle DB Aqueous C18 columns.
How Do We Know That The Raptor Columns Are Rugged?
We use frits that are less prone to clogging from sample matrices, and the column packing is less likely to be damaged by higher pressures that might develop. Added protection of a guard column is also available and recommended to extend the life of the column further.
Which Fittings Can Be Used For Uhplc?
Answer: You can either use the stainless steel fittings that are like the ones that come with your UHPLC system or you can use EXP fittings. The EXP fittings can be used up to 20,000 psi when tightened with a wrench. In any case, always make sure you are using a fitting with zero dead volume so that the high efficiency provided by UHPLC is not compromised by extra dead volume.
How Do I Tighten My Fittings?
Answer: Our polymer-based universal connectors and PEEK union connectors only need to be hand-tightened, whereas any of the stainless steel fittings need to be wrench-tighten.
The EXP fittings can be used either way: They are hand-tightened for use up to 8,700 psi or wrench-tightened for use up to 20,000 psi. Note that over-tightening causes galling and will destroy the threads. Fittings that need to be wrench-tightened generally require ¼-turn past hand tight to achieve a leak-tight seal. Unfortunately, there is no universal torque setting.
What Injection Solvent Should I Use For Hilic Separations?
Answer: The injection solvent should be as close of a match as possible to the initial mobile phase conditions, which are high in organic content for HILIC separations. By matching the injection solvent to the initial mobile phase conditions, you get better peak shape, increased retention, and higher sensitivity.
What Kind Of Ph Effects Do I Have To Be Aware Of With Hilic Separations?
Answer: The effect of pH on analyte charge state varies based on each compound’s pKa, to pH effects must be evaluated carefully during method development. With HILIC methods, the high concentration of organic solvent in the mobile phase raises the pH, and the actual eluent pH can be 1–1.5 units higher than in the aqueous portion alone. The charge state of the column itself can also be affected.
For example: in a Raptor HILIC-Si column, the bare silica has a pKa between 3.8 and 4.5, so the mobile phase pH changes the charge of the silica surface, making it neutral in very acidic conditions and ionized (negatively charged) as the pH begins to approach 3.8 and above. For this reason, if your analyte has one or more protonated amine or quaternary amine groups, it’s a good candidate for analysis on a Raptor HILIC-Si column.
Can I Use Buffers For Hilic Separations? What Kind and What Concentration?
Answer: Many HILIC separations use a mass spectrometer for the detector, so volatile buffers like ammonium formate and ammonium acetate are very common. However, the high organic content of the mobile phase can cause buffer salts to precipitate, which can lead to downtime for instrument maintenance. In addition, high buffer concentrations can impact chromatography by reducing analyte retention.
To avoid these effects, method optimization is required and 10 mM is a good starting point for buffer concentration. Both the A and B mobile phases should be buffered equally in order to keep the ionic strength constant during a gradient for the most consistent MS detector response. Check with your MS vendor for the maximum buffer concentration they recommend for your ESI source.
What Should I Use To Analyze Explosives (as Per Epa Method 8330b) By Hplc?
Answer: While no one LC column can provide baseline separation for all of these analytes combined, the Raptor Biphenyl and Raptor ARC-18 columns from Restek are an outstanding choice for primary and confirmation analysis. Fully porous HPLC particles, namely the Ultra C8 and Ultra Aromax columns, are also an option. Keep in mind that a variety of column phases may provide partial solutions for this method, but Restek has found these pairs to give optimal results.
30.Can I Get A Sharper Peak By Injecting My Sample In A Weaker Injection Solvent?
In this scenario, the sample is initially concentrated onto the head of the column and moves through the column in a tight band.
This technique is sometimes used to minimize band broadening for a larger volume sample injection.
Keep in mind that your sample components must be soluble in the mobile phase as well, in order for this to work.
Choosing Career after D. Pharmacy:Wondering what to do after D. Pharmacy? Undoubtedly it is essential for students to think about their next plan on completion of the pursued course. Likewise, the D. Pharm candidates after diploma in Pharmacy may opt for graduation courses, job prospects or a proprietorship depending on their will. Also, they have a huge career scope in both government and private organizations. One has to choose an option which matches their interest and skills as it will help them to achieve a long-term career goal. Today we are going to provide the careers available for the D. Pharm pass-outs.
Next level courses
Bachelor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy in Pharmacology or Bachelor of Ayurvedic Pharmacy.
One can go for Diploma in Manufacturing / Production or Doctor of Pharmacy. If you like to contribute to a hospital then you need to earn the qualification of ‘Doctor of Pharmacy’.
Courses are available in specialized fields such as Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Analysis, Pharmacy Practice, Cardiovascular Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Infectious Disease Pharmacy, Oncology Pharmacy, Pharmacotherapy Pharmacy, and Nuclear Pharmacy
Private Sector Jobs
Regarding the job prospects after obtaining degree or diploma in pharmacy, you can apply in pharmaceutical companies. In the country, there are a lot of companies in the pharmaceutical sector which provides job opportunities to the D. Pharm candidates. The work opportunities in the private firms are as follows:
Chemist / Pharmacist
Government Sector Jobs
Apart from the private sector companies, there are also many government companies offering jobs to the diploma holders in Pharmacy. You can apply for pharmacist post in hospitals, start working in the government department, work in research and development team, and work in the teaching field.
Government sector companies in various parts of the country are
Foreign countries provide a good scope in various Chemicals and Pharmaceutical companies. One may expect much higher pay scale compared to India on securing a job abroad. The candidates become a registered pharmacist. One may set up pharmacy/chemists and druggists shop after registering with the state Pharmacy Council to stock, sell and dispense medicines according to doctor’s prescription.
The bottom-line is that it all depends on your stream of interest if you want to work in the Industry or go for ‘Bachelors course’. It is advisable to do full research before the next step. It’s your future; it’s all in your hands.
Andhra Pradesh (AP) is India’s fourth largest state by geographic area of 275,045 km2 and fifth largest by the population as per record. Hyderabad is the capital and largest city of the state with a robust economy. One of India’s primary destinations for investment in industry and human capital is nothing but Hyderabad. Due to the establishment of the large IT cluster in AP, there are some major investments in infrastructures of educational institutes. The state gets benefits from a highly educated workforce belonging to the science, commerce and technological backgrounds. AP has numerous educational institutions, including over 1,300 arts, science, and commerce colleges. Over 1,000 MBA and MCA schools, 226 engineering colleges, 53 medical schools, and one Indian Institute of Technology (in Hyderabad) exist there with prestige. Also, a large number of institutes prevailing in AP is focused on life sciences and pharmacy courses.
Every year 35,000 skilled graduates, including 81,000 engineers and 10,000 management professionals emerge from AP. Overall the state contributes to 23% of all of India’s technology professionals. Additionally, the renowned institutes like the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology and the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology; dedicatedly working in the field life sciences has a huge impact towards the pharmaceutical industry of the state and of the country. To strengthen the pharmaceutical industry the Healthcare institutions have also been supportive.
Here we will check out some such approved colleges that provide D. Pharmacy course in AP.
D Pharmacy Colleges In Andhra Pradesh Telangana
Aurobindo College of Pharmacy, Gangadevipally, Machapur, Geesugonda, Warangal-506 331
Adarsa College of Pharmacy, G.Kothapalli, East Godavari-533 285.
Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, New Boinpally, Rajampet, Kadapa (D.T.) – 516126.
Balaji Institute of Pharmacy. Laknepalli, Narsampet, Warangal-506 331.
Bapatla College of Pharmacy, Bapatla, Guntur-522 101.
Bojjam Narsimhulu College of Pharmacy for Women, Vinaynagar, 17-1-383, Saidabad, Hyderabad -500 059.
Care College of Pharmacy, Oglapur, Atmakur, Warangal-506 006.
of Ph.Sciences, P.G courses “Maharajah College”, Phoolbagh, Vizianagaram.
Samuel George Institute of Ph.Sciences, Markapur, Prakasam(D.T.)
Pulla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Mehdipatnam, Hyderabad-500 028.
Government Polytechnic for Women, K M C(P.O), Warangal-506 007.
Government Polytechnic for Women, Srikakulam-522 005
Government Polytechnic for women, Guntur-522 006
Government Polytechnic for Women, Hindupur-515 202
Government Polytechnic for Women, Kadapa – 516002.
Government Polytechnic for Women, Kakinada-533 003
Government Polytechnic for Women, Nizamabad-503 001.
Government Polytechnic, Masabtank, Hyderabad-500 028
Government Polytechnic, Visakhapatnam.
D Pharmacy Colleges In Telangana
Gokaraju Rangaraju College of Pharmacy, Bachupally, Miyapur, Hyderabad-500 050
Hindu College of Pharmacy, Amaravathi Road, Guntur-522002.
J.College of Ph.Sciences, Maheswaram, Rangareddy-501 359.
Janagaon Inst of Ph.Sciences, Yeshwanthpur, Janagaon, Warangal
K L R Pharmacy College, Paloncha, Khammam (D.T.)-507115.
Chandrakala & Beelamkonda Venkateswarlu College of Pharmacy, Burripalem Road, Nelapadu, Tenali-522 201.
D.R Government Polytechnic, Wanaparthy, Mahabubnagar-509103.
Kamala Jaya Rao College of Pharmacy, Burugupudi, Korukonda, Rajahmundry -533 292.
Kamala Nehru Polytechnic for Women, Exhibition Grounds, M j j Road, Nampally, Hyderabad-500 001.
Koringa College of Pharmacy, Korangi, Tallarevu, East Godavari -533 461.
Harwards College of Pharmacy, K.Perumallapuram, East Godavari
Maharajah’s College of Pharmacy, Phoolbagh, Vizianagaram-534 002.
Malineni Lakshmaiah College of Pharmacy, Kanumalla, Singarayakonda, Prakasam-523 101.
Nalanda College of Pharmacy, P.O. Charlapally, Hyd.Road, Nalgonda-508 001.
Nirmala Coll of Pharmacy, Atmakur, Mangalagiri, Guntur -522 503
Nirmala College of Pharmacy, 3/166-A, Madras Road, Puttlampalli, Buddayapalli, Kadapa-516 002.
Vaageswari College of Pharmacy, Beside L.M.D Police Station, Ramakrishna Colony, Karimnagar-505 481.
The major hospital chains of AP include Apollo, Care, Global, Yashodha, Kamineni, Indo-American Cancer Institute, LV Prasad Eye Institute, and the Nizams Institute of Medical Sciences. These hospital chains are not only customers for the pharmaceutical industry but also assist with clinical research for new medications. It is certainly the time to capitalise the available resources to transform the State into a booming economic zone.
According to the Andhra Pradesh Economic Development Board (APEDB) GITAM Biotech Centre of Excellence, AP comprises rich resources and there is a need to develop the expertise to meet the growing demand in biotechnology. In a conference held by APEDB, its Vice-Chairman Lanka Srinivas said that 50% of the research in pharmacy is based on biotechnology and that the country will play a key role in the field in the coming years. Hope you liked this D Pharmacy Colleges In Andhra Pradesh Telangana A.P – D Pharm Educational Institutes article.
Hello readers. Today here we discuss about What is a Pharmacy Progress Note ? How to Write a Pharmacy Progress Note ? When to Write Pharmacy Progress Note ? Pharmacy Progress Note Procedure.
When to Write a Pharmacy Progress Note -Procedure
What is a Pharmacy Progress note?
When it comes to documentation of pharmacy services and whenever there is something to communicate to the entire medical team, note(s) is written in response to a formal consult in case of pain management, antibiotic monitoring, medication reconciliation, etc… E.g.: “Would consider changing Synthroid 10 mg po daily to 100 mcg po daily”
When to write a progress note?
There are 3 main ways to communicate with other members of the medical team. Not all communication is apt for a progress note. According to the urgency of the case, the communication types are chosen.
Progress notes (about the consultation/documentation process)
Sticky notes (or other communication not part of the medical record, helps build a relationship with the team.)
Verbal communication (in person or on the phone; if there is a grossly ridiculous issue going on)
How to write a pharmacy progress note?
Write to the point being brief– No one wants to read a long note with mostly ‘fluff’ in it. Physicians haveto read each note. If you can express what is needed in a single sentence, do it. If you suggest a pneumococcal vaccine, in the middle of a 3-page note the physician doesn’t read it, and the patient goes on to develop pneumonia. A physician’s mind is being sued when they are reading a lengthy progress note.
Use non-judgmental language– It is easy to be misinterpreted because you can’t use body-language or intonation to show that you are genuinely trying to help take better care of a patient, so make sure you avoid using judgmental language, such as the word “obviously” or the phrase “should have”. Use non-judgmental words like “consider”, “suppose” with your recommendation.
Prepare an alternative to SOAP – Physicians write SOAP (subjective, objective, assessment, plan) notes because the format lends itself well to problem-based care. TITRS (title, introduction, text, recommendation, and signature) format helps to find communicate the information such as:
The Title-Introduction reveals the basic questions “Who am I? My purpose? Who is/are the patient? Their needs”. Text must support your clear and complete recommendations with subjective & objective information. It should be followed by your signature and how you can be reached.
Decide prudently when to communicate verbally, or with a sticky note or a progress note. It can cost a patient’s life.
Hope you got the answers for What is a Pharmacy Progress Note ? How to Write a Pharmacy Progress Note ? When to Write Pharmacy Progress Note ? Pharmacy Progress Note Procedure ?
Information regarding D Pharma & B Pharma Entrance Examination in different states and universities in India are provided here
D Pharmacy Entrance exams List
Pharmacy is the science that deals with the preparation of drugs and its dosages. Currently, studying pharmacy courses are one of the top choices opted by students across the country. After engineering and medical, the most sought-after courses after Intermediate is none other than pharmacy. Those who have completed their class 12th exam with Physics, Chemistry and Biology / Mathematics are eligible for D. Pharmacy courses. The exam is held for those candidates who want to get admission in the polytechnic course of pharmacy called Diploma in Pharmacy which comes under the undergraduate course. A number of entrance examinations are conducted by the Central and the State Govt for pursuing D. Pharm course. Thus the applicants are required to clear any of the national, state or university level examinations organized by the respective authorities. One can expect the exams very competitive as millions of students appear to prove their merit through these entrance tests. Generally, these exams are scheduled after class 12 boards.
List of B Pharmacy Entrance Examination
In India, various universities and colleges offer D. Pharmacy, B. Pharmacy, M. Pharmacy programs along with other courses in this field. The colleges where one can pursue Pharmacy programs vary from Govt colleges, private and aided institutions. After the entrance examinations, the seats of these colleges are filled up according to the national and state ranks of the students. The best colleges in the country take up the highest ranking students. This is because the main purpose of the Pharmacy Entrance Exams is to select the most capable candidates amongst the other to grant enrolment into the Pharmacy colleges all over the country. Below are the names of the entrance examinations conducted by the different bodies of the state, national and university level.
B Pharmacy & D Pharmacy Entrance Examination List
WBJEE Pharmacy (West Bengal Joint Entrance Examination Pharmacy)
UPSEE Pharmacy (Uttar Pradesh State Entrance Examination Pharmacy)
UP-CPMT (Uttar Pradesh Combined Pre Medical Test)
NMAT-P (SVKM’S Narsee Monjee Institute Of Management Studies (NMIMS), Mumbai)
AU AIMEE (Annamalai University All India Medical Entrance Exam)
Punjab MBBS (Punjab MBBS/BDS Admissions)
Rajasthan MBBS (Rajasthan MBBS/BDS Admissions)
RPET Pharmacy (Board Of Technical Education, Rajasthan)
PUNJAB CET (Punjab Technical University,Jalandhar)
KLEU-AIET (KLE University All India Entrance Test)
Bihar MBBS (Bihar MBBS/BDS Admissions)
BITSAT Degree (BITS Admission Test)
MT CET Pharmacy (Maharashtra Pharmacy Common Entrance Test)
GAT UGTP (Gitam Admission Test)
CENTAC JET Pharmacy (Government Of Puducherry Centralized Admission Committee)
GUJCET Pharmacy (Gujarat Common Entrance Test Pharmacy)
VYAPAM PEPT (Madhya Pradesh Professional Examination Board, MP)
EAMCET Pharmacy (Engineering, Agriculture and Medical Common Entrance Test)
OLET (Haryana State Counseling Society OLET)
TNPCEE (Tamilnadu Professional Courses Entrance Examination)
The students carrying interest in chemistry and bio-medical subjects can opt for Pharmacy courses after completing their 12th or equivalent exam. Still before opting for these programs students going through the career counselling will be the best method to choose the field of interest. That would help him/her in future aspects of career and towards the contribution in society as well.
Hope you would find this article useful for those who are sarching for Information regarding D Pharma & B Pharma Entrance Examination in different states and universities in India.